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Reiko Tomii

(b Kobe, Jan 3, 1967).

Japanese photographer and video artist ( see fig. ). She received degrees in crafts (1989) and art (1991) at Kyoto City University of Arts. During her studies, she created installations with accumulative fibre elements. When she photographed them for documentation, she came to recognize the power of photography. In 1993 she presented a performance work The White Casket , at Art Space Niji, Kyoto. Making a complete departure from her fibre works, she began a Photoshop-manipulated photographic series, Elevator Girls, in 1994. The project lasted for the next seven years, and depicted a group of primly uniformed elevator girls, all looking alike and mysteriously assembled in an elevator and other commercial, urban architectural settings. Frozen in passive or inactive postures, they represent the depersonalized, claustrophobic existence of Japanese women (and women in general), who live in an artificial consumer culture and a patriarchal Japanese society.

In 2000...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b London, May 12, 1963).

English photographer. She studied in London at the Slade School of Fine Art (1982–6) and at Goldsmiths’ College (1988–90), graduating with an MFA. In her early photographs she turned the camera on the institutions that support the visual arts, making portraits of the people who commissioned or curated her work in the period from 1984 to 1995. One such work, Portrait: Selection Committee for the Arts Council of England (1995; London, AC England Col.), was acquired by the very people represented in it. Her colour images are given a strong presence as a result of being mounted on light boxes; the use of solarization around the figures’ heads, like auras, further enhances their luminosity. In a project for Springfield Hospital, London, Yass took portraits of the clients and carers as well as shots of the empty interiors, all of which were displayed in the hospital in ...

Article

A. N. Lavrentiev

( Petrovich )

(b Kazanskaya-na-Donu, 1881; d Moscow, 1948).

Russian photographer. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1901, then worked as a painter, turning to photography in the second decade of the 20th century. He experimented with complex laboratory processes but in his mature period concentrated on conventional printing. His experience as a painter was reflected in his photography, for example Ayvazovsky’s Cliff on the Black Sea (1920), with its enigmatic light and soft transitions. In the 1920s and 1930s Yeryomin worked on several major photographic cycles including Crimea and Central Asia, and his series Old Moscow and Palaces and Estates in the Moscow Area recorded numerous architectural monuments. He exhibited in the USSR and abroad, winning awards for his work. He also illustrated books on the art of photography. In the mid-1930s he tried his hand at photojournalism, but landscape and architecture, photographed with a soft-focus lens, remained his favourite subjects....

Article

Blair French

(b Sydney, May 14, 1957).

Australian photographer. Zahalka was awarded an MFA in 1994 and was recipient of the 2005 Leopold Godowsky, Jr. Color Photography Award at the Photographic Resource Center in Boston, MA. Since the 1980s her work has explored various forms of photographic portraiture, photomontage as well as manifesting a constant interest in the representation of place and its importance in the formation of individual and cultural identity. Zahalka has frequently referred to well-known historical photographs and representations in order to both draw on and question the cultural, gendered or institutional basis of their authority. Her work conveys an acute self-awareness of its own historical precedents. However it equally draws upon photography’s traditional association with visual veracity, exemplifying the complexity of photography as both aesthetic construction and medium of record.

The daughter of Czech and Austrian refugees, Zahalka’s early series, such as The Tourist as Theorist: (Theory Takes a Holiday) (1985), ...

Article

Molly Rogers

(Thomas)

(b Beaufort County, SC, Oct 8, 1814; d Social Circle, GA, Dec 13, 1892).

American daguerreotypist. He specialized in studio portraits but is now known for his images of enslaved men and women intended to support an early theory of race formation. He became an itinerant daguerreotypist in the early 1840s and in 1846, at the request of local citizens, opened a photographic portrait studio in Columbia, SC, the first establishment of its kind in that city. The success of his business as a portrait photographer is apparent from period advertisements, in which he touts the latest techniques and materials, and from the regular appearance of his name in the editorials of photographic trade journals. His customers considered him to be ‘the best artist in the up country’ (Louis Foster Perrin to his sister, 16 Oct 1856, James Rion McKissick Collection, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina). Success enabled him to become a respectable member of his community, joining the Freemasons and owning slaves....

Article

A. N. Lavrentiev

( Anatol’yevich )

(b Tashkent, 1906; d Moscow, 1984).

Russian photographer of Uzbek birth. He moved to Moscow in 1921. After training as a photographer, he worked in the Proletkino film studio and then as an apprentice photographer at the Russfoto agency (1923–4). His early photographs include pictures of old Moscow and a toy factory at Zagorsk. Russfoto sent Zel’ma to Tashkent as a correspondent. His photographs of life in the Central Asian republics began to appear in the national press and were included in 10 let Uzbekistana (‘10 years of Uzbekistan’, 1934), an album of photographs designed by Aleksandr Rodchenko and Varvara Stepanova. Zel’ma was one of the leading photojournalists in the USSR. In the 1930s he worked for the newspapers Izvestiya and Krasnaya Zvezda. Together with Maks Al’pert he photographed a number of subjects for the magazine USSR in Construction, including pictures of collective farms and aerial views of the USSR as well as a series on the building of the Beryoznikovsk and Solikamsk chemical complexes. He also produced expressive photographs on the theme of aviation (e.g. ...

Article

James Crump

( Semyonovich )

(b Simbirsk, 1870; d Leningrad [St Petersburg], 1942).

Russian photographer . He is known for the portraits of literary, artistic and political leaders that he produced during the first two decades of the 20th century, including Anton Chekhov, Lev Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky and perhaps the most acclaimed portrait ever executed of Lenin. After an apprenticeship with the photographer Konstantin Shapiro, Zhukov opened his own studio in St Petersburg, with the support of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts. After the 1917 October Revolution, he became the chief military photographer for the Petrograd (St Petersburg) military zone, and he documented the civil war in that region and the activities of the Red Army. Sent to Moscow in 1920, he continued portraying Soviet political leaders and the upper ranks of the Red Army. In the 1930s his interests turned to photojournalism, and he returned to Leningrad.

S. Morozov and others, eds: Soviet Photography, 1917–1940 (London, 1984) G. Chudakov: 20 sowjetische Photographen, 1917–1940...

Article

(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...

Article

Term used in the 19th century for a planographic print taken from a plate made of zinc, a technique first described in his 1801 patent application by J(ohann) N(epomuk) F(ranz) Alois Senefelder ; zinc was common in commercial usage by c. 1840. Such prints were more often subsumed under the generic name lithograph. ...

Article

(b May 28, 1952).

British performance artist, sculptor, photographer and writer. She studied Russian and Arabic at Leeds University (1970–72), and completed her foundation studies at Croydon College of Art (1972–3). She then studied fine art at Goldsmith’s College, London (1973–6), where the progressive approach to contemporary art led her to design her own course of study, which focused on all aspects of performance art. Influences upon her work include Yves Klein and Bruce McLean. Her ability to deflate the pretentious and absurd in daily life was demonstrated in unrehearsed, highly skilled displays of intuitive stagecraft. These are extended monologues that engage the audience with a mesmerising mixture of mimicry, metaphors, verbal and visual clichés and that explore the conventions of suburban existence and the domestic role of women (e.g. Rubbergloverama-Drama; 1980, London, ICA). Although known primarily as a performance artist, she also made sculptural works and ‘costume constructions’ initially created in connection with a performance, but which later existed as autonomous objects. Ziranek also took photographs, wrote (e.g. ...