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Sheila R. Canby

( Kyrle )

(b London, Oct 13, 1897; d Sharon, CT, April 18, 1986).

American archaeologist, curator and collector . Trained as an artist at the Slade School, University College, London, in 1920 he joined the graphic section of the Egyptian Expedition to Thebes, organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. During the 1920s and 1930s Wilkinson painted facsimiles of Egyptian tomb paintings in the museum collection, and he joined museum excavations in the Kharga Oasis (Egypt) and Qasr-i Abu Nasr and Nishapur (Iran). Transferred to the curatorial staff of the museum in 1947, he became curator in 1956 of the new Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art, which merged with the Department of Islamic Art in 1957. Through his energetic collaboration on major excavations at Hasanlu, Nimrud and Nippur, Wilkinson greatly expanded the Ancient Near Eastern collections at the Metropolitan Museum. After his retirement from the museum in 1963, he taught Islamic art at Columbia University and was Hagop Kevorkian Curator of Middle Eastern Art and Archaeology at the Brooklyn Museum, New York (...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Châlons-sur-Marne, July 31, 1857; d Paris, Feb 4, 1926).

French illustrator, printmaker and painter . After studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, Willette entered the studio of Alexandre Cabanel where he encountered Rodolphe Salis, the future founder in Montmartre of the Chat Noir cabaret (1881) and journal (1882). As a member of the Club des Hydropathes (1874–81), a group of writers, actors and artists who met regularly at a café in the Quartier Latin and from 1881 at the Chat Noir, Adolphe Willette became associated with the anti-establishment, humorous and satirical spirit of the avant-garde artistic community in Montmartre.

Willette was an early and regular illustrator of the Chat Noir and Courrier français (founded in 1885), the two principal (albeit tongue-in-cheek) chronicles of Montmartre. For two years from 1888 Willette and the poet Emile Goudeau published the satirical journal Le Pierrot: in 1896 and 1897 they collaborated on the sporadically issued journal ...


Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Mayfield, KY, April 30, 1899; d New York, NY, Jan 1, 1977).

American painter. Wilson worked as graphic artist in Chicago for five years after completing the four-year commercial art program at the Art Institute of Chicago School in 1923. He became an adept colorist with a particular interest in still life composition. Wilson hoped to grow as a painter after moving to Harlem, New York in 1928 where he worked odd jobs for wages. Three years later, he permanently relocated to Greenwich Village. He exhibited with the Harmon Foundation, at the Detroit Museum, the Contemporary Arts and Roko Galleries in New York City, and at most of the large historically black universities and colleges. Wilson socialized with important members of the New Negro arts movement such as Aaron Douglas and Jacob Lawrence whose abbreviated figurative works tempered his academic realist style ( see New Negro Movement ). His skill with linear gestures, affinity with nature, and ability to strike a coherent balance between them identify this best work. With two years of Guggenheim fellowships, he spent time with the African Americans living on South Carolina’s Sea Islands in ...


( Ludwig )

(b Offenbach am Main, Oct 29, 1905; d London, July 5, 1989).

German typographic designer and teacher active in England . Following an early apprenticeship with a firm of metalworkers, from 1924 to 1928 he studied with the typographical designer Rudolf Koch (1876–1934) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach, and later in Pforzheim, where he trained as a goldsmith. In 1929–33 he taught lettering at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildenden Künste in Frankfurt and at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach. He designed book jackets, posters, trademarks and jewellery, as well as tapestries and metalwork (Offenbach am Main, Klingspor Mus.) in a manner rooted in medieval styles. He designed his first new typeface, Hyperion, in 1932. On a trip to London in that year he met Stanley Morison, who commissioned from him a new typeface for the Monotype Corporation (Albertus, 1935–7; bold and light versions, 1940). His other type designs include Tempest (1936), Pegasus Roman (1938) and Decorata (...



Philip Cooper

[ Schulze, Alfred Otto Wolfgang ]

(b Berlin, May 27, 1913; d Champigny-sur-Marne, nr Paris, Sept 1, 1951).

German painter, draughtsman, photographer and illustrator . In 1919, when his father was appointed head of the Saxon State Chancellery, the family moved from Berlin to Dresden. The following year Wols started taking violin lessons, showing a precocious musical talent. Having finished his studies at a grammar school in Dresden in 1931 he was too young to take the Abitur examination and so decided to abandon it. Fritz Busch, the conductor of the Dresden Opera, then offered to get him a post as a first violinist with an orchestra. Instead he worked for a few months in the studio of the photographer Gena Jonas in Dresden while also spending time as a garage mechanic.

In 1932 Wols travelled to Frankfurt am Main to study anthropology under the German ethnologist Leo Frobenius, a friend of the family, at the Afrika-Institut, though without his Abitur the plan was short-lived. He then moved to Berlin and entered the ...


Jukka Ervamaa and Pontus Grate

Finnish family of painters and illustrators . They were descended from a Scottish family who moved to Sweden in the 17th century. The von Wright brothers were brought up in a remote region in central Finland and were almost entirely self-taught. They began their careers as zoological illustrators in Stockholm and were among the finest Finnish artists of the first half of the 19th century.

(b Haminalahti, nr Kuopio, June 13, 1805; d Helsinki, July 5, 1868).

In 1826 he moved to Stockholm, and in 1828 with his brother (2) Wilhelm von Wright he began publishing Svenska foglar (‘Swedish birds’), the series of bird illustrations that rapidly established the brothers’ reputation in Finland and Sweden. The work, completed in 1838, consists of 180 hand-tinted lithographs.

Magnus returned to Finland in 1829 and settled in Helsinki, where he played a key role in the development of Finnish art. He worked as a teacher of drawing at the University of Helsinki from ...


Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Wilno [now Vilnius, Lithuania], June 15, 1927; d Zakopane, March 23, 1957).

Polish painter and writer . He produced his first paintings under the supervision of his mother, the graphic artist Krystyna Wróblewska (b 1904). In 1945–52 he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków, in the studios of Zygmunt Radnicki (b 1894), Zbigniew Pronaszko, Hanna Rudzka-Cybisowa (b 1897) and Jerzy Fedkowicz (b 1891). At the same time he studied the history of art and became involved in art criticism, publishing his exhibition reviews and polemical articles in cultural journals. From 1950, Wróblewski worked at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków. He exhibited from 1946 at exhibitions significant for contemporary Polish art, including the exhibition Sztuki nowoczesnej (‘Modern art’; Kraków, Pal. A., 1948) and the Wystawa młodej plastyki (‘Young plastic arts exhibition’) at the Arsenal, Warsaw (1955). Although during the 1940s Wróblewski produced only abstract compositions, he had a strong tendency towards realism, using a simple, but often ambiguous style. In ...


Dominik Bartmann

(b Eberswalde, March 10, 1927).

German painter . He studied at the Kunstschule in the orangery of the castle of Eutin. In 1947 he went to the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Hamburg, and studied graphic art. He extended his training by another semester to work under Willem Gremm. In 1951 he was offered a teaching post at the school, which he held until 1961. In 1963 he became Professor for the Graphic Arts and Painting. Between 1951 and 1952, under the instruction of Emil Nolde and Oskar Kokoschka, he produced prints after their originals. In 1957 he created a series of Tachist paintings, for example S111/57 (tempera; see Jensen, 1979, pl. 12), but he destroyed most of them later. Towards the end of the 1950s he produced his first figurative prints and paintings. In the beginning their subjects were events from more recent German history, for example the set of lithographs 20 July 1944 (1959...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....


John E. Bowlt

(Yevgeniyevich) [ Iacovleff, Alexandre ; Jacovleff, Alexandre ]

(b St Petersburg, June 13, 1887; d Paris, May 1938).

Russian painter, graphic artist and designer . His initial training in 1905–13 was at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, where he studied principally under Dmitry Kardovsky. From 1909 Yakovlev contributed regularly to national and international exhibitions, and he was a member of both the World of Art group and the Union of Russian Artists. He was awarded an Academy scholarship for study in Italy and Spain in 1914–15, an experience that left an indelible mark on his stylistic evolution, as is clear from his recourse to Italian Renaissance devices and motifs in paintings such as his portrait of the Mexican artist Roberto Montenegro and The Violinist (both 1915; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.)

Just before the October Revolution of 1917 Yakovlev and his close friend Vasily Shukhayev were regarded as the representatives of a new classicism in Russian art, and, in fact, the graphic clarity and materiality of their drawings and paintings bring to mind the contemporary poetry of Anna Akhmatova and Mikhail Kuzmin, leaders of the Acmeist movement (...


Galina Demosfenova

( Yefimovich )

(b Kiev, Sept 28, 1900; d Moscow, October 1, 2008).

Russian graphic artist of Ukrainian birth. He received no formal artistic training, studying in the Legal Faculty of Kiev University (1917–18). He began his professional work as a caricaturist for the Kiev newspaper Krasnaya Armiya in 1919. In 1920–21 he produced agitational posters for YugROSTA (the southern department of the Russian Telegraph Agency; see Agitprop ) in Odessa and Kiev. He moved to Moscow in 1922 and began to work regularly for the newspapers Pravda, Izvestiya and Krasnaya zvezda and the magazines Ogonyok, Krokodil and others. Yefimov was principally a specialist in international affairs but in the journal Prozhektor (1924–34), apart from his regular political designs, he published caricatures and illustrations on local social themes. In 1924 Yefimov’s album Politicheskiye karikatury (‘Political caricatures’) was published in Moscow and from 1931 such albums appeared on a regular basis.

Yefimov’s early caricatures reveal the influence of the style of the satirical magazine ...


Andrey A. Karev

( Alekseyevich )

(b St Petersburg, 1746–9; d ?St Petersburg, after 1792).

Russian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1761 to 1767. He won a minor award for his painting on a theme from medieval Russian history. His aptitude as a product of the Academic system is suggested by two pen-and-wash allegories: Allegory on the Marriage of the Great Prince Pavel Petrovich and the Great Princess Natal’ya Alekseyevna (1773; Pavlovsk, Pal. Mus.) and Allegory on the Beneficence of Russia (1774; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.)

Yermenyov was one of the founders of Russian genre painting: in the early 1770s he produced a series of watercolours showing blind beggars and peasants (eight of these in St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Yermenyov’s scenes combine an authentic record of social and physical decline with a marked severity in the treatment of motifs. Silhouettes set against a low horizon show the paupers as monumental figures. An unhurried, ritual quality and a distinctive solemnity, later characteristic of Russian genre painting, can be detected in the poses and actions shown. From ...


Jeremy Howard

( Mikhaylovna )

(b Petrovsk, Saratov province, 1893; d nr Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 1938).

Russian painter, printmaker and illustrator. She studied at the school of painting, drawing and sculpture run by Mikhail Bernshteyn and Leonid Shervud in St Petersburg (1911–14), where she was influenced, through her contact with the progressive artist Mikhail Le-Dantyu (1891–1917) and the writer Il’ya Zdanevich (1894–1975), by the principles of Neo-primitivism espoused by Mikhail Larionov. Her most productive and original contribution to Russian art started immediately after the 1917 Revolution when she founded the Today (Segodnya) collective of artists in Petrograd (St Petersburg) with the aim of producing lubok-style four-page children’s books created from linocuts and popular prints, for example her illustrations for Walt Whitman’s O Pioneers (Pionery, 1918; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Although Today ceased its activities when Yermolayeva left for Vitebsk (now Viciebsk) in the autumn of 1919, she continued to illustrate children’s books after 1925 for the newly created Detgiz publishing house. She drew on the formal principles of Russian signboard painting in her illustrations for ...


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Samokov, June 8, 1895; d Sofia, Nov 28, 1971).

Bulgarian printmaker, graphic designer, illustrator, bookbinder, art historian, theorist, critic and teacher . He is considered to be the founder and leading representative of 20th-century Bulgarian graphic art, who in the 1920s developed his own style in the spirit of the national tradition, but with a contemporary western European outlook. In 1919 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. In 1922–4 he studied at the State Academy of Graphic Art and Book Decoration, Leipzig, where he made an in-depth study of graphic techniques. After his return to Bulgaria, he was engaged in a variety of activities, including ex-libris, illustration, bookbinding and the design of postage stamps and banknotes. From 1924 until his death he was a professor of graphic and decorative arts at the National Academy of Arts. His output of graphic art was prodigious and included woodcuts (Basilica of St Sofia, 1925; e.g. Sofia, N.A.G.), coloured mezzotints (...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...


G. Komelova and G. I. Vzdornov

Russian family of painters and graphic artists .

G. Komelova and G. I. Vzdornov

(b Solikamsk, c. 1615; d Moscow, Nov 3, 1689).

Painter . He worked at Veliky Ustyug and later at Yaroslavl’ and in the monastery of St Anthony Siysky at Sol’vychegodsk, sometimes with his brother Osip (b and d unknown). From 1662 he was in Moscow working with Simon Ushakov; after the latter’s death he took over as director of the imperial workshop of icon painters in the Armoury (Oruzhenaya Palata) in the Moscow kremlin. His work included icons, illuminated manuscripts, drawings for engravings, and wall paintings. He contributed to the iconostases in the cathedral of the Dormition (1653; Uspensky) in Moscow and in the church of the Prophet Elijah (1660) at Yaroslavl’. His most important icons are St John the Baptist in the Wilderness (c. 1650; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), St Andrew...


Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...


Sjarel Ex

(b Zaandijk, May 28, 1885; d Wassenaar, Sept 27, 1977).

Dutch designer and typographer . After working in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he came into contact in 1917 with De Stijl, which fundamentally changed the course of his work. Through Vilmos Huszár and Jan Wils, he met H. P. Berlage, for whom he worked as a draughtsman, and international artists working in typographic design, such as Kurt Schwitters, El Lissitsky and Jan Tschichold. His international importance is based on typographical works, such as those he made between 1923 and 1930 for NKF, the Dutch cable works, and for PTT, the Dutch postal service. His advertisements, inspired by Dada, often used a wide range of typography and could be read as messages, poems or advertising slogans, while being appreciated simply as designs. Zwart was also active as an interior designer; his most successful work in this field was the kitchen (1938) that he designed for the ...