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May Vieillard-Troïekouroff

(b Lyon, c. ad 432; d Clermont, c. 486; fd 21 Aug).

Gallic saint, writer and bishop. He came from a senatorial family in Lyon and was married at the age of 20 to the daughter of the future emperor, Avitus (reg ad 455–6). Sidonius followed Avitus to Rome, where in 456 he made his panegyric for which the Roman senate honoured him with a bronze statue (destr.) placed in Trajan’s Forum. This was one of the last statues en ronde-bosse of the Western world. After a period of disgrace following Avitus’ downfall, Sidonius returned to Rome and became a prefect in 468. In 471 he was elected Bishop of Clermont (even though he was married).

In his letters and poems Sidonius mentioned many religious buildings including Bourges Cathedral, where he had Bishop Simplicius elected, and St Julien, Brioude, where he praised the martyr without mentioning that Avitus, his father-in-law, was buried at the feet of the saint (d c....


Kathryn O'Rourke and Ramón Vargas

(b Mexico City, Mar 29, 1915; d Mexico City, May 25, 1959).

Mexican architect, theorist, and writer, of Japanese descent. The son of a Japanese ambassador in Mexico, he studied philosophy, espousing neo-Kantianism and becoming politically a socialist. He became a supporter of Functionalism, with its emphasis on the social applications of architecture, and was a founder, with Enrique Yañez, of the Unión de Arquitectos Socialistas (1938), helping to draw up a socialist theory of architecture. He was one of the most active participants in the Unión and attempted to put his socialist theory into practice on two unexecuted projects in the same year: the building for the Confederación de Trabajadores de México and the Ciudad Obrera de México, both with Enrique Guerrero and Raúl Cacho. Later, when Mexico opted for a developmental policy, Arai became a standard-bearer for nationalism in architecture. He re-evaluated traditional building materials, such as tree trunks, bamboo, palm leaves, and lianas, using them in a plan for a country house that was adapted to the warm, damp climate of the Papaloapan region. The building of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, gave him his greatest architectural opportunity when he designed the Frontones (...


Pilar Benito

(b Santander, 1824; d Madrid, 1897).

Spanish painter and writer. He was a pupil of the landscape painter Carlos de Haes at the Escuela Superior in Madrid and exhibited at the National Fine Arts Exhibitions of 1858, 1860, 1862 and 1866. His artistic career, however, is less significant than his profound knowledge of art. He published articles in La Ilustración española y americana, El Día, Arte en España and the Revista de bellas artes (all published in Madrid), at a time when art criticism, understood as ‘a commentary on work, made with some degree of authority’, was still in its infancy in Spain. He gave several lectures at the Ateneo Cientifico, Literario y Artístico in Madrid, such as: ‘Observaciones sobre el concepto del Arte’ (15 May 1884), ‘Los desenvolvimientos de la pintura—López, Madrazo, Rosales, Fortuny’ (1887) and ‘La España del siglo XIX: Goya y su época’ (1895). His publications include the monographs ...


Mildred Archer and Toby Falk

English family of collectors, curators and art historians.

Mildred Archer

(b London, Feb 11, 1911; d London, March 6, 1979).

After studying history at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, from 1926 to 1930, he joined the Indian Civil Service. Unexpectedly, his service as a District Officer in India provided a vital stimulus to his intense interest in art and poetry. During a tour in Shahabad District in 1931, he discovered wood and stone images of the cattle god Birnath, which he described in The Vertical Man. In 1947 he ended his official career in the Naga Hills, where he collected examples of wood-carving and textiles. From 1935 to 1946 he edited the anthropological journal Man in India with Verrier Elwin, but the most crucial period of his service was as District Magistrate of Patna in 1941–2, when he became a close friend of such Indian collectors and connoisseurs as Rai Krishnadasa...


Patrick Nuttgens and Sunand Prasad

Designer of buildings, responsible also in varying degrees for the supervision of their erection. The term is derived from the Greek word architekton (‘craftsman’ or ‘master carpenter’). From this came the Latin word architectus, used by the theorist Vitruvius, whose treatise On Architecture was written c. 17 bc. The first use of the word in English came in John Shute’s First and Chief Grounds of Architecture, published in 1563. The role and cultural status of the architect have been differently understood at different periods of history. In the modern Western world the architect is generally held to be something more than an artisan or manual worker and is in practice often a chief executive or director of works as well as a designer. This concept, however, dates only from the Renaissance, the period during which a distinction came to be drawn between the architect as designer and the master craftsman, who not only designed but also built. Outside the West, different traditions have emerged, with the architect not generally receiving the same individual recognition as his or her Western counterpart....


Antje B. Lemke and Deirdre C. Stam

Collections of original records.

There are primarily two types of archives. Single-agency or institutional archives are repositories of primarily non-current records, retained for legal and historical purposes, of the past activities of an institution, company or person. Archivists and administrative staff responsible for record management establish procedures and timetables for the transfer of materials no longer needed for current transactions. Government agencies, museums and academic institutions usually have archives that include the documents of their own affairs, for example correspondence, financial statements, minutes of meetings and news clippings. Single-agency archives are often referred to as ‘fonds’. Multiple-collection archives are repositories of original materials believed to be worth preserving for future study or exhibition; these may come from a variety of sources, public or private, and are usually on a subject related to the overall interests of the institution that holds the collections. Archives of this type are often affiliated with large institutions, such as ...


Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Tehran, March 9, 1939).

Iranian architect, urban planner and writer. He studied architecture at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh (BA, 1961) and at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (March, 1962). He worked in several firms in the USA, including Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, before returning to Iran to work for the National Iranian Oil Company (1964–6). In 1966 he became Design Partner for Iran’s largest archictectural firm, Abdul Aziz Farman Farmaian & Associates, in Tehran, and in 1972 he set up his own practice in Tehran, the Mandala Collaborative. Ardalan, whose work ranges from private residences to master plans for new towns, is one of the most important architects to emerge from Iran in the recent past. His work reflects his particular concern for cultural and ecological aspects of architecture; in Iran it is strongly rooted in an understanding of the traditions and forms of Iranian Islam, although his buildings are in a totally contemporary idiom. Perhaps his best-known work is the Iran Centre for Management Studies (...


(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...


Norman E. Land

(b Arezzo, 19 or April 20, 1492; d Venice, 1556).

Italian art critic, writer, poet and collector. He was one of the most engaging literary figures of the Italian Renaissance, known not only for his famous Lettere but also for political lampoons, erotic books and religious writings. He was the son of a shoemaker, Luca del Tura. From before 1510 until 1517 he lived in Perugia. A book of poems that he published during these years, Opera nova (1512), suggests by its subtitle, in which the author is called ‘Pietro pictore Aretino’, and by a note to the first sonnet in which he claims to be ‘studioso … in pictura’, that he had some training as an artist. About 1517 he moved to Rome, after a short period in Siena, and joined the household of Agostino Chigi. He became friendly with Raphael, Michelangelo, Sebastiano del Piombo and Jacopo Sansovino. At this time too he became known for his political lampoons. For a period Aretino was a valet to Pope Leo X; on Leo’s death in ...


(b Turin, May 17, 1909; d Rome, Nov 12, 1992).

Italian art historian, critic and politician. He enrolled to study law at the University of Turin, but was soon drawn to art history by the lectures of Lionello Venturi, to whom he submitted his thesis on Sebastiano Serlio in 1931. At university he was inspired by the anti-Fascist idealism of Benedetto Croce; in the Fascist period he campaigned to defend the cultural heritage, and during the German occupation he participated in the Resistance. In the early 1950s, with Roberto Longhi and Giuliano Briganti (d 1993), he served on the committee for the restitution of works of art removed to Germany during the war. He began teaching at the University of Palermo in 1954 and five years later succeeded his mentor Venturi at the University of Rome. He served as the Mayor of Rome between 1976 and 1979, years of terrorist activity and student unrest, subsequently joining the Communist Party, which he later represented in the Italian Senate....


François Quiviger

(b Faenza, c. 1525; d Faenza, April 1609).

Italian painter and writer. He probably began his apprenticeship at Faenza and at the beginning of the 1550s settled in Rome, where he worked as a copyist of ancient and modern works. Around 1556 he made a series of journeys across Italy before settling in Faenza in 1564, where he took orders. Of his artistic works, which he himself held in low esteem, we know only an Ascension of the Virgin (Faenza, Pin. Com.) and a few leaves from an album of drawings, dating from the 1550s, which show Raphael’s Logge. His most important contribution to the history of art is his treatise entitled De’ veri precetti della pittura (1587).

With this book Armenini wished to revive painting, which he felt had declined. He attributed its downfall to three main causes: the indifference of the great masters of the early 16th century to teaching, the lack of artists of sufficient stature to succeed them and a general depreciation of the art of painting. The ...


S. J. Vernoit


(b Devonport, April 19, 1864; d London, June 9, 1930).

English Orientalist and historian of Islamic painting. He was attracted to Oriental studies while reading classics at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he was inspired by Edward Cowell and William Robertson Smith. From 1888 he taught philosophy at the Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, India. With the appearance of his Preaching of Islam (1896), an account of the spread of Islam, he achieved high academic acclaim and in 1898 became professor of philosophy in the Indian Educational Service, teaching at Government College, Lahore. He returned to London in 1904 to become assistant librarian at the India Office Library, where he studied illustrated manuscripts and made significant purchases. He also taught Arabic at University College. In 1909 he was appointed Educational Adviser for Indian Students in Britain and after 1917, as secretary to the Secretary of State, was responsible for Indian students. When he retired from the India Office in 1920...


Lale H. Uluç

(b Istanbul, 1875; d 1971).

Turkish art historian . The son of the grand vizier Ahmed Esad Pasha (1828–75), he was forced in 1891 to follow family tradition and enrol at the Military Academy rather than at the Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul as he desired. Nevertheless, he pursued his artistic interests among a group of military artists and resigned shortly after he was graduated. He then travelled extensively, researching and writing about Turkish art until 1912, when he became a civil servant. In 1920 he started teaching municipal administration, town planning and architectural history at the Academy of Fine Arts. A highly versatile intellectual, he was also an administrator, academician, editor, film director, musician, painter, photographer, novelist and translator. He wrote about the functioning of municipalities, urbanism, the history of Istanbul, modern architecture, the history of Turkish art and music, photography, painting techniques and librarianship, as well as his memoirs, a dictionary and an encyclopedia of art. His most significant contribution to the history of culture was his effort to establish Turkish art as distinct from Islamic art....



Richard Wollheim

According to some, art is all but a universal feature of human society, inhibited only by the extreme exigencies of life. According to others, art is a rare feature of society, confined perhaps to post-medieval Western culture so that, for instance, when artefacts of other societies are displayed in Western museums this generally involves imposing inappropriate categories and values on the material. Disagreement about the right answer to the question ‘Does or did this society produce art?’ is paralleled by a more fundamental disagreement about what makes an answer right, and the methodology of the question.

To historians of ideas of a positivistic bent it has seemed necessary that for a society to produce art there must be a word for art in that society. To this proposal, which has the apparent advantage of making the issue decidable, it might be countered that the question of whether a word current in another society does translate the English word ‘art’ raises the original issue all over again. This complexity apart, the requirement has been considered too stringent, and a more moderate demand is that the society should possess not the word but the concept, art. An equally vexed, but more constructive, question concerns the possession of a concept. Even if there is no one-to-one correspondence of concept to word, must not possession of a concept manifest itself in language, albeit in a diffused way, or does it suffice that the concept should guide practice? If the latter is the case, then whose practice? In other words, does possession of the concept of art lead the artificer to produce, for example, beauty, expression or meaning in his work, or does it, rather, lead the spectator to set some value, for example mystery or life-enhancement, on the artefact? Or is the relevant practice distributed in some subtly collusive way between artificer and spectator? To some the foregoing considerations will seem excessively individualistic, for, surely, if a society possesses the concept of art, this must manifest itself not only in the individual mind but also in certain institutions or social practices. To insist on certain specific practices, for example the establishment of a museum, would obviously be parochial, but it might nevertheless be contended that there must be some such institutions, each society forming its own. Finally, it may be questioned whether the criteria for the possession of the concept of art can be exclusively synchronic or if they must also be diachronic in that there have to be recognizable ways in which the skills of artificer and spectator can be transmitted across the generations. With this latter view, art is essentially historical....


Molly K. Dorkin

[art consultant]

Paid adviser employed by collectors to recommend and facilitate the purchase of works of art. There is a long history of recruitment of art experts by wealthy patrons for advisery purposes. In the 18th century art historians such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann were actively advising leading collectors like Albani family §(2). In the early 20th century the English dealer Joseph Duveen earned a knighthood for his philanthropic efforts on behalf of British galleries. Enlisted by the so-called American Robber Barons for advice in forming collections, Duveen brokered the sale of many notable Old Masters from English aristocrats to American millionaires, including Henry Clay Frick, J. P. Morgan, Henry E. Huntington, and Andrew Mellon. Their collections ultimately formed the nuclei of many great American museums. Duveen’s contemporary Bernard Berenson was an American scholar and expert on Renaissance painting who turned his hand to art advising. Berenson assisted Isabella Stewart Gardner in forming her renowned collection of Renaissance art. His legacy as an academic is controversial thanks to his habit of accepting payment in exchange for favourable ...


Shannen Hill

Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’, was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that curtailed the economic, political, and social rights of black, coloured, and Indian people. Enforced through the legislation of the National Party, apartheid was the rule of the land between 1948 and 1994. Apartheid affected art and art-making in three primary areas: expressions of nationalism; limited access to education and commercial art markets for black, coloured, and Indian artists; and articulations of political resistance to this system of governance.

Although apartheid is equated with the 20th century, its notions of segregation predate this period. As descendants of Dutch settlers who first settled in southern Africa in 1651, Afrikaners were long at odds with people indigenous to this region and with British and German imperialists who sought to colonize it in the 19th century. In Afrikaner lore, the Great Trek (1835–52) represents the spirit of struggle to claim a land in the name of God. The pilgrimage was driven by a desire both to civilize a so-called heathen place through the introduction of Christianity and to establish a republic free of English intrusion in the heartland. This spirit is embodied by Pioneers (...


Within a half-century of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and Maori chiefs in 1840—the event from which the beginning of New Zealand (Aotearoa) is generally dated (and leaving aside from the present discussion the tribal art of the indigenous Maori and the early art created by European navigators, explorers, surveyors, itinerant artists, soldiers, and the like)—a rudimentary infrastructure of public art galleries, art societies, and some art schools had arisen in the main cities—Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin—and the beginnings of a discourse concerning the character and purpose of the visual arts in the new nation emerged. The central question was whether or not such a phenomenon as ‘New Zealand art’ existed or should exist and what characteristics it should aspire to. These matters were vigorously debated for a decade or so either side of 1890 when the infant nation marked its 50th anniversary with a jubilee. The discourse about national identity then largely disappeared for a generation only to emerge again a decade or so either side of ...


James Elkins

Term that may be defined loosely as writing that evaluates art, although there is no universally agreed meaning. The difficulty in its definition arises from fundamentally antithetical usages. While on the one hand art criticism is understood as a historical practice, embracing such writers as Pliny and Giorgio Vasari and continuing to the present, on the other it represents a kind of writing that is potentially independent of historical conditions. There is still no reliable history of art criticism, and virtually no literature on its nature. Some philosophers deny that art criticism exists as such, and others say it subsumes art history. The disparity of views as to the concept’s nature makes appropriate separate discussions of the alternate definitions.

When treated in this way, art criticism has normally been considered evaluative or judgemental rather than descriptive. As such it may be contrasted with art history. The distinction between the two has, however, been criticized on at least three grounds. First, each definition of art criticism that opposes it to the ostensibly more neutral, descriptive work of ...


Hilary Morgan

[Fr. L’Art pour l’art]

Concept that emphasizes the autonomous value of art and regards preoccupations with morality, utility, realism and didacticism as irrelevant or inimical to artistic quality. It was the guiding principle of the Aesthetic Movement.

In France the phrase ‘l’art pour l’art’ first appeared in print in 1833, but the concept had been popularized earlier by Madame de Staël’s De l’Allemagne (Paris, 1813) and Victor Cousin’s philosophy lectures at the Sorbonne, Du vrai, du beau et du bien (1816–18; pubd Paris, 1836). Théophile Gautier was its main literary publicist, especially in the preface to his novel Mademoiselle de Maupin (Paris, 1835). Studies of l’art pour l’art, such as Cassagne’s, concentrate on the Second Empire literary movement (1851–70) that included Charles Baudelaire, Gautier, Edmond and Jules de Goncourt and the Parnassian poets. The application of the term to art criticism and visual art is uncharted, but it seems to have been used sufficiently loosely to embrace stylistically opposed artists. ...


The origins of the term and concept of the “canon” can be traced to antiquity when the Greek word for “measuring stick,” or kanon, originated, but the meaning and connotations of the term canon has changed over the course of the history of art. In this context, the canon is a flexible construct used to identify exceptional artworks, selected by authority, against which all other artworks were to be judged. The idea became a central focus of western artistic production during the 18th and 19th centuries, when academic institutions, the center of power and influence in the art world, used rigid and hierarchical models to develop an “academic style” which valued, in form, a stoic realism and, in content, neoclassical themes. With the introduction of the avant-garde and modernism in the 20th century, the field of art became a more open system with artists and galleries challenging canonical norms. However, academic institutions maintained their defense of the art historical canon until the late 1950s....