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Article

(b Zéprégühe, Nov 11, 1923).

Ivoirian graphic artist. He was a volunteer in the French National Marines in 1941, and from 1946 to 1958 he worked for the Judicial Identity Department of the General Security of French West Africa. During the 1950s he became intrigued with the patterning of red and black stones near Daloa and began exploring other pattern and information systems, such as scarification and gold weights. He set about composing a pictographic alphabet for his language, Bete, creating over 400 ideograms in all. His small drawings are done in pen and coloured pencil, and almost all have the same format: an image, centered in each piece, is bordered by text written in French, English and/or Bete. Bouabré sees himself first as a philosopher and linguist, and his work is about contextualization and its lack. Aesthetically closer to the outsider or art brut, he was brought into the contemporary art world against his will. His art forces the consideration of such very old questions as ‘What is art?’ and ‘What is an artist?’. He participated in international exhibitions from ...

Article

(b Paris, March 9, 1883; d Paris, May 17, 1943).

French painter and illustrator. He was trained in Paris at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs and then at the Académie Julian. In 1901 he studied lithography and from 1902 to 1903 did his military service, through which he met André Dunoyer de Segonzac. In 1904 he studied under Luc Olivier Merson and Jean-Paul Laurens at the Académie Julian with Dunoyer de Segonzac and there met Luc-Albert Moreau. These three artists became close friends and adopted a similar naturalist style that was maintained through the rise of Cubism. From 1906 to 1908 Boussingault shared a studio with Dunoyer de Segonzac, and in the summer of 1908 all three went on a painting trip to St Tropez.

Boussingault was rarely satisfied with his work and destroyed many of his paintings. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1909 and later at the Salon d’Automne and regularly at the Galerie Marseilles in Paris. From ...

Article

(b Orléans, Oct 18, 1851; d Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, March 16, 1913).

French painter and illustrator. From 1869 he took a course at the De Rudder school of art and in the following year was admitted to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he worked in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. He took part in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and afterwards studied under Jules Lefebvre, Gustave Boulanger and Carolus-Duran. From Carolus-Duran he acquired a liking for portraiture (e.g. Rachel Boyer as Diana, 1886; Paris, Louvre) and for the works of Ribera, which he admired particularly for their dark and resinous tones. From 1873 he exhibited at the Salon and in 1885 he created a stir with his Apotheosis of a Scoundrel (or Apotheosis of Robert Macaire; Orléans, Mus. B.-A.), a work imbued with a violently anti-republican spirit. As well as painting, he illustrated children’s literature, beginning with the successful La France en zig-zags (1881). Other collections followed: ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Boston, MA, July 10, 1868; d La Mesa, CA, Jan 25, 1962).

American book-illustrator and designer of posters, typefaces and furniture. In 1893 Bradley began designing for Vogue magazine. He subsequently worked for Ladies’ Home Journal, and in 1901–2 published an influential series of eight articles on ‘The Bradley House’; the designs in these articles (and another three in 1905) seem not to have been implemented, but they nonetheless exerted a seminal influence on public taste and on subsequent furniture design; his designs for pianos were used by Chickering & Sons of Boston. Bradley also designed two series of plates for Royal Doulton: ‘Golfers’ (...

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b Bruges, May 12, 1867; d Ditchling, Sussex, June 11, 1956).

English painter and graphic artist. Largely self-taught, he helped his father, William Brangwyn, who was an ecclesiastical architect and textile designer in Bruges. After his family moved to England in 1875 Brangwyn entered the South Kensington Art Schools and from 1882 to 1884 worked for William Morris. Harold Rathbone and Arthur Mackmurdo encouraged him to copy Raphael and Donatello in the Victoria and Albert Museum, complementing his already broad knowledge of Dutch and Flemish art.

Brangwyn’s plein-air work in Cornwall from 1884 to 1888 resulted in a series of oils, exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists, London, in which the subdued tones indicate the influences of Whistler and the Newlyn school. Journeys to the Near East, South Africa and Europe in the early 1890s, and contact with Arthur Melville, encouraged the use of a brighter palette in exotic subjects such as the Slave Market...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

(b Brooklyn, NY, Nov 4, 1940).

American graphic designer, installation artist and design educator. De Bretteville attended Abraham Lincoln High School in Brooklyn, NY, and was included in the school’s Art Squad by teacher and artist Leon Friend, who submitted his students’ work to national competitions. She received a prestigious Alex Award, named after the designer Alex Steinweiss, also a former member of the Art Squad. She received a BA in art history from Barnard College, New York in 1962 and received her MFA in the graphic design program at Yale University’s School of Art in 1964. She joined the faculty of the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) and founded the first design programme for women in 1970. In 1981 she founded the communication design programme at the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles (now the Otis College of Art and Design), which was at the time affiliated with the Parsons School of Design in New York. In ...

Article

Alberto Cernuschi

(b Fresnaye-sur-Sarthe, nr Alençon, July 11, 1899; d Paris, March 1, 1979).

French painter, illustrator and stage designer. He studied briefly at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux and from 1917 at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris under Eugène Morand (b 1885), whose innovative teaching influenced his later work.

Brianchon was an eclectic artist, and there are traces in his work of many of the styles that succeeded each other in Paris during the period in which he worked. Taking landscapes, cityscapes and images of women as his main subject-matter, he nevertheless managed to maintain a distinctive approach based on a harmonious colour sense and a concern with calm, silent or moonlit atmospheres. The Courtesans (1932; Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris) and Rue La Fontaine (1946; Geneva, Petit Pal.) are typical of his work as a painter. He also produced murals (e.g. Symphony, 1936; Paris, Pal. Chaillot), book illustrations (e.g. lithographs for André Gide’s Le Théâtre complet...

Article

James Crump

(b Ogolitchi, nr St Petersburg, 1898; d Le Thor, Vaucluse, April 15, 1971).

American typographic designer, art director and photographer. After settling in the USA in 1930, he established a reputation as one of the most influential art directors of the 20th century. He was best known for his 24-year career (1934–1958) at the American magazine Harper’s Bazaar and for his Design Laboratory, operated first under the auspices of the Philadelphia Museum School (1936–40) and then (1941–59) of the New School for Social Research and the American Institute of Graphic Arts, both in New York. Through his work at Harper’s, Brodovitch revolutionized modern magazine design by forging a greater integration of typography, text and photography. His innovative layouts and numerous cover illustrations for the magazine popularized the techniques of montage, full-bleed paging and strategic sequencing of photographs that fostered interactive readership. In 1945 Brodovitch published Ballet, an influential book featuring his own photographs of the Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo taken between ...

Article

V. Rakitin

(Izrailevich)

(b Sofiyevka, nr Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, Jan 6, 1884; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Aug 14, 1939).

Russian painter, graphic artist and collector, of Ukrainian birth. He studied at the School of Art in Odessa (1896–1902) under Kiriak Kostandi (1852–1921) and at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg (1902–8) under Il’ya Repin, who remained an important influence throughout his life. During the revolutionary years 1905 to 1907 Brodsky became famous as a political caricaturist and for his painting Red Funeral: The Funeral of the Victims of the Armed Attack on the Peaceful Demonstration in St Petersburg on 9 Jan 1905 (1906; St Petersburg, Acad. A., Mus.). From 1909 to 1911 he worked in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Austria on a scholarship from the Academy. Brodsky’s landscapes and portraits of the period are generally traditional and academic in style.

In 1917 Brodsky drew a series of portraits of the members of the Provisional Government and in 1919 received first prize in the ‘Great Russian Revolution’ competition for his painting ...

Article

Christina Lodder

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Malaya Vishera, province of Novgorod, 1894; d Moscow, 1948).

Russian painter and graphic artist. He came from a well-established artistic family and after a brief involvement with avant-garde experimentation he returned to a figurative style. He trained in St Petersburg at Princess Tenisheva’s school (1904–9) and at the Academy of Arts (1909–12). He then studied under Henri Laurens at the Académie Julian in Paris (1912–13). Paintings such as The Rainbow (1916; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.) show the influence of Cubism and Futurism. At this time his flat in Petrograd became a meeting-point for various members of the avant-garde, including Vladimir Tatlin. Under Tatlin’s influence, Bruni began making purely abstract reliefs and constructions. Painterly Work with Materials (1916, destr.; see Lodder, pl. 1.19), which was apparently made from painted wood and metal, explored pictorial relationships of colour and plane, whereas a lost construction of 1917 is more three-dimensional and textural, incorporating very varied materials such as celluloid, aluminium, glass and cloth....

Article

Hana Larvová

(b Zohor, nr Bratislava, Dec 25, 1935; d Jan 20, 1997).

Slovak printmaker, painter and illustrator. From 1951 to 1955 he studied at the Central School of Industrial Art at Bratislava and at the School of Fine Arts, Bratislava, from 1956 to 1961, completing his training there in 1963–6. In 1967 he was put in charge of the book production department; in 1981 he was appointed professor. His early work as printmaker and illustrator derived its inspiration from the imaginative tradition of Slovak art, which he interpreted in his own version of neo-Surrealism. In 1964 Klee, Kandinsky and Miró began to influence his work, and his illustrations were clearly inspired by Chagall. He gradually developed his own version of Mannerism and adapted his artistic language accordingly, aiming, in his graphic work, at the precise technical mastery of lithography, etching etc. Among his first works with Mannerist traits is Honour to Arcimboldo (1965; see Peterajová, no. 18), and the style is fully developed in the cycle ...

Article

Andrew Wilson

(b Ardning, Styria, Sept 27, 1938).

Austrian performance artist, draughtsman, painter and film maker. He studied commercial graphic art at the Akademie für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna between 1957 and 1960. Following visits to Spain and the Venice Biennale of 1960, he started to paint gestural abstractions and came into contact with the Austrian painter Alfons Schilling (b 1934). In 1961 this development was interrupted when he was called up for military service, after which he found it difficult to return to painting, and by the end of 1962 he had started to concentrate on the act of painting rather than on the finished works themselves. He was persuaded by Otto Muehl to create, with his wife Anni, his first Aktion or performance, Ana, in November 1964, which he recorded on film in the first of a series of collaborations with the film maker Kurt Kren (b 1920). This led to his first self-painting ...

Article

Elizabeth Hutchinson

[Bessie]

(b Missouri, 1887; d Florida, 1965).

American artistic and commercial photographer. Working primarily in portraiture, she was an active participant in the Pictorialism movement and went on to produce photographs for illustration and advertising.

Buehrmann became interested in photography while studying art as a teenager. She left the Art Institute of Chicago to become a studio assistant to Eva Watson-Schütze (1867–1935) and progressed quickly, becoming an Associate of the Photo-Secession in 1904. Buehrmann spent 1906–7 abroad, studying photographic work in London and working for several months at the Photo-Club of Paris. Despite her youth, Buehrmann was included in many group exhibitions promoting Pictorialism, including Photo-Secession shows organized by Alfred Stieglitz in 1908 and 1909, the International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography at the Albright Art Gallery in 1910, and several of the annual salons of the Photo-Club of Paris. She was prominently featured in the Art Crafts exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago in ...

Article

Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, Sept 8, 1939).

Ecuadorean painter, graphic designer, sculptor, installation artist, architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional de Bogotá, Colombia. He worked for the Graham Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, and received a grant to attend the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, where he worked with György Kepes. Later he became a professor at the arts faculty of the Universidad Central, Quito. Bueno worked first in graphic design before going on to experiment with the incorporation of technology into art, using laser beams, mechanical pumps, plastic, glass and such elements as water, fire and air, for example in 49 Tubes, exhibited at the Bienal de Arte Coltejer in Medellín in 1972. He also combined visual art with music in such works as Flame Orchards, with music by Paul Earls, which won joint first prize with Kepes in the same exhibition. Exploration into ecological and environmental art led him to experiment with the idea of an aerial view of the urban landscape incorporating military camouflage sheets....

Article

(b Paris, July 10, 1928; d Var, Oct 4, 1999).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. After studying at the Ecole des Jésuites, he entered the Lycée Carnot in Paris in 1939. His antipathy to academic study led to his expulsion in 1943, in which year he attended an evening class in drawing. In December 1943 he gained a place at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, working in the studio of Eugène Narbonne (b 1885). On leaving the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1945 he travelled to Brittany with his mother, but after her sudden death he returned to Paris, where he devoted himself to painting. He then moved to Massy-Palaiseau, just south of Paris, to work with his friend Robert Mantienne, a French painter, and painted the Deposition from the Cross (c. 1945; Paris, Pompidou). This early work, with its restrained grey-toned colours and gaunt, anxious human figures, already bears many of the hallmarks of his later painting; both in spirit and colouring it shows the influence of Francis Gruber. In ...

Article

A. Daguerre de Hureaux

(b Moudon, Vaud, Aug 30, 1850; d Paris, Feb 4, 1921).

Swiss painter and illustrator. Having studied with Barthélemy Menn at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva, he went to Paris in 1872 and joined Jean-Léon Gérôme’s studio. After a visit to Rome in 1876–7, he returned to live in Paris in 1878. Burnand was primarily a landscape painter. Works such as the Village Pump (1879; Neuchâtel, Mus. A. & Hist.), Bull in the Alps (1884; Lausanne, Pal. Rumine) and Day’s End (1896; Lucerne, Kstmus.) reveal his debt to the Realism of Millet and Courbet and express a genuine attentiveness and great sensitivity to nature. This Realism is also present in his religious works, for example the Apostles Peter and John Running to the Sepulchre (1898; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). After learning engraving with Paul Girardet (1821–93) in Versailles, Burnand also produced many illustrations for such newspapers as L’Illustration and Tour du monde. In addition he illustrated editions of numerous literary works: ...

Article

Andrew Causey

(b London, March 29, 1905; d Hastings, Oct 22, 1976).

English painter, illustrator and stage designer. As a student at the Chelsea Polytechnic (1921–3) and the Royal College of Art (1923–5) he became a talented figure draughtsman. In the second half of the decade he spent much time in France painting intricately detailed urban scenes, which depicted the low life of Toulon and Marseille. Works such as the watercolour Toulon (1927; priv. col., see Causey, cat. no. 33) were executed in a meticulously finished and vividly coloured decorative style. Burra usually used watercolour and tempera and occasionally collage oil paints.

Burra took ideas from Cubism, Dada (notably George Grosz) and, especially, Surrealism, but his work is also linked with the English satirical tradition of William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and Isaac Cruikshank: Burra loved burlesque and poked fun at people’s pretensions and excesses of style and behaviour, as in John Deth (Homage to Conrad Aiken) (...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

(b Livorno, Tuscany, April 9, 1875; d Cannes, Feb 5, 1942).

French poster designer, painter, draughtsman and caricaturist of Italian birth. He had his first exhibition at the age of 17 in Florence and in 1896 published his first album of caricatures, entitled Lanterna magica (Livorno). He moved to Paris in 1898, later becoming naturalized, and there began work for the periodical Le Rire. Until 1904 his main occupation was as a caricaturist, and he worked also for the journals Revue blanche, Assiette au beurre and others. In 1899 the Revue blanche published an album of 18 of his caricatures, entitled Nos Actrices, with a preface by Marcel Prévost. In the same year Capiello created his first advertising poster for the comic journal Frou-Frou (see Viénot, pl. 12). As a poster designer he was a great innovator, producing dynamic works in strong colour. Other works included Chocolat Kraus (1903; see Viénot, pl. 18), Cinzano (1910; see Viénot, pl. 21) and ...