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Gordon Campbell

(b 1851; d 1925).

American potter. In 1872 he founded a pottery in Fultenham, OH. In 1888 he moved the pottery to nearby Zanesville, and in 1895 he bought Lonhuda Pottery (and the right to produce ‘Louwelsa’) and began to supplement his utilitarian wares (e.g. cookware, flowerpots and cuspidors) with art pottery; by 1905 he had become the world’s largest producer of hand-thrown pottery for the art market. Weller developed the ‘Eocean’ line (1898), which was a grey version of ‘Louwelsa’, and then produced simplified versions (‘Floretta’, 1904; ‘Etna’, 1906) in which decoration was partially mechanised by the use of embossed floral motifs in the moulds. From 1895 to 1904 the artistic director of Weller Pottery was Charles Babcock Upjohn (1866–1953), whose best-known product was the sgraffito ‘Dickensware II’ line (1900). Other designers included Frederick Hurten Rhead (who developed the the ‘Jap Birdimal’ and ‘Weller Rhead Faience’ lines) and Jacques Sicard (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

In the 18th and 19th centuries the Scottish town of Kirkcaldy, in Fife, had several potteries, one of which was known as Fife Pottery or the Gallatown Pottery, which was established in 1817. The pottery changed hands several times before Robert Methren Heron (1833–1906) took over; he was responsible for the introduction ...

Article

Robin Hildyard

(b nr Stoke-on-Trent, 1719; d 1786).

English potter . He was presumably apprenticed near Stoke-on-Trent and by 1740 had become a master potter at Fenton Low. In 1747 he leased new premises at Fenton Vivian, bought this property in 1748 and the following year acquired Fenton Hall. By this time he is known to have had 19 employees and to have taken Josiah Spode (i) ( see Spode Ceramic Works ) as an apprentice, possibly with William Greatbatch (1735–1813). Spode left in 1754 when Whieldon took Josiah Wedgwood as partner ( see Wedgwood §1 ). Whieldon retired c. 1780, when the pottery was demolished. He is noteworthy for having launched the careers of Wedgwood, Spode, Greatbatch, Robert Garner (1733–89) and J. Barker. He also gave his name to a type of cream-coloured earthenware sponged with such coloured oxides as copper and manganese, covered in a clear, lead glaze, called ‘Whieldon’ or ‘Tortoiseshell’ ware. The forms were sometimes modelled by such eminent contemporary blockcutters as ...

Article

Elizabeth Collard

(b Bristol, Dec 28, 1799; d Saint John, NB, Jan 15, 1870).

Canadian potter of English birth. In 1814 he was apprenticed to the Bristol potter J. D. Pountney. Later, with his brother James White, he carried on a successful business in Bristol making Rockingham, black teapots and stoneware jugs (1828–55). The brothers’ leadless liquid glaze for stoneware was of such quality that London potteries, including Doulton, purchased supplies of it. They retired in 1855 and Joseph White jr (1829–75) took over the pottery. In 1864 Joseph White’s son Frederick J. White (1838–1919) persuaded him to buy the Courtenay Bay Pottery, Crouchville, New Brunswick. There he quickly introduced the ‘latest English designs’ in moulded earthenware and ‘superior’ stoneware with his Bristol glaze. Though the Crouchville pottery failed under his sons, his grandson James W. Foley (1857–1904), whom he had trained, set up his own pottery in Saint John. White’s Foley descendants potted there until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of pottery production. The clays of the Cumbrian coastal town of Whitehaven were first used for the commercial production of pottery in 1698, when a pipe factory was opened; clay pipes were made by various manufacturers in Whitehaven until the 1850s. The oldest surviving example of Whitehaven pottery is a jug with naval scenes (Whitehaven, Mus.) dated 1797; the maker is not known. A pottery in a building known as Gin House was founded in 1740 by Thomas Atkinson, and operated by him and his successor John Hudson until 1781. A second pottery was founded in 1813 by John Goulding and John Tunstall. The third and best-known pottery, known as the Whitehaven Pottery, was founded in 1819 and run by Woodnorth, Harrison, Hall and Co., who made tablewares with printed decorations similar to the products of the Staffordshire potteries; it was taken over in 1829 by John Wilkinson, whose widow and son Randle (...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

[ née Friedlaender ]

(b Lyon, Oct 11, 1896; d Pond Farm, near Guerneville, CA, Feb 24, 1985).

American ceramic artist, writer and teacher of French birth, active also in Germany . Born in France to a German–English family of silk merchants, her family moved to Germany when she was in her teens. After secondary school she studied sculpture in Berlin and then worked as a porcelain decorator. In her autobiography, The Invisible Core, she recalled the moment in 1919 when she saw the first announcement of the Bauhaus: ‘I stood in front of that proclamation, moved to the quick, read, and re-read it. “That’s it’, I said. “I must go to the Bauhaus and learn my craft there”. It was that simple.’ She studied there from 1919 to 1926, during which her major teachers were sculptor Gerhard Marcks and potter Max Krehan. Having been designated a master potter in 1926, she became the head of ceramics at the Burg Giebichenstein in Halle. There she began to make prototypes for mass-produced dinnerware for the Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur (KPM). When the National Socialists came to power in ...

Article

M. Hamilton-Phillips and R. P. Maccubbin

Term applied primarily to decorative arts produced in The Netherlands and England during the reign (1689–1702) of William III and Mary II ( see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5) ) and that spread also to North America at the end of the century. It covers a vocabulary of visual forms rather than a movement, and is represented by richly ornamented furniture, displays of wares from the Far East, embossed and engraved silver, ceramics, luxurious textiles, architectural ornament and garden design. The decorative arts of the 1690s reflect the blending of French, Dutch and English ornamental styles as well as an increased taste for exotica. Although at war with France, William III admired the sophistication of French culture and encouraged the immigration of Huguenot refugees, the French Protestants who fled from France after 1685 when Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed them freedom of worship (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Blue Willow]

Chinoiserie design used on English blue-and-white transfer-printed wares in the late 18th and 19th centuries. The originator of the pattern may have been Thomas Minton, who is thought to have designed it for the Caughley Pottery c. 1780. The design was copied and imitated in many variants by potters in Staffordshire and beyond. By ...

Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Michelle Yun

(b Portland, OR, July 11, 1946; d San Francisco, CA, Aug 12, 1999).

Chinese–American painter and ceramicist. Wong was raised in San Francisco’s Chinatown and received a BA in Ceramics from Humboldt State University in 1968. After graduation, Wong became involved in San Francisco’s performance art scene and worked as a set painter for the Angels of Light Performance Troupe throughout the 1970s. At the age of 30, he decided to become a painter and moved to New York in 1978.

A self-taught painter, Wong’s early realist works often incorporated text and sign language, as in Psychiatrists Testify: Demon Dogs Drive Man to Murder (1980). In 1981 the artist moved to the Lower East Side, a predominantly black and Latino community that would serve as inspiration for the next decade. Wong was a key member of the East Village art scene in the 1980s. His gritty, heavily painted canvases depict the harsh realities of urban life through barren cityscapes of concrete, brick and steel (...

Article

John Mawer

English family of potters . After working for John Astbury and Thomas Whieldon, Ralph Wood the elder (b Burslem, 29 Jan 1715; d Burslem, 12 Dec 1772) started up on his own account at the Hilltop Factory in Burslem c. 1754, producing plain, salt-glazed figures. He developed a technique of staining lead glazes with metallic oxides, which, combined with his fine modelling, resulted in the creation of some fine, useful and decorative items (e.g. ‘Vicar and Moses’ figure, c. 1789–1801; Stoke-on-Trent, City Mus. & A.G.) and ‘Toby’ jugs. Ralph’s brother, Aaron Wood (b Burslem, 14 April 1717; d Burslem, 12 May 1785) was the most renowned block-cutter in Staffordshire and was reputed to have been a modeller for all the potteries in the county. His superb interpretation and skilled block-cutting gave enormous character to his figures. He was probably responsible for modelling the first, true ‘Toby’ jug—also known as a Twyford Jug or Step Toby—which his brother Ralph made famous. Ralph’s son ...

Article

Henry Sandon

English centre of ceramic production. Pottery was made in and around Worcester, Hereford & Worcs, from pre-Roman times but its importance as a centre of ceramic production did not begin until the mid-18th century. In 1751 the Worcester Porcelain Co. was founded by Dr John Wall (1708–76), a physician, William Davis, an apothecary, and 13 other partners in Warmstry House on the banks of the River Severn. In the articles of agreement it was stated that the special porcelain body had been invented by Wall and Davis, but it has subsequently been proved that it had been developed from that used by Benjamin Lund in the first Bristol porcelain factory and earlier at the short-lived Limehouse porcelain factory in London. The recipe, using soapstone (steatite) from the Lizard peninsula, Cornwall, produced a fine, soft-paste porcelain that did not crack or craze in contact with hot liquids, which made it especially useful for teawares....

Article

Michael R. McCarthy

English centre of ceramic production. Several kilns, extensive waste deposits and documentary sources suggest large-scale production at Wrenthorpe, W. Yorks, dating to between the 15th and 18th centuries. Wares were made from local clays; they were decorated with imported white-firing clay and were fired in six-flued and bonfire kilns using both wood and coal. The principal and best-known wares were the red-bodied, chocolate-glazed Cistercian wares decorated with trailed slip and pads of white clay, often with stamped or incised decoration, including stylized floral and stag’s head motifs. Forms included posset pots, chafing dishes, costrels, lids and small jugs. From the late 16th century plates were also produced.

J. W. G. Musty: ‘Medieval Pottery Kilns’, Medieval Pottery from Excavations: Studies Presented to Gerald Clough Dunning, ed. V. Evison, H. Hodges and J. G. Hurst (London, 1974), pp. 41–65 S. A. Moorhouse and I. Roberts: Wrenthorpe Potteries: Excavations of 16th and 17th-century Potting Tenements near Wakefield, 1983–86...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German pottery factory established in Hannover in 1736 by Baron Rudolf Johann of Wrisberg. Production of faience and stoneware began in 1737. Most wares were for domestic use, including jugs, dinnerware and flower pots. The factory also made tiles, of which there are 800 (including 680 emblem tiles) in the Tile Room of Wrisbergholzen Castle, and figures. The factory closed in ...

Article

Wrotham  

Gordon Campbell

Engish centre of ceramics production. During the 17th and 18th centuries a group of potteries was active in Wrotham, Kent. The potteries made utilitarian earthenware pots, but were notable for their high quality slipware, especially commemorative tygs inspired by the stamped and applied decoration of Rhineland stonewares. The earliest dated example is a tyg of ...

Article

Mitsuhiko Hasebe

(b Kyoto, July 4, 1918; d Kyoto, Feb 28, 1979).

Japanese ceramicist and teacher . He was the son of the ceramicist Issō Yagi (1894–1973). In 1937 he graduated from the sculpture department of the Kyoto Municipal School of Arts and Crafts. He then became an apprentice at the Ceramic Research Institute of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, where he studied ceramic sculpture with Numata Ichiga (1873–1945). In 1948 he formed the Sōdeisha group, an avant-garde group of ceramicists and sculptors that included Osamu Suzuki (b 1926), Hikaru Yamada (b 1924), Tetsuo Kanō (b 1927) and Yoshisuke Matsui (b 1926). During this period he formulated a style using sculptural forms that disregarded utilitarian considerations. This style directly influenced contemporary artistic thought and had a great impact on Japanese avant-garde ceramics. He received the grand prize at the 2nd International Ceramic Exhibition in Ostend in 1959 and at the 3rd International Ceramic Exhibition in Prague in ...

Article

Masaaki Arakawa

[Jap.: ‘Mountain teabowls’]

Generic term for various types of unglazed Japanese tableware produced from the late Heian period (794–1185) to the Muromachi period (1333–1568), mainly in the Tōkai region (Aichi and Gifu prefectures) and Shizuoka and Mie prefectures. The name yamachawan first appeared in the Engishiki (a 10th-century record of court regulations). Production centres that later made high-quality glazed ceramics, such as Seto , Atsumi (Aichi Prefect.) and Tokoname , began as yamachawan kilns. During the late Heian period kilns such as Sanage , which had produced ash-glazed wares ( see Japan §IX 2., (ii), (b) ), also switched to making unglazed yamachawan. This change was brought about by a decline in the demand for high-quality wares from aristocratic patrons in Kyoto and an increased demand for utilitarian wares by small provincial farmers. Mass production brought with it a decline in quality: clay became coarser, and precise wheel-throwing techniques were replaced by the simpler coil-and-throw method. The evolution of ...

Article

Yixing  

Rose Kerr

Town in Jiangsu Province, China, situated c. 5 km west of Lake Tai, famous during the Qing period (1644–1911) and the 20th century for its high-quality teawares made of red stoneware. Most of the kilns lie to the south of Yixing in the village of Dingshuzhen.

It has been tentatively established that the earliest purplish-red Yixing stonewares were produced as early as the Song period (960–1279); examples include two pear-shaped vessels with dark purplish stoneware body and partial olive-brown glaze, found in a disused well in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, in 1961 (see Lo, p. 15). Excavations in that area have revealed kilns as well as sherds of coarse red stoneware, including many fragments of teaware. The production of Yixing wares is first well documented for the mid-16th century (e.g. teapot from the tomb of the court official Wu Jing (d 1533); Nanjing, Jiangsu Prov. Mus.). It was at this time that the names of individual potters were first recorded. They adopted the practice for which Yixing became famous, that of marking their wares with their own signatures (e.g. hexagonal red stoneware teapot signed by ...