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Article

V. Beridze

Architectural complex founded in 1106 as a monastery and academy on the south bank of the Tskaltsitela River, 12 km from Kutaisi, Georgia. It was founded by King David III the Builder (reg 1089–1125) and is generally regarded as the most important centre of medieval Georgian culture and art. Among the many outstanding scholars there was the Neo-Platonist philosopher Ioann Petrisi (fl c. 1080–1120), who translated texts of Aristotle and Proclus into Georgian and wrote commentaries upon them. The wealth of the monastery was based on land grants and contributions from the Georgian kings and from private individuals.

Three churches now remain, together with a bell-tower and the ruins of the academy building. The main church (1106–25) is dedicated to the Dormition and has a cruciform plan (35.5×35 m) with three projecting eastern apses and a dome resting on two piers and the corners of the altar apse. Three chapels were subsequently added to the east, south and north sides in the 12th and 13th centuries. The walls are built with hewn stone and decorated on the exterior with a complex system of arches. The interior decoration includes a mosaic (...

Article

Fritz Arens

Former imperial palace in Hesse, Germany. It was founded by Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor (reg 1152–90), who apparently planned it as part of a gradual expansion of his ancestral Hohenstaufen lands. Situated on an island in the River Kinzig, the palace is a fortress protected by water. Next to the palace Frederick founded a new town with a regular street plan and two markets on the great Frankfurt–Leipzig trade route. The palace seems to be the earliest building on the site. The buildings have tended to be dated far too early: between 1150 and 1170 (the date of the town’s charter), or up to 1180 (the date of the imperial diet held at Gelnhausen), or 1190. However, a document relating to the deposition of Henry the Lion at the diet of 1180 was drawn up in territorio Maguntino, suggesting that it took place in the older castle belonging to Mainz, which presumably stood on another site. Dendrochronological tests have now provided a date of ...

Article

Richard Halsey and Malcolm Thurlby

Former Benedictine monastery in Somerset, England. Glastonbury has attracted myths and romance for centuries. The ‘island’ of Glastonbury is a group of low hills set in flat meadows dominated by the extraordinary outcrop, Glastonbury Tor, visible 30 km away. The area has been constantly inhabited from Mesolithic times and the lake villages here and at Meare indicate extensive pre-Roman settlement. Excavation has partly revealed a substantial Celtic Christian cemetery, surrounded by a ditch, south-west of the medieval Great Church, containing mausolea and wattle oratories, one of which at least, the ‘Vetusta Ecclesia’ (ancient church), existed until 1184. When William of Malmesbury wrote his De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesie (c. 1125), Joseph of Arimathea and King Arthur, with St Patrick, St David, and many British saints, had become part of the Glastonbury tradition, and later medieval writers greatly expanded such legends to promote pilgrimages and the primacy of the Abbey as the earliest Christian site in England. Arthur was first associated with Glastonbury in the ...

Article

Roger Stalley

Site of an early Christian monastery in Co. Wicklow, Ireland. Set in a steep valley on the eastern edge of the Wicklow Mountains, the monastery owed its origin to St Kevin (d ad 618), who chose this wild, lonely spot as the site of a hermitage. A century later it had become a flourishing monastery, teeming with pilgrims and students; it retained its vitality until the end of the 12th century despite the sequence of fires, plunderings, and other disasters mentioned in the annals. The chief relics of the ancient monastery are an impressive round tower and the ruins of at least nine Romanesque or pre-Romanesque churches scattered for about 2 km along the valley. The intractable archaeological and chronological problems associated with the monuments are compounded by the restorations and rebuildings carried out by the Board of Works in 1875–9.

It is generally agreed that St Kevin’s original hermitage lay to the west, beside the upper lake; some interesting structures on the cliff side include the foundations of a ...

Article

Gothic  

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

Term used to denote, since the 15th century, the architecture and, from the 19th, all the visual arts of Europe during a period extending by convention from about 1120 to 1400 in central Italy, and until the late 15th century and even well into the 16th in northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. The Early Gothic style overlapped chronologically with Romanesque and flourished after the onset of Renaissance art in Italy and elsewhere. Scholarly preoccupations with the nature of the Gothic style (see §I below) have been centred almost exclusively on architecture, and the term has never been satisfactory for the figural arts, especially painting (see §IV below); but the 19th-century tradition of classification has proved so enduring that it continues to be used for figural styles.

The people who produced what has since come to be known as Gothic art needed no name to distinguish what they were doing from other styles. They were aware of differences of appearance between the churches they built and buildings of earlier periods, but if these had any significance for them, it was mainly iconographical. As the defining characteristics of Gothic are always more conspicuous in ecclesiastical than in secular art, they no doubt considered its primary function to be in the service of the Church. Otherwise they seem to have been unaware that their arts had a history. It needed the comprehensive changes of taste associated with the Renaissance to introduce the notion of Gothic into the vocabulary of art. During the 15th century educated Italians such as ...

Article

P. S. Garlake

Complex of dry-stone walls among the hills on the south-eastern edge of the plateau c. 250 km south of Harare in Zimbabwe (see fig.). It was built and occupied between the 11th and 15th centuries ad as the capital of a state of the Bantu-speaking peoples now known as the Shona, for whom zimbabwe means ‘ruler’s court’. It is by far the largest of c. 200 similar stone buildings between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and is also probably the largest pre-Colonial construction in Sub-Saharan Africa, comprising one of the earliest, most powerful and longest-surviving indigenous states to develop in the African interior.

The earliest surviving written description of Great Zimbabwe appears in João de Barros’s account of the Portuguese conquests of south-east Africa, Da Asia, published in 1552 in Lisbon. This description, derived from reports of Swahili traders on the coast, reveals that Great Zimbabwe was believed to be a former palace of the Mutapa dynasty, which at the time ruled a state further north in the Zambezi Valley and its immediate hinterland. Although the Mutapa king no longer lived there, his kin and courtiers were said to do so. Portuguese relations with the Mutapa state were sustained over centuries, but no Portuguese traveller was ever allowed to visit Great Zimbabwe, although, during the 16th century, a few stayed in the stone-walled ...

Article

Wilhelm Deuer and Nigel J. Morgan

Romanesque cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, located in a market town north of Klagenfurt, Austria. According to tradition, Gräfin Hemma von Zeltschach-Gurk (beatified 1287; can 1938) founded a convent between 1043 and 1045 in the remote valley of Gurk. In 1072, after its dissolution, Archbishop Gebhard of Salzburg declared the site the seat of a suffragan bishop. The diocese was tightly controlled from Salzburg. The cathedral was begun under Bishop Roman I (1131–67), and in 1174 the relics of Hemma were translated to the crypt. A violent dispute between the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Bishop of Gurk over Gurk’s independent status resulted in a break in the building campaign from 1179 to 1180; the dedication of the main altar and the subsequent construction of the transept brought the second campaign to an end in 1200. The conversion of the western gallery into a richly decorated ‘Bishop’s Chapel’ was planned by Bishop ...

Article

Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery in the village of Haghpat c. 10 km north-east of Alaverdi in the district of T’umanyan, northern Armenia. It is one of the largest and best preserved architectural complexes of medieval Armenia. Its principal buildings are grouped together in a fairly compact manner, surrounded by a vast fortified precinct. Only a small portion of the annexes have survived. Several structures are located outside the complex, including a fort, a hermitage and a fountain (1258).

The monastery was probably founded c. 976, at the time the main church of the Holy Sign (Armen. Sourb Nshan) was built by Queen Khosrovanush, wife of King Ashot III of Ani (reg 952–77). The church’s construction may have been supervised by the Armenian architect Trdat (fl 989–1001) and was completed in 991 by the founder’s two sons, King Smbat (reg 977–89) and Gurgēn, the leader of the small local kingdom of Loṙē. It is a typical example of an Armenian cross-in-rectangle church, with a cylindrical drum surmounted by a conical shaped dome (rest. between the 11th and 13th centuries) and supported by pendentives and arches that spring from piers with engaged columns. The façades are articulated with pairs of tall V-shaped slits. On the east façade, the rectangular recess beneath the gable contains a relief of the two donor brothers holding a model of the church and crowned according to their respective ranks: Smbat wears a voluminous turban presented to the Bagratid kings by the caliphs, whereas Gurgēn wears a sort of helmet....

Article

Mario Schwarz

Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in 1136. From the time of Leopold IV (reg 1136–41) Heiligenkreuz was the preferred burial place of the Babenbergs.

The nave of the church, begun before 1147 and consecrated in 1187, is an ashlar building, which at first had a flat ceiling. Excavations have shown that the original east end consisted of three apses without a transept. In 1147 Henry II (reg 1141–77) donated the village of Münchendorf and its revenues to the abbey, making it possible to vault the church, and a further endowment in 1156 enabled the monastic buildings to be rebuilt in stone. The five-bay aisled nave, the proportions of which are based on a module derived from the crossing square, has alternating supports. The aisles are groin-vaulted, but the main vessel has domical vaults with ribs of a plain, rectangular profile, the transverse arches resting on short pilasters corbelled above the arcade (...

Article

Nigel J. Morgan

Former Benedictine abbey in the Weser Valley c. 30 km north of Kassel, Germany. It was founded in 999, and the abbey church of St Peter (mostly destr.) was consecrated in 1011; additions to the church were made in the 12th century, when it was also dedicated to St Modoaldus. The goldsmith Roger was a monk at the abbey during the first half of the 12th century, and Helmarshausen was also a major centre of illuminated manuscript production throughout the 12th century. The earliest manuscripts, three Gospel books (c. 1100–20; Trier, Domschatz, Cods 137–9), have Evangelist portraits in an Ottonian manner deriving from Corvey manuscripts of the late 10th century and from the Echternach school of the 11th century. In MS. 139, the latest of the group, the influence of the work of Roger of Helmarshausen is evident in some head types and fold forms. A fourth Gospel book (...

Article

Francis Woodman

Former Augustinian priory church in Northumberland, England, noted for its Anglo-Saxon crypt and Early Gothic transept. Founded c. ad 675 by St Wilfrid (d 709), Hexham was an important Anglo-Saxon building, and a cathedral from 681. Richard of Hexham (12th century) described the early church as ‘larger than any other house this side of the Alps’, while William of Malmesbury (c. 1124) said that Hexham displayed the ‘glories of Rome’ and that Wilfrid had brought Roman masons to build it. The church, dedicated to St Andrew, was a basilica with square piers supporting galleries over the aisles, perhaps extending around the west, and a clerestory. Access to the upper floor was by spiral stairs. The crypt ‘of wonderfully dressed stone’ (Eddius) survives beneath the present church. Other potentially early features suggest a bema-like eastern termination. A 7th-century English basilican church with both crypt and galleries is exceptional and recalls S Agnese fuori le Mura (...

Article

William W. Clark

Stylistic term applied to what is widely considered to be the ‘classic’ period in Gothic architecture (see Gothic, §II, 1), which encompassed the series of cathedrals built in northern France between c. 1195 and c. 1230. In English the term has an added connotation of literal height. As a term in English, High Gothic gained currency only after World War II, although the concept of a classic phase of Gothic architecture is a mid-19th-century idea that developed in the scholarship of several countries, including England and Germany, as well as France. It was Viollet-le-Duc who gave the idea its most thorough-going expression in French studies. Most of the older ideas about the style of the early 13th century and the labels applied to it are conveniently summarized and analysed by Frankl (1960), although both Pevsner and Watkin added significant British scholarship.

The term High Gothic has been applied to exclude as well as to include. At its narrowest it includes the cathedrals of ...

Article

Huastec  

Beatriz de la Fuente

Region and culture of Mesoamerica, that produced distinctive Pre-Columbian architecture, sculpture, pottery and shell ornaments. From the Middle Pre-Classic period (c. 1000–c. 300 bc) to the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 1200–1521) the Huastec people occupied the Gulf Coast of Mexico; today they inhabit southern Tamaulipas, northern Veracruz, eastern San Luis Potosí and parts of Querétaro, Hidalgo and Puebla.

Few Huastec buildings survive, and these only partially. Their most common characteristic is a circular floor plan. One of the oldest is in El Ebano in Tamaulipas; it may date from the Middle Pre-Classic period and has a circular floor plan (diam. 57 m), on top of which is a sort of hemispherical cap, 3 m high. The area of the Tamuín River was the most densely populated, and among the best-known sites are Tamtok and Tamuín, both Late Classic (c. ad 600–c. 900...

Article

Huesca  

Daniel Rico

Spanish provincial capital, to the north of Saragossa in Aragón. Known in pre-Roman Iberia as Bolskan and as Osca under the Romans, it was the seat of the Quintus Sertorius government, a municipium (free town) since the time of Augustus and a bishopric under the Visigoths. During the period of Muslim domination from the 8th to the 11th centuries, the town, known as Wasqa, became a defensive settlement with a city wall stretching for more than 1.8 km, of which some sections still remain. Although the city was recovered by the Christians in 1096 and the episcopal see restored the following year, the architectural transformation of Huesca was not immediate. During the 12th century only two edifices of any real importance were constructed. One of these was the Benedictine monastery of S Pedro el Viejo, of which three Romanesque structures have survived: the church—a simple construction which nevertheless has two interesting tympana carved by sculptors from Jaca; a small chapel, possibly inherited from the Mozarab community in the 11th century, which was used as the Chapter House and then as a funeral chapel; and a cloister decorated around ...

Article

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

In 

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Peter Kidson

In