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Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Huta Miastkowska, nr Siedlce, April 11, 1852; d Warsaw, Dec 27, 1936).

Polish painter and printmaker . He studied at the Warsaw Drawing School (1869–73) under Aleksander Kamiński (1823–86), Rafal Hadziewicz (1803–86) and Wojciech Gerson; from 1875 to 1877 he studied at the Munich Kunstakademie under Alexander Wagner (1838–1918), and then at the Kraków School of Fine Arts under Jan Matejko from 1877 to 1879. Most of his early works are technically competent realistic portraits that reveal his sensitivity to colour (e.g. the Artist’s Grandmother, Mrs Falińska, 1880; Warsaw, N. Mus.) and drawing-room scenes in the Munich tradition of anecdotal realism (e.g. I Once Saw, 1884; Warsaw, N. Mus.). From 1883 to 1894 he lived in the Ukraine. During his last years there he produced numerous scenes of peasant and bourgeois life. Such works as Fishermen (1891; Warsaw, N. Mus.) and Croquet (1895; Łódź, Mus. A.) were influenced in technique by the Impressionist paintings he had seen while in Paris in ...


Stephen Deuchar

(b London, July 6, 1851; d London, April 6, 1931).

English painter and engraver . He was the son of Katherine (née Benham) Wyllie and a prosperous, minor genre painter, William Morrison Wyllie ( fl 1852–90). He spent most of his childhood summers in France, where his parents owned houses on the coast, first at Boulogne and later at Wimereux. He began plein-air drawing and painting at an early age, encouraged by both his father and his stepbrother Lionel Smythe (1839–1918). After studying at Heatherley’s Art School in London, (c. 1863), he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1866 and two years later exhibited his first picture, Dover Castle and Town (untraced), at the summer exhibition. Though his precocious talent was again rewarded in 1869, when he won the Turner Gold Medal for Landscape with his Dawn after a Storm (untraced; engraved for the Illustrated London News, Jan 1870), the 1870s were to bring some disappointment: the Academy refused two of his pictures for exhibition in ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

(b Tokushima Prefect., Oct 8, 1919; d Kanagawa Prefect., Nov 23, 1986).

Japanese painter, printmaker, teacher and collagist . In 1937 he graduated from the Kagawa Prefectural Technical School, and the following year he went to Tokyo and studied at the Fukuzawa Institute for the Study of Painting, where be became fascinated by Surrealist painting. In 1939 his military service took him to China, where he served in the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). His experiences of the atrocities of war deeply affected him, and he became vehemently anti-war. In 1946 he was involved in forming the Nihon Bijutsukai (Japan Art Society) and in 1947 he helped found the Zen’ei Bijutsukai (Avant-garde Art Society). In 1953 he took part in the first Nippon Ten (Japan exhibition), showing Tale of Akebono Village at Dawn (1953; priv. col., see exh. cat., p. 37), which portrayed with black humour an uprising of villagers protesting at repression.

Yamashita’s commitment to Surrealism became total, and he was determined to expose social injustices through his style of painting (e.g. ...


Jeremy Howard

( Mikhaylovna )

(b Petrovsk, Saratov province, 1893; d nr Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 1938).

Russian painter, printmaker and illustrator. She studied at the school of painting, drawing and sculpture run by Mikhail Bernshteyn and Leonid Shervud in St Petersburg (1911–14), where she was influenced, through her contact with the progressive artist Mikhail Le-Dantyu (1891–1917) and the writer Il’ya Zdanevich (1894–1975), by the principles of Neo-primitivism espoused by Mikhail Larionov. Her most productive and original contribution to Russian art started immediately after the 1917 Revolution when she founded the Today (Segodnya) collective of artists in Petrograd (St Petersburg) with the aim of producing lubok-style four-page children’s books created from linocuts and popular prints, for example her illustrations for Walt Whitman’s O Pioneers (Pionery, 1918; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Although Today ceased its activities when Yermolayeva left for Vitebsk (now Viciebsk) in the autumn of 1919, she continued to illustrate children’s books after 1925 for the newly created Detgiz publishing house. She drew on the formal principles of Russian signboard painting in her illustrations for ...


Shin’ichiro Osaki

(b Nishiwaki, Hyōgo Prefect., 1936).

Japanese stage designer, printmaker and painter . In 1960 he went to Tokyo and began his career as a stage designer. He was responsible for the design of such avant-garde drama as the Situation Theatre (Jōkyō Gekijō) of Jūrō Kara (b 1940) and the Upper Gallery (Tenjō Sajiki) of Shūji Terayama (1935–83). He also produced prints and in 1967 exhibited works in the Word and Image exhibition at MOMA, New York. Although he used photographs as the basis of his designs, Yokoo’s prints drew upon aspects of traditional Japanese woodcuts that coincided with the style of contemporary Pop art, using in particular flat areas of colour and overtly sexual subject-matter (e.g. X-sex IV, screenprint, 1968; priv. col., see Yokoo, 1990, p. 13). In addition to his activity as a commercial designer, from the late 1960s he became interested in mysticism and psychedelic art, influenced in particular by travels in India in the 1970s. He produced posters with eclectic imagery similar to that of contemporary psychedelic ‘underground’ magazines. In ...


Ann Barrott Wicks

[Huang Yung-yü; Huang Niu; Huang Xingbin; Niu Fuzi; Zhang Guanbao]

(b Fenghuang County, Hunan Province, Jul 9, 1924).

Chinese painter, writer, and woodcut artist of the Tujia national minority. Huang learned about woodcuts in school in Fujian Province in 1937–1939 but, as a result of his expulsion for fighting, he was primarily self-taught. His parents were artists, and in 1946 he married Zhang Meixi (b 1928), also an artist. In Shanghai in 1947 he joined Lu Xun’s anti-Guomindang (KMT) movement as a woodcut artist. In 1948 he painted and made woodcuts in Taiwan, then moved to Hong Kong, where he worked as art editor for the Da gong bao, a leftist newspaper. In 1953, optimistic about the new Communist government, he returned to China to teach woodcut-printing at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing. He moved back to Hong Kong in 1988, but retained his position as Professor at the Academy.

During the 1950s and 1960s Huang was well known for his woodblock portraits and his illustrations to his own witty poetry. He suffered all the humiliations of the Cultural Revolution (...


(b Riga, July 15, 1900; d New York, Dec 24, 1983).

American painter and printmaker of Latvian birth. He enrolled in art school in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and then travelled through Russia. Early influences were Vasily Kandinsky and Kazimir Malevich. He left the country after the Revolution (1917). During the 1920s he lived variously in Europe and Latin America, establishing contact with such leading artists as Emil Nolde, Karl-Georg Heise (1890–1979), and Diego Rivera. Yunkers fought in the Spanish Civil War (1936–9) and moved to Stockholm from 1939 to 1947, where he edited and published the periodicals Creation, Ars, and Art Portfolio (1969 exh. cat., pp. 30–31). In 1947 ten years’ work was lost in a studio fire.

Yunkers immigrated to the USA in 1947, acquiring citizenship in 1953. At this time he embarked on ambitious projects of prints and paintings including Polyptych, a five-panel woodcut, 4 m long, and in 1957 a series of large-scale pastels culminating in ...


Monica E. Kupfer

(Augusto )

(b Panama City, Feb 5, 1930).

Panamanian printmaker and painter, active in Spain. He studied under Juan Manuel Cedeño at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura in Panama City and from 1953 to 1959 at the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City. In 1961 he moved to Madrid, where he began his important work at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Zachrisson’s etchings, drypoints, lithographs and woodcuts tell stories, mock tradition and criticize society, encompassing subjects as varied as the circus and the myth of Icarus. In works such as the Death of Chimbombó (1963; New York, MOMA) he depicts life with humour and satire in a cruel and even tragic vision. His fantastic world is peopled by an entourage of monsters, witches and grotesque figures drawn from Panamanian urban folklore, Spanish literature, classical mythology and personal experiences. Zachrisson’s paintings, produced since the 1970s, tend to be less detailed than his etchings but are equally biting in their use of irony, secual explicitness and references to his Panamanian background. Formally, his paintings emphasize colour and design over volume, with flat intense hues, hard edges and nearly invisible brushstrokes, as in ...


(b Istanbul, Aug 5, 1906; d Ankara, 1974).

Turkish painter and printmaker . He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul and worked as a teacher in Konya for a short period before graduating in 1930. The visit to Konya was his first to Anatolia, and it gave him the opportunity to observe the peasant and nomadic life. As a result Anatolian themes entered his work, although he used the techniques of Western painting. He was also inspired by East Asian art and by the Turkish miniature painting tradition. Upon graduation he went to Paris to continue his studies but stayed only a few weeks and returned to Turkey to teach in Sivas, where he rekindled his interest in Anatolian life. His works were exhibited in Istanbul by the D Group (founded 1933), which he later joined. In 1939 he participated in the tours to the provinces organized for artists by the Turkish government, returning from the town of Kayseri with a series of paintings. His individual style for depicting local scenes, which used well-defined forms in bright colours, became popular in Turkey, and the narrative element of his paintings related them to themes in Turkish folklore. Zaim’s aim was to develop a contemporary pictorial language to express life in Anatolia. He also produced etchings in the 1930s and linoleum prints in the early 1960s. His daughter ...


Margarita González Arredondo

(b Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Jan 12, 1908; d Morelia, Jan 19, 2003).

Mexican painter, printmaker and teacher. He studied in Mexico City at the Academia de San Carlos (1924–9) and at the Escuela de Grabado y Talla Directa. In 1930 he founded the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Taxco. He was also a member of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios and an early member in 1937 of the Taller de Gráfica Popular, taking part in their group exhibitions and publications until 1950. From 1951 he was director of the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura in Morelia, Michoacán. In addition to his career as a teacher he was active politically. He practised primarily as a printmaker with a clear and precise draughtsmanship; he published, for example, a portfolio of eight lithographs, Estampas de Yucatán (1945), after travelling through the area for several months. He was also involved with the muralist movement in Mexico, and in 1930...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


(b Tehran, 1937).

Iranian painter and printmaker . He studied at the College of Fine Arts and the College of Decorative Arts in Tehran and began to exhibit his work early in his career, at the Biennales in Paris (1959–63), Tehran (1960–66), São Paulo (1963) and Venice (1964), receiving a number of awards. He first began to be influenced by Iranian Shi‛ite folk art in 1959, presenting it in his work in a distinctive way, with neither parody nor satire. He went to live in Paris in 1961 but continued to take a close interest in the development of art in Iran. At the third Tehran Biennale in 1962, held in the Abyaz Palace in the Gulistan compound, he exhibited canvases that consisted of geometric patterns of squares, triangles and circles, using colours characteristic of religious folk art, and covered with calligraphy to create a distinctive texture. It was on this occasion that the Iranian art critic ...


(b Chicontepec, Veracruz, Jan 1, 1947).

Mexican draughtsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator. Zenil is known for his reworking of recognizable Pop Mexicanist imagery—or known icons of Mexicanismo (mexicanidad; Mexican identity and culture)—such as the Mexican flag, sacred heart, Virgin of Guadalupe, calaveras (skulls), and lotería (Mexican bingo) symbols among others—while collapsing boundaries of the sacred and the profane and challenging the heteronormative. Zenil has been dubbed a member of the stylistic movement neomexicanidad (Neo-Mexicanism), alongside such Mexican artists as Javier de la Garza (b 1954), Julio Galán, and Rocío Maldonado. Zenil has acknowledged Enrique Guzmán (1952–86) as the initiator of Neo-Mexicanism in his work Oh Santa Bandera (a Enrique Guzmán) (1996; Mexico City, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo), which is a reworking Guzmán’s ¡Oh! Santa bandera! (1977) that reiterates Guzmán’s early ironic reinterpretation of Mexican iconography as cultural critique.

A pioneer of Mexican Post-modernism in using strategies of appropriation, fragmentation, parody, and text, Zenil rejected the dominant style of ...


Katalin Gellér

(b Zala, Oct 14, 1827; d St Petersburg, Feb 28, 1906).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman and printmaker . He studied under Giacomo [Jakab] Marastoni (1804–60) in Pest, then under Ferdinand Waldmüller in Vienna. From 1847 he lived mainly in Russia, in the service of the Tsar at the imperial court at St Petersburg. Between 1874 and 1879 he lived in Paris, where he was active in the Hungarian Association, a charitable cultural institution. In 1880 he travelled to Hungary, Vienna and Venice and the following year (1881–2) he spent some time in the Caucasus before resettling in St Petersburg. Zichy was influenced primarily by Viennese Biedermeier painting and the French Romantic masters, although in some of his work he approached the Russian Realists. His paintings are conservative both in subject and in method of execution. He favoured an anecdotal approach and compositions designed to be representative, effective and dramatic. In his works a literary or political message often takes precedence, and Zichy frequently resorted to the use of allegory. He was highly important as an illustrator, his graphic style being noted for its dynamism....


Anita Kühnel

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Dec 20, 1926).

German painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Hochschule für Bildende und Angewandte Kunst (1950–55) in Weissensee, Berlin, and at the Deutsche Akademie der Künste (1955–8) under Heinrich Ehmsen. As well as Ehmsen, the work of Picasso, Georges Rouault and Chaïm Soutine were important sources of inspiration early in his career. In the late 1950s he and other like-minded painters in Berlin embraced sensualism in painting. His important early pictures include Dead Fisherman (1957; artist’s col.), Boy with a Hen (1959; Schwerin, Staatl. Mus.) and Agricultural Apprentice (1961; Berlin, Alte N.G.)

From c. 1964 colour became more important for its own sake. Zickelbein’s knowledge of Jackson Pollock’s work was influential on the Darss landscapes (1963–4). His experience of the primeval forest-like character of the Darsser Wald opened up new artistic perspectives. In numerous gouaches the unbridled growth process of nature is turned into a feast of colours applied in broad brushstrokes and dabs. In his gouaches (his favourite medium), as well as vitality he developed a wealth of nuances in the scale of subdued broken colours, controlled with great sensitivity. In his lithographs of Darss landscapes form is conveyed entirely by bundles of lines and strokes. In the mid-1960s he began a long period of works related to architecture (sometimes in conjunction with ...


[ Philippe ]

(b The Hague, April 20, 1857; d Villefranche, Oct 3, 1930).

Dutch printmaker, painter and writer. He went to the drawing academy in The Hague, where he was taught by J. C. K. Klinkenberg (1852–1924) and Anton Mauve. He was a painter and draughtsman as well as an etcher, engraver and lithographer, and depicted landscapes, townscapes and still-lifes. He lived and worked mainly in The Hague, belonging to both the Amsterdam society Arti et Amicitiae and the Pulchri Studio there. As a graphic artist he achieved considerable fame, especially through his reproductive etchings of works by painters of the Hague school (J. Israëls, the Maris brothers and Weissenbruch) and 17th-century masters such as Vermeer.

In 1885 Zilcken was involved in setting up the Dutch Etching Club (Nederlandsche Etsclub). As an editor of Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift from 1896 to 1905, he became a well-known writer on art. With his etchings of exceptional quality and his publications about graphic art, he contributed towards the revival of Dutch etching. He also did much to publicize the Hague school, particularly in America, where he had many connections with collectors and museum officials. Zilcken had about ten pupils, among them his daughter ...


Pilar Benito

(b Manila, Aug 27, 1924; d Rome, June 2, 1984).

Spanish painter, printmaker and collector of Philippine birth. He was born into a wealthy family and was never in financial need, which allowed him to devote himself to painting without suffering any kind of setback. He had a cosmopolitan education, graduating in philosophy and arts and completing his degree with a thesis on the theatre of Federico Garcia Lorca at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1949. While living there he met painters from the Boston area, notably Reed Champion Pfeufer and Hyman Bloom, and began to paint under the influence of their symbolic and romantic expressionism, which was superficially similar to Abstract Expressionism. At this time he tried out a variety of printmaking processes including etching, wood-engraving and woodcut.

In 1951 Zóbel returned to Manila, holding his first one-man exhibition there at the Philippine Art Gallery in 1952: the works he showed were representational paintings of Philippine customs. During 1954...


Pontus Grate

( Leonard )

(b Mora, Feb 18, 1860; d Mora, Aug 22, 1920).

Swedish painter, etcher and sculptor . He was brought up by his grandparents at Mora. As he displayed a precocious talent for drawing he was admitted to the preparatory class of the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm, at the age of 15. Dissatisfied with the outdated teaching and discipline of the Academy and encouraged by his early success as a painter of watercolour portraits and genre scenes (e.g. Old Woman from Mora, 1879; Mora, Zornmus.) Zorn left the Academy in 1881 to try to establish an international career. He later resided mainly in London but also travelled extensively in Italy, France, Spain, Algeria and the Balkans and visited Constantinople. However, he continued to spend most of his summers in Sweden.

In 1887–8 Zorn more or less abandoned watercolour and turned to oil painting, and he settled in Paris, where he remained until 1896. Here he began to gain international recognition thanks partly to his portraits and partly to his pictures of nudes (e.g. ...


(b The Hague, May 16, 1862; d The Hague, Dec 11, 1931).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher . From 1877 to 1880 he studied drawing at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and painting with Jacob Maris. His earliest work consisted mainly of still-lifes and figure studies, animal subjects and landscapes. From 1884 to 1886 he worked as a tile painter for the Rozenburg Delftware Factory in The Hague.

From 1885 to 1894—generally considered the period of his most important work—de Zwart painted and etched landscapes and townscapes (e.g. the Wagenbrug in The Hague, c. 1890; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.), figures (e.g. Seated Woman in White, c. 1890; The Hague, Gemeentemus.), portraits and still-lifes reminiscent of works associated with such 19th-century Amsterdam painters as George Hendrik Breitner; however, de Zwart’s palette was darker and his brushwork less broad. In 1891 he spent a brief period in Paris making townscapes, such as Porte Saint-Denis (1892; The Hague, Gemeentemus.). From 1892 until ...