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Article

Richard A. Fellows

(Theodore)

(b Bow, Devon, Dec 20, 1856; d Hampstead, London, Dec 27, 1942).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Haileybury College, Herts, and then read Classics at Oxford University. In 1881 he entered into articled pupillage with his uncle, Arthur W. Blomfield (1829–99), a Gothic Revival architect, and attended classes at the Royal Academy schools under R. Phené Spiers (1838–1916).

Blomfield set up his own practice in 1884, with early commissions coming from church, school and family connections. This work is mainly in the Old English style. Through E. S. Prior he met the circle of R. Norman Shaw’s young pupils and assistants, who were the main instigators of the Art Workers’ Guild and the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society. Blomfield became a leading member of both organizations and in 1890 was a founder of Kenton & Co., a furniture manufacturing company established in London and based on Arts and Crafts principles. Although he eventually became unsympathetic to some of the more simplistic dogmas of the ...

Article

Christopher Tadgell

(b Ribemont, Somme, 1628; d Paris, Jan 21, 1686).

French engineer, architect, teacher and writer. He was born to a newly ennobled member of the household of the queen-mother, Marie de’ Medici. He joined the army and became a military engineer, attaining the rank of Maréchal de Camp by 1652. In that year he was seconded by one of the secretaries of state for foreign affairs, the Comte de Brienne, to accompany his son on a comprehensive Grand Tour of Europe. On his return in 1655 Blondel was equipped with an unrivalled range of first-hand experience that recommended him for a diplomatic career, although the following year he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Collège de France. Diplomatic missions took him to Prussia, Sweden and Turkey and, while waiting on the Sultan, he visited Greece and Egypt. He was ambassador to Denmark in 1659–63. Thereafter he rejoined the armed services and was assigned to the navy as an engineer responsible for port and coastal defences in Normandy and Brittany, most notably transforming Saintes and constructing the new port and arsenal of Rochefort....

Article

Lisa B. Reitzes

(b Passy, Oct 6, 1795; d Paris, May 17, 1853).

French architect and theorist. He began studying architecture in 1817 under Pierre-Jules-Nicolas Delespine (1756–1825) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1821 he won the Prix de Rome. While in Rome, Blouet became the protégé of Antoine Quatremère de Quincy and executed restoration drawings for a series of ancient monuments. With Quatremère’s support, the Académie Royale d’Architecture published his Restauration des thermes d’Antonin Caracalla à Rome. The support given to Blouet is said to have encouraged Henri Labrouste to proceed with his own controversial study of the temples at Paestum. Blouet’s interest in archaeology and building construction continued after his return to France. He became associated with the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris and in 1828 joined its expedition to the Peloponnese, which was to excavate at Olympia and Aegina. His subsequent publication L’Expédition scientifique de Morée included polychromatic reconstructions of major Greek monuments but also featured comparative examples from the Byzantine era in this region....

Article

M. J. T. M. Stompé

(b Lohr, c. 1525).

German architect, engraver and writer. After training as an architect in his native town, Hans Blum left Lohr because two architects were already working there: Peter Volckner (fl 1539–48) and Jost Wenzel (fl 1548–70). He then moved to Zurich, where he married Ragali Kuchymeister in 1550. Their eldest son Christoffel Blum (bapt 21 Jan 1552) was named after the publisher Christoffel Froschauer (?1490–1564), who later published Hans Blum’s treatises on architecture.

Hans Blum is primarily known as the author of Quinque columnarum exacta descriptio atque delinaeatio cum symmetrica (1550), a book on the five orders of architecture. He based his work on the fourth volume of Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (Venice, 1537), a German edition of which was published in 1542. The second source for Blum’s book was Gualtherus Rivius’s edition of Vitruvius, published in 1548 and illustrated by Peter Flettner (...

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Cronheim, c. 1617; d Ansbach, Feb 22, 1687).

German architect and writer. He was recorded in Strasbourg, as a student in 1641 and as teaching in 1654, and was active there and in Nuremberg and Frankfurt am Main between 1644 and 1687. In 1679 he entered the service of Johann Friedrich, Markgraf von Ansbach (reg 1672–86), for whom he designed several buildings. Details of his work as architect and fortifications engineer are unknown: the only recorded work was the gate-tower at Herried (1684–5; destr. 1750–51), a sketch of which was published in Neue Auslag in Ansbach (1686). He probably built a theatre at Ansbach in 1679, which has been identified with a summer-house that was pulled down in 1726 to be replaced by an Orangerie. However, Böckler published numerous books on architectural theory and mechanical arts, especially hydraulics, as well as handbooks on military building techniques and economics. An Ars heraldica (Nuremberg, 1687...

Article

Maurice Culot

(Lucien Emile Marie)

(b Liège, June 6, 1877; d Madison, OH, March 4, 1966).

Belgian architect, urban planner and critic. He began his studies in architecture in 1893 at the Ecole St-Luc in Liège but quickly abandoned them in favour of training with an architectural firm. From 1901 to 1906 he trained with Eduard Cuypers in Amsterdam, where he met P. L. Kramer and was influenced by H. P. Berlage, whose urban planning manifesto Kunst en maatschappij (1910) he later published in French. A socialist in politics and a Rationalist in architecture, Bodson was in partnership with Antoine Pompe from 1910 to 1920, and notable projects include the Ferme–Ecole pour Enfants Anormaux (1913), Waterloo; the Maison du Peuple (1914; with Pompe; unexecuted), Liège; and the Batavia complex (1919; with Pompe and Raphaël Verwilghen), Roeselare. With Pompe he also experimented with the industrially based prefabrication of low-cost housing. In 1928 he completed eight residential blocks for old people at Homborch, Brussels, and at the end of the 1930s he retired from architectural practice. His interest in urban planning is reflected in the technical journals he founded and edited with Verwilghen: ...

Article

Jörg Garms

(b Nantes, May 16, 1667; d Paris, March 19, 1754).

French architect and writer. He maintained the tradition of the Grand Style in France between Jules Hardouin Mansart, who was born in 1646, and Ange-Jacques Gabriel, who died in 1782. His work also provided an important bridge between that of Louis Le Vau in the mid-17th century and those of the architects of the Piranesian generation of Neo-classicists in the mid-18th century, such as Etienne-Louis Boullée, whom he influenced.

His father, Jean Boffrand, was a minor architect and sculptor. Germain Boffrand came to Paris at the age of fourteen to study sculpture, working for three years in the studio of François Girardon. From 1685 he worked as a draughtsman in the Bâtiments du Roi under Jules Hardouin Mansart. Through his uncle, the court poet Philippe Quinault, Boffrand met important artists and aristocrats, who were to prove useful connections later. By the late 1690s he was supervising architect of the new Place Vendôme, Paris, but in ...

Article

Efrem Gisella Calingaert

(b Bologna, Feb 7, 1767; d Bologna, June 18, 1845).

Italian art historian. He studied art and architecture independently and in 1786 and 1789 travelled around Italy recording his impressions of monuments and works of art. Concerned about the artistic patrimony of Bologna during the French occupation, he executed drawings and descriptions of the works of art and architecture in risk of removal or destruction and in 1816 celebrated the restitution by the French of 18 paintings with the booklet Descrizione de’ quadri restituiti a Bologna. He was appointed an honorary member of the Accademia di Belle Arti, Bologna, in 1805, academician in 1818 and acting president in 1824, with the title of Propresidente in 1831. Elogio di Sebastiano Serlio: Architetto bolognese (1823) was the first of 15 biographical studies written by Bolognini. These formed the basis of his principal achievement: Vite dei pittori ed artefici bolognesi. The work describes 184 painters, sculptors, architects and engravers who lived in or originated from Bologna between ...

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

(Yevgrafovich)

(b Ufa, 1870; d Moscow, Jan 29, 1946).

Russian architect, architectural historian, restorer and exhibition organizer. He studied (1887–91) at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Moscow, and then at the Technische Hochschule, Zurich, where he completed his studies in 1894. He designed the Russian craft pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1900) in Paris with A. Ya Golovin and with the painter Konstantin Korovin. The work largely reflected the search for a distinct national style, particularly the revival of Russian timber architecture and tent-roofed churches (for illustration see Mir Iskusstva). His own churches, built for the Old Believers community, are in Bogorodsk (now Noginsk; 1900–02), Tokmakov Lane, Moscow, Gavrilov Lane, Moscow, and in Orekhovo-Zuyevo and Kuznetsy near Moscow, all built in 1906–9. Two later examples are at Kuznetsov (1911) near Kashin, near Moscow, and in Riga (1913–14). They are picturesque compositions, complex in form with expressive contrasts in texture and colour. Similar in approach are his country houses, including those for ...

Article

Betsy L. Chunko

(b Le Mans, Nov 1, 1908; d Brisbane, Australia, July 7, 1995).

French architectural historian, active also in America. Bony was educated at the Sorbonne, receiving his agregation in geography and history in 1933. In 1935, converted to art history by Henri(-Joseph) Focillon, he travelled to England under a research grant from the Sorbonne, after which time he became Assistant Master in French at Eton College (1937–9 and 1945–6). He returned to France in 1939 as an infantry lieutenant in World War II in the French Army, was taken as a prisoner of war and spent the years 1940–43 in an internment camp in Germany. After the war he returned to England, first to Eton, then as Lecturer in the History of Art at the French Institute in London (1946–61), Visiting Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art (1948–58), and Slade Professor of Fine Art at St John’s College, Cambridge (1958–61). From 1961 to 1962...

Article

(b Nagyenyed [now Aiud, Romania], March 6, 1893; d Budapest, July 25, 1956).

Hungarian architectural historian, architect, theorist and urban planner. He received his diploma in architecture in 1915 from the Technische Hochschule, Munich, where in 1920, as a student of Theodor Fischer, he was awarded a technical doctorate while also studying art history. His survey of the architectural history of Budapest, published the same year and emphasizing the influence of Neo-classicism, marked the beginning of a lifelong interest in the city. As editor (1928–42) of the journal Tér és Forma, he provided competent criticism and a forum for the young representatives of avant-garde architecture, in particular the Hungarian section of CIAM. He also argued for innovative methods in building residential blocks and was successful in urging the reform of outdated municipal building regulations. He often travelled abroad and, through his reports of the contemporary achievements of the European architectural avant-garde, including Le Corbusier and the Deutscher Werkbund, he helped to promote Modernism in Hungary....

Article

Michael J. Lewis

(Gottlieb Wilhelm)

(b Nordhausen, May 29, 1806; d Berlin, June 19, 1889).

German architect, theorist, teacher and writer. He entered the Berlin Bauakademie in 1827 and soon became a leading figure in the new Architekten-Verein zu Berlin (see Berlin §II 3.). Like many of his generation, he was much influenced by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and had a youthful fascination with the Gothic. His first book was a study of medieval timber architecture. He was particularly concerned with the relationship between style and construction and he soon began to apply this analysis to Greek architecture. The result was his monumental Die Tektonik der Hellenen (1843–51). The Rundbogenstil architect Heinrich Hübsch had already suggested that the forms of ancient Greek architecture were based on stone construction and not derived from timber antecedents. Bötticher expanded this insight into a vast system that explained all of Greek architecture in structural terms. For him, Greek architecture was rational building, its forms corresponding absolutely to the requirements of the stone used in its post and lintel construction. This constituted a major upheaval in the interpretation of Classical architecture, insisting that its elements were sanctioned neither by their historical pedigree nor by Platonic perfection of form, but rather by immutable physical and material laws. Bötticher briefly considered synthesizing Greek and Gothic structural principles to form a new style, but he quickly abandoned the idea, arguing that it would be superficial. In a prophetic ...

Article

Rand Carter

(b Paris, Feb 12, 1728; d Feb 6, 1799).

French architect and writer. A gifted designer and admired teacher, Boullée became best known for the magnificent set of drawings he assembled for his treatise Architecture, essai sur l’art (Paris, Bib. N.). His father, Louis-Claude Boullée, was an architect, and his mother, Marie-Louise Boucher, may have been related to the painter François Boucher. Etienne-Louis studied painting with Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre until his father prevailed on him to pursue architectural studies with Jacques-François Blondel, a leading theorist of French classicism. Although he never went to Italy, Boullée was introduced by Jean-Laurent Legeay to the international Neo-classicism germinating in Rome during the 1740s. Legeay urged his students to complete their projects with a presentation drawing rendered in perspective that would be more intelligible to the client than the customary elevation. This encouraged pictorial effects of light and shadow and provided a link between the practice of architecture and the painting of architectural views. At the age of 19 Boullée began teaching at the Ecole des Ponts et Chausées; he was admitted to second-class membership in the Académie Royale d’Architecture in ...

Article

Hervé Paindaveine

(b Charleroi, Aug 29, 1897; d Brussels, July 24, 1962).

Belgian architect, theorist and urban planner. He grew up in the Pays Noir, the most heavily industrialized region of Belgium, an experience that led to his early and intense interest in social issues. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels (1914–18) and began practising architecture immediately. In 1919–20 he was part of the technical department of the Société Nationale des Habitations à Bon Marché, which was created to find rapid solutions to the problem of workers’ housing. Upon his return from several trips to the Netherlands, he built his first major work, a small housing group (1922) in the Rue du Cubisme in the Koekelberg district of Brussels. It had an expressively modelled elevation and composition of separate volumes somewhat suggestive of similar developments of the time in the Netherlands, but its sober use of materials in their natural state also clearly showed its origins in the work of H. P. Berlage, for whom Bourgeois had great admiration....

Article

Anne van Loo

[Renaat]

(b Antwerp, Aug 21, 1910; d Essen, Belgium, Jan 31, 2001).

Belgian architect and writer. He studied architecture in Antwerp, first at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten (1926–31) and then at the National Hoger Instituut voor Schone Kunsten until 1935. He was influenced by Soviet Constructivism, and while studying he designed a project for a linear city between Antwerp and Liège for which he produced several dozen drawings using gouache and collage. From 1936 to 1937 he worked in Paris with Le Corbusier, and he became a member of the Belgian section of CIAM from 1939. His early, modernist architectural theories were similar to those of Le Corbusier and were expressed in the construction of the Kiel district (1949–58) and the tower of the Administrative Centre (1951), both in Antwerp, as well as the Sint Martensdal district of Leuven. He later evolved a ‘biomorphic’ lyricism, which is most evident in the flowing lines of the low-cost housing (...

Article

Margaret Medley

(b Shanghai, Dec 18, 1909; d Hong Kong, Jan 1941).

English art historian. Fluent in Chinese, he was employed as a civil engineer in China from 1933 to 1934. He then helped with cataloguing, photographing and arranging the exhibits for the International Exhibition of Chinese Art at the Royal Academy in London (1935–6; see China, People’s Republic of §XXI). This was followed during the next 18 months by visits to Beijing and Jingdezhen as a Universities China Committee Scholar to study Chinese ceramics. He returned to London in 1938 and became assistant keeper in the Department of Oriental Antiquities in the British Museum. In July 1940 he moved to Hong Kong to enter government service, where he died in 1941. He is best remembered for his pioneering work on Ming ceramics, Early Ming Wares of Ching-tê-chên.

Early Ming Wares of Ching-tê-chên (Beijing, 1938/R Hong Kong, 1970) ‘Yüeh Ware of the “Nine Rocks” Kiln’, Burlington Magazine, 73 (1938), pp. 257–62...

Article

Brian Austen

(Hicks)

(b ?Sheffield, 1785; d Port of Spain, Trinidad, Nov 1846).

English sculptor, designer and architect. In 1810 he exhibited at the first Liverpool Academy Exhibition and showed models and drawings there in 1811, 1812 and 1814. These included designs for the restoration of the screen in Sefton church, Merseyside, and for a chimney-piece for Speke Hall, Liverpool, and two drawings of Joseph Ridgway’s house at Ridgmont, Horwich, Lancs. Bridgens designed furniture and furnishings in Gothic and Elizabethan styles for George Bullock. In 1814 he moved to London with Bullock, using his address at 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, and prepared designs for Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster (1789–1836) for improvements to Battle Abbey, E. Sussex, and similarly for Sir Walter Scott’s home, Abbotsford House, at Melrose on the Borders. Two chair designs for Battle Abbey were published in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in September 1817, and Bridgens was also involved in the design of chairs supplied to Abbotsford House in ...

Article

Françoise Hamon

(b Baume-les-Dames, Doubs, 1680; d 1754).

French writer and architect. His family appears to have been of modest means, and little is known of his career as an architect. Numerous châteaux are attributed to him, but without any evidence; his only known building is a town house built for the Sieur Daugny in the Faubourg Poissonnière, now the town hall for the 9e Arrondissement in Paris and much altered. Briseux left an important body of written work, dealing with both practice and theory of architecture. In two collections of designs for domestic dwellings (1728 and 1743) he revived the idea behind Pierre Le Muet’s Manière de bâtir pour toutes sortes de personnes (Paris, 1623), proposing different ground-plans and layouts for the construction of town houses on urban sites and for châteaux of increasing sizes. He added one complicating factor to the exercise as practised by Le Muet: irregularity in the shape of the ground plots, which was often inevitable in Paris and some large provincial cities. For both town houses and country residences, he increased the number of circulation spaces, entrances and service stairs, as well as facilities for comfort and hygiene. He clearly separated public areas (the business and reception rooms) from the private apartments, which became intimate living quarters (...

Article

Joaquín Bérchez

[Zaragoza y Ebri, Agustín Bruno]

(b Alcalá de Chisvert, Castellón, Oct 5, 1713).

Spanish mathematician and architectural theorist. Athanasio Genaro Brizguz y Bru was the anagrammatic pseudonym under which, aged 25, the Valencian priest and mathematician Agustín Bruno Zaragoza y Ebri published his treatise on civil architecture. It was probably connected with the proposed foundation in Valencia of a mathematical academy, to include the teaching of architecture, with Brizguz y Bru as a founder-member. The book should be seen in the context of the classicizing trend away from the vernacular Baroque tradition encouraged by Valencian mathematicians at the end of the 17th century and related to the ideals of artistic academicism in Spain in the second half of the 18th century. It comprises an introduction on the definition, origin and development of architecture, followed by three parts dealing with geometry and the architectural orders, ecclesiastical and civil buildings and aspects of construction. It refers to Spanish authors as diverse as Caramuel de Lobkowitz, Fr Lorenzo de San Nicolas and Tomás Vicente Tosca (...

Article

Monique D. J. M. Teunissen

(b Amsterdam, July 12, 1893; d Amsterdam, May 11, 1949).

Dutch interior designer, furniture designer and writer. He was the son of a furniture dealer and was involved with the profession from an early age. He took lessons with the architect J. L. van Ishoven (1870–1931) and gained work experience in Germany. After operating independently for a few years he became the leading designer of the Amsterdam firm Metz & Co. His work displayed a rational concept of form and became well known through exhibitions and publications. At the firm of Hendrik Pander & Zonen in The Hague, where he was employed from 1924 to 1933, he specialized in using different types of wood that gave his taut, functional, batch-produced furniture a distinctive decorative character. On account of their plastic shapes his designs were considered to be related to those of the Amsterdam school architects. For Bromberg functionalism in interiors was a vital starting-point. He created various model rooms and homes in order to illustrate new ideas about the arrangement of domestic interiors. He also taught and wrote manuals, children’s books and many articles in periodicals and trade journals promoting contemporary applied art. He was particularly active within the Dutch Association of Trade and Industrial Art and the ...