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Mayching Kao

[Fang Chao-ling]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, Jan 17, 1914; d Hong Kong, February 20, 2006).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Born into a prosperous and well-educated family, Fang developed an early interest in art. She studied at the University of Hong Kong and Oxford University before devoting herself to art from the 1950s onwards. The foundations of her art were traditional. A student of Qian Songyan (1899–1985), Zhao Shao’ang (b 1905) and Zhang Daqian, she grasped firmly the spirit and techniques of her native tradition, especially the expressive calligraphic line. In addition to studying Chinese literature and philosophy, she ‘walked 10,000 miles’ to visit scenic landscapes in China and elsewhere. She was also open to influences from modern developments in Western art. Her personal and individualistic style evolved from a synthesis of these factors, expressing her profound empathy for the joys and sorrows of life and her refreshing vision in bold compositions and powerful brushwork.

Wucius Wong: ‘Fang Zhao-ling’, Orientations, 13/11 (1982), pp. 44–55...


Melissa Chiu

(b Shanghai, 1955; d Paris, Dec 13, 2000).

Chinese installation artist, active also in France. Chen studied at Shanghai Fine Arts and Craft School until 1973 and the Shanghai Drama Institute until 1978, where he majored in stage design. Following his graduation, he became a professor at both art schools. Chen’s most representative works from this period are a series of large, grey oil paintings entitled The Flow of Qi (Qi You Tu) (1985). These works endeavoured to represent the movement of qi, or spirit, a core element of life and the cosmos in Chinese philosophy. Although not radical in form, the work with its references to ancient and traditional Chinese philosophy was a provocative political gesture given that these ideas had been suppressed during the Cultural Revolution.

When Chen moved to Paris in 1986, he enrolled at the Institut des Hautes Études en Arts Plastiques, graduating in 1989. His installations throughout the 1990s, when he came to international prominence, nearly without exception included references to his Chinese heritage, including Daoist philosophy, Chinese domestic objects (chamber pots, furniture such as chairs and tables, Buddha statues, abaci), and traditional medicine. These references demonstrate a residual effect of his Chinese upbringing—he lived in China until he was 31—as well as a sense of displacement as an immigrant in France and an attempt to come to grips with being a contemporary artist living and working in the West, but not sharing that region’s culture, history and traditions. For Chen, the incorporation of Chinese references in his work were essential as a matter of defining who he was as an artist, while at the same time articulating the uniqueness of his experience....


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


M. N. Sokolov

( Dmitrevich )

(b Volnovka, Krasnodar region, May 25, 1927).

Russian painter . He trained in Moscow at the Institute of Applied and Decorative Art (1944–6) and the Surikov Art Institute (1946–51) under Pavel Korin and others, while Vladimir Favorsky was particularly influential in shaping his talent. Zhilinsky was a member of the generation of the so-called Severe (or Austere) Style (Rus. Surovyy Stil’), a movement in Russian art in the 1960s that sought to endow images with a new integrity and strict verism, thereby overcoming the decrepit standards of Socialist Realism, and he has always been distinguished by the refined aestheticism of his paintings. Working in tempera on levkas (the gesso-like priming typical of Russian medieval painting), he drew stylistically on the heritage of the Italian Quattrocento and the German Renaissance. Touches of a sort of Art Nouveau revival are also manifested in his precise, rhythmical use of line and in the exquisite details of his works. One of the most talented Russian portrait painters, he often turned his portraits into extended metaphors of human life (e.g. ...


Otakar Máčel

( Vladislavovich )

(b Pinsk, Nov 27, 1876; d Moscow, July 16, 1959).

Russian architect, urban planner and teacher . His somewhat literal imitations of Italian Renaissance buildings represented an alternative to the avant-garde in the years immediately after the Russian Revolution. Although its influence on the subsequent development of Russian architecture was limited, his work met with official approval, especially in the 1930s, as a link with the past.

He studied (1887–98) at the Academy of Art in St Petersburg, then set up independently as an architect in Moscow and also taught at the Stroganov School. His winning competition design for the Horse Club (1903), Begavaja Street, Moscow, is characteristic of his lifelong architectural beliefs. The assignment made the Gothic Revival style obligatory, but on his own initiative Zholtovsky made a classical variant based on playful neo-classicism with Palladian motifs and convinced the jury that this was better. Another characteristic early building is the villa of the industrialist Tarasov (...


James Crump

( Semyonovich )

(b Simbirsk, 1870; d Leningrad [St Petersburg], 1942).

Russian photographer . He is known for the portraits of literary, artistic and political leaders that he produced during the first two decades of the 20th century, including Anton Chekhov, Lev Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky and perhaps the most acclaimed portrait ever executed of Lenin. After an apprenticeship with the photographer Konstantin Shapiro, Zhukov opened his own studio in St Petersburg, with the support of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts. After the 1917 October Revolution, he became the chief military photographer for the Petrograd (St Petersburg) military zone, and he documented the civil war in that region and the activities of the Red Army. Sent to Moscow in 1920, he continued portraying Soviet political leaders and the upper ranks of the Red Army. In the 1930s his interests turned to photojournalism, and he returned to Leningrad.

S. Morozov and others, eds: Soviet Photography, 1917–1940 (London, 1984) G. Chudakov: 20 sowjetische Photographen, 1917–1940...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....


Anita Kühnel

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Dec 20, 1926).

German painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Hochschule für Bildende und Angewandte Kunst (1950–55) in Weissensee, Berlin, and at the Deutsche Akademie der Künste (1955–8) under Heinrich Ehmsen. As well as Ehmsen, the work of Picasso, Georges Rouault and Chaïm Soutine were important sources of inspiration early in his career. In the late 1950s he and other like-minded painters in Berlin embraced sensualism in painting. His important early pictures include Dead Fisherman (1957; artist’s col.), Boy with a Hen (1959; Schwerin, Staatl. Mus.) and Agricultural Apprentice (1961; Berlin, Alte N.G.)

From c. 1964 colour became more important for its own sake. Zickelbein’s knowledge of Jackson Pollock’s work was influential on the Darss landscapes (1963–4). His experience of the primeval forest-like character of the Darsser Wald opened up new artistic perspectives. In numerous gouaches the unbridled growth process of nature is turned into a feast of colours applied in broad brushstrokes and dabs. In his gouaches (his favourite medium), as well as vitality he developed a wealth of nuances in the scale of subdued broken colours, controlled with great sensitivity. In his lithographs of Darss landscapes form is conveyed entirely by bundles of lines and strokes. In the mid-1960s he began a long period of works related to architecture (sometimes in conjunction with ...


(b Beaune, Feb 21, 1821; d Paris, Feb 11, 1911).

French painter. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon until he was expelled in 1838 for unruly behaviour. In 1839 he left for Marseille, where he was Clerk of Works on the construction of the Marseille canal. In November 1839 he was noticed by Ferdinand Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, who accepted two watercolours that Ziem presented to him and commissioned a further six. This first success decided Ziem’s vocation, and he started a drawing class that was attended by Louis Auguste Laurent Aiguier (1819–65) and Adolphe Monticelli. During this period he also encountered the Provençal artists Emile Loubon (1809–63), Prosper Grésy (1804–74) and Gustave Ricard.

In 1842 Ziem left for Nice, where he came into contact with members of the European aristocracy, with whom, thanks to his talent and his charm, he was soon on familiar terms. During the following years he travelled widely. Sophie, the Grand Duchess of Baden, invited him to Baden in ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


Deborah Nash

[Feng Tzu-K’ai; Feng Tse-kai]

(b Shimenwan, near Changde, Zhejiang Province, Nov 9, 1898; d Shanghai, Sept 15, 1975).

Chinese cartoonist, teacher, translator and writer. He is best known for the lyrical cartoons he created from the 1920s to the 1960s, which explored themes of Buddhist philosophy and the innocence of childhood through humorous observations of daily life. He trained as a teacher at the First Teacher Training College in Hangzhou, where he was taught by Li Shutong, a Buddhist monk who was to prove influential in Feng’s conversion to Buddhism in 1927 and in the development of his artistic career.

In 1921 Feng left Shanghai, where he had founded a teacher training college, and went to study Western art in Japan. However, as he later acknowledged in his book The Art of the Cartoon, he became fascinated by the popular Japanese manga (Chin. manhua; cartoon). On his return to China ten months later he joined the editorial staff of the Kaiming Book Company and began to publish his cartoons in the journal ...


[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...


(b Radeburg, nr Dresden, Jan 10, 1858; d Berlin, Aug 9, 1929).

German draughtsman, printmaker, photographer and film maker. He attended evening classes at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, while serving a lithography apprenticeship (1872–5). He subsequently worked for an art printing company, where he learned the techniques of etching and aquatint. His first drawings were exhibited at the Berlin Secession in 1901, where he exhibited regularly thereafter. His work also appeared in Jugend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben and Lustige Blätter. Zille’s sympathetic depictions of impoverished workers, children and prostitutes in Berlin are in a humourous vein but with serious undertones, and carry captions in Berlin slang; his photographs of Berlin street scenes also provide rare documents of everyday life. In 1926 he made the film Die da Unten

Zille, Heinrich Kinder der Strasse (Berlin, 1908) L. Fischer: Heinrich Zille in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1979) W. G. Oschilewski: Heinrich Zille Bibliographie (Hannover, 1979)...


Alexander Koutamanis

[ Ernestos ] ( Moritz Theodor )

(b Oberlössnitz, nr Zwickau, June 22, 1837; d Athens, July 9, 1923).

German architect, designer and archaeologist, active in Greece. He studied at the Königliche Bauschule in Dresden (1855–8) and worked for Theophilus Hansen in Vienna (1858–9). Hansen brought Ziller to Greece to execute the Academy of Athens (1861–4). After an educational journey in Italy and further studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1864–8), Ziller settled in Greece. He eventually became a Greek national and rose to the positions of professor at the National Technical University of Athens (1872–82) and Director of Public Works (1884).

Ziller was the most active and influential architect of the reign of George I (reg 1863–1913). Following Hansen’s example, he adopted different morphological systems for different types of buildings. For public and residential buildings he used the Renaissance Revival style, as in Iliou Melathron (1878–80), the residence of Heinrich Schliemann and his most significant building; the house of Pavlos Melas (...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Planegg, Bavaria, Nov 6, 1948).

German painter. He studied Philosophy and Comparative Religion at the Freie Universität in Berlin (1973–9). In May 1977 he was involved in the founding of the Galerie am Moritzplatz in West Berlin, where later that year he had his first solo exhibition, Flut. He was associated at this time with the 'Neue Wilden' painters, including Rainer Fetting, Helmut Middendorf and Salomé, whose works were shown to a wide public for the first time in the exhibition Heftige Malerei (Berlin, Haus Waldsee). He was awarded the Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff Stipend for 1979–81 and later completed residencies in Rome (1982–4) and Rapallo (1987–8). Through his richly coloured, gestural paintings Zimmer consistently explored aspects of nature and landscape. In series of paintings dealing with types of landscapes or elemental aspects of nature he often referred to journeys that he had made, as in the Wüstenbilder (‘desert paintings’) series (...


Mary F. Linda

(b Greifswald, Dec 6, 1890; d New York, March 20, 1943).

German art historian. He was trained in Sanskrit philology and comparative linguistics at the University of Berlin, graduating in 1913, and his interests embraced Hindu mythology and philosophy in both literary and visual forms. He taught at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität, Greifswald (1920–24), and he held the Chair of Indian philology at Heidelberg (1924–38), from which he was dismissed in 1938 for his anti-Nazi convictions. In 1942, after briefly teaching at Balliol College (1939–40), Oxford, Zimmer became Visiting Lecturer in Philosophy at Columbia University (1942–3) in New York, where he died a year later. Many of his most important writings were edited and published posthumously by Joseph Campbell.

Following the Romantic and transcendental traditions of Indian scholarship, Zimmer sought to interpret the contributions of India in philosophy, medicine, art and the history of religion to the development of human civilization, and to assimilate the ‘truths’ found therein with Western thought. His observations were based on Puranic and Tantric texts, sources which until that time were underutilized in Indic studies. His ...


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Berlin, March 31, 1928).

Australian glass artist of German birth. He studied design at the Master School of Arts and Crafts in Berlin and, after emigrating to Australia in 1952, studied painting, printmaking and glass at the Melbourne Institute of Technology. In 1974 he pursued further study at stained-glass workshops in Cologne, Germany, and in 1975 he studied with Patrick Reyntiens and Ludwig Schaffrath in England. In 1979 Zimmer embarked upon another period of research at the Staatliche Glasfachschule, Hadamar, Germany. Zimmer became aware of the expressive potential of contemporary stained glass while studying with William Gleeson at the Melbourne Institute of Technology. He applied his graphic and design skills to the medium of glass with such commitment and imagination that his heavily textured, expressionist panels soon became one of the most enduring influences on Australian glass artists. Zimmer produced hemispherical ‘lens’ panels by fusing layers of irregular fragments of glass. He also framed broad, boldly painted segments of glass in richly embossed lead channels, and used metallic lustre and stain-painting to decorate glass. These methods contribute to an unmistakable quality of sombre chiaroscuro which often serves to underscore the strain of passionate, socio-political narrative evident in much of Zimmer’s work. After some years as senior lecturer in glass studies at the Chisholm Institute of Technology in Melbourne, in ...


(b May 28, 1952).

British performance artist, sculptor, photographer and writer. She studied Russian and Arabic at Leeds University (1970–72), and completed her foundation studies at Croydon College of Art (1972–3). She then studied fine art at Goldsmith’s College, London (1973–6), where the progressive approach to contemporary art led her to design her own course of study, which focused on all aspects of performance art. Influences upon her work include Yves Klein and Bruce McLean. Her ability to deflate the pretentious and absurd in daily life was demonstrated in unrehearsed, highly skilled displays of intuitive stagecraft. These are extended monologues that engage the audience with a mesmerising mixture of mimicry, metaphors, verbal and visual clichés and that explore the conventions of suburban existence and the domestic role of women (e.g. Rubbergloverama-Drama; 1980, London, ICA). Although known primarily as a performance artist, she also made sculptural works and ‘costume constructions’ initially created in connection with a performance, but which later existed as autonomous objects. Ziranek also took photographs, wrote (e.g. ...


Yvonne Janková

(b Prague, April 4, 1832; d Prague, Aug 2, 1909).

Bohemian architect and teacher. He entered the Prague Polytechnic in 1848 but shortly afterwards went to Vienna, where he trained as a bricklayer and studied at the Polytechnikum and the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. His teachers were Karl Rösner, Eduard Van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. After completing his studies he worked in Prague for the architect Josef Ondřej Kranner (1801–71). Kranner influenced Zítek’s first designs, which were inspired to a large extent by medieval art; they included a scheme for a large parish church (1857), the Greek Orthodox church in Czanalos, Hungary, and the church (1859) in Rakové, Slovakia. Between 1857 and 1858 he worked in Vienna in the studio of van der Nüll & Siccardsburg on competition entries for the Czech Savings Bank, Prague, and the university and Stock Exchange, Vienna. In 1858 he went to Italy to study the buildings of antiquity and the Renaissance, which influenced his later work....


Catherine M. Grant

(b Sausalito, CA, Sept 6, 1965).

American sculptor and installation artist. She studied painting and sculpture at San Diego State University in San Diego, CA, graduating in 1988. She then went on to study for her MFA in sculpture at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI, graduating in 1990. In 1992 she set up A–Z Administrative Services, a company which aimed to streamline domestic objects and rituals. For Prototypes for Container, Cover, Support (1993; see 1993 exh. cat., pp. 29–30), Zittel made the objects itemized in the title and gave them to a group of volunteers who then recorded their experiences of using them. Each object was designed to be as multi-functional as possible: the container, for example, could be used as a bowl, a holder and a vase. Zittel expanded on these ideas of functional living by making self-contained units for dining, study and recreation. In 1993 she began to customize the units according to the client for whom they were designed, such as the ...