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Article

Nigel J. Morgan

(b Hamburg, Jan 15, 1863; d Basle, Jan 5, 1944).

German art historian. He came from a Hamburg banking family. His wide-ranging publications covered medieval illuminated manuscripts, ivories, bronze, and stone sculpture, and, to a lesser extent, northern painting of the 15th to 17th centuries. He taught at the universities of Berlin (1892–1903) and Halle (1904–12) and then succeeded Heinrich Wölfflin as professor at Berlin in 1912. He retired in 1932 and finally had to leave Germany for Switzerland in 1939. Goldschmidt’s career spanned the great years of German art history when, particularly in medieval studies, German scholarship and methodology dominated the field. He was among the leading figures of his generation, and through his published work and his teaching, one of the most influential. His analytical, precise approach to the study of style and iconography with an emphasis on medieval art differed from the formalist criticism of Wölfflin. As an exceptional teacher, Goldschmidt established a following of distinguished pupils, notably ...

Article

David Cast

(b Florence, Dec 9, 1691; d Florence, Jan 21, 1757).

Italian theologian and writer. He was prior of S Giovanni in Florence, where he also taught history at the university and founded the Accademia Columbaria (1735). He wrote books on theology and translated Greek writers but is remembered chiefly for his studies of Etruscan antiquities and inscriptions. These remain of value and, together with the work of Bernard de Montfaucon and the Comte de Caylus, made important contributions to the 18th-century re-evaluation of Etruscan history (see Etruscan §VIII). He was also a leading student of gems, his publication on the collection of Anton Maria Zanetti (i) being especially well known to other scholars of the period.

Museum Florentinum, exhibens insigniora vetustatis monumenta quae Florentiae sunt, 6 vols (Florence, 1731–66)Museum Etruscum exhibens insignia veterum Etruscorum monumenta, 3 vols (Florence, 1737–43)‘Gemmae antiquae A. M. Zanetti … notis Latinis’, Dactyliotheca zanettiana (Venice, 1750) P. Berghaus, ed.: ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Lausanne, May 25, 1841; d Paris, Oct 23, 1917).

French illustrator, decorative artist and printmaker of Swiss birth. Before arriving in Paris in the autumn of 1871, Grasset had been apprenticed to an architect, attended the Polytechnic in Zurich and travelled to Egypt. In Paris he found employment as a fabric designer and graphic ornamentalist, which culminated in his first important project, the illustrations for Histoire des quatre fils Aymon (1883). Grasset worked in collaboration with Charles Gillot, the inventor of photo-relief printing and an influential collector of Oriental and decorative arts, in the production of this major work of Art Nouveau book design and of colour photomechanical illustration. Grasset used a combination of medieval and Near Eastern decorative motifs to frame and embellish his illustrations, but most importantly he integrated text and imagery in an innovative manner which has had a lasting influence on book illustration.

In 1881 he was commissioned by Rodolphe Salis to design furnishing in a medieval style for the latter’s new Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre. This project brought him in direct contact with Montmartre avant-garde artists such as Adolphe Willette, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Henri Rivière and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Grasset’s numerous posters include ...

Article

Emma M. Routh

(b Hoxton, London, March 17, 1846; d Hampstead, London, Nov 6, 1901).

English painter, illustrator and writer. The daughter of a Fleet Street wood-engraver, John Greenaway (1818–90), she trained at Islington School of Art, Heatherleys Academy and the Slade School of Fine Art, all in London. In 1868 she did her first commercial work, producing Christmas and Valentine cards for Marcus Ward, Belfast. Greenaway wrote and illustrated children’s books, usually depicting children dressed in Regency-style costume—her illustrations set a fashion in children’s clothes—in idyllic rural locations. These were based on her memories of life at her great aunt’s cottage in Rolleston, Notts.

Greenaway’s first success, Under the Window (London, 1878), was the beginning of her collaboration with the publisher and colour printer Edmund Evans, who was a friend of her father. The book sold 70,000 copies in English and was translated into French and German. Greenaway’s illustrations were exhibited at the Fine Arts Society, London, in 1879 to much critical acclaim. She assumed increasing financial control of her work as she became more successful and from the 1880s sold only the use of her paintings to her publishers....

Article

Christopher Green

[González Pérez, José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos]

(b Madrid, March 23, 1887; d Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 11, 1927).

Spanish painter, draughtsman, illustrator and writer, active in France. His artistic career was spent almost exclusively in France, where he was considered one of the leading Cubist painters from 1912 until his death. An artist valued for the depth and consistency of his approach rather than as an innovator, he is recognized for his independent and distinctive approach to Cubism and as one of its most influential later practitioners and theoreticians.

Gris specialized in mathematics, physics and engineering at the Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas in Madrid from 1902 to 1904; he later described this phase of his education as formative. His approach to Cubism, which has often been called scientific in its logic and precision, may well have been affected by his knowledge of technical drawings. He broke his scientific studies, however, to train briefly with the academic painter José Moreno Carbonero (1860–1942), and he decided to become an artist. From ...

Article

Tadeusz Chrzanowski

(b Łany, nr Warsaw, Jan 14, 1904, d Warsaw, March 21, 1958).

Polish painter, illustrator, metalworker, designer and writer. From 1924 to 1929 he studied at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts, where he was later an assistant professor (1927–30, 1933–5). From 1929 to 1930 he studied in France. He exhibited his works from 1928 until his death. At the beginning of his career he concentrated on painting, to which he later returned. He became a popular cartoon artist while working for the satirical weekly Szpilki from 1935 to 1939 and from 1946 to 1958. His illustrations to the works of N. V. Gogol and Fyodor Dostoyevsky were highly acclaimed. Grunwald mastered various techniques in metalworking, until 1939 concentrating on jewellery and promoting abstract forms; he also made lighting equipment, particularly lamps, sconces and chandeliers. During this period he introduced avant-garde features into traditional Polish metalwork. In the post-war period he accepted commissions for monumental works, for example gates, screens, mantelpiece designs and lighting units. In Warsaw he designed the decorative elements for the ...

Article

Francisco Calvo Serraller

(b Vic, 1904; d 1985).

Spanish art historian. After studying architecture he devoted himself to art history, concentrating at first on the Catalan artistic tradition. His most important book was L’Art de la Catalogne; he also produced books on medieval Catalan painting, as well as specialized works on such Catalan Gothic painters as Jaime Huguet, Luís Borrasá and Bernardo Martorell, and on Catalan stained-glass windows. Gudiol i Ricart also studied medieval art from other regions in Spain, particularly Castilian and Navarrese artists, and produced a work on Spanish Gothic painting. He published monographs, including detailed catalogues, on Velázquez and Goya. His main contribution to art history has been to continue the work of Josep Gudiol i Cunill, Chandler R. Post and Manuel Gómez Moreno in establishing a scientific inventory of Spanish art.

L’Art de la Catalogne (Paris, 1937; Ger. trans., 1937) La pintura gótica a Catalunya (Barcelona, 1938) Pintura e imaginería románicas, A. Hisp., 6 (Madrid, 1954)...

Article

(b Paris, June 11, 1884; d Paris, Nov 16, 1973).

French art historian. His family owned a bookshop selling prints and catalogues in the Rue de Rivoli, Paris. In 1908 he graduated brilliantly from the classical studies course at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, and was admitted to the Ecole de France in Rome, where he wrote his thesis on Rome et la renaissance de l’antiquité à la fin du XVIIIe siècle (1912). He was also for a time a student in St Petersburg and became, consequently, one of the few scholars to have known the Russia of the tsars. A result of the Russian visit was his work L’Architecture classique à Saint-Pétersbourg à la fin du XVIIIe siècle (1912). After the end of World War I Hautecoeur became a curator at the Louvre and then the Musée du Luxembourg, except for 1927–30, when he was in charge of the fine arts in Egypt. From then on he was a dominant figure in the history of art, but was also interested in contemporary art; each assignment brought from him an important work. From ...

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

Marsha Meskimmon

(b nr Mainz, Sept 16, 1098; d Rupertsberg, nr Bingen, Sept 17, 1179).

German ecclesiastic, visionary, philosopher, composer and visual artist. Hildegard of Bingen is one of the best known and most significant figures of 12th-century Europe. Her father was a knight in the Count of Spanheim’s court and throughout her life she corresponded with prominent European leaders, such as King Henry II of England, Queen Eleanor and Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Hildegard took her Benedictine vows in 1117 and became an abbess in 1136. She articulated a specifically female mystic theology that was, at the same time, a powerful and acknowledged message (see fig.).

Her work as a visual artist is primarily ascribed to her contribution to the Rupertsberg Scivias (c.1165, destr. 1945; facs. Eibingen, Bibl. St Hildegard, see fig.); a manuscript that contains images and texts that record her visions. Throughout the 1140s there is evidence of her writing and drawing in tandem, and scholars have made the important point that her work breaks with conventional divisions between text and image (Caviness, ...

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, April 17, 1904; d Budapest, Jan 26, 1986).

Hungarian painter, illustrator, mosaicist, tapestry designer, stage designer, poster designer, printmaker, sculptor, teacher and administrator. From 1922 to 1929 he studied at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts (Magyar Kepzőmüvészeti Főiskolá) in Budapest under Gyula Rudnay (1878–1957) and János Vaszary (1867–1939). In the mid-1920s he became acquainted with Béla Uitz’s General Ludd series (1923; Budapest, N.G.) and in Venice he saw the work of such Russian avant-garde artists as Rodchenko and El Lissitzky and such Italian Futurists as Severini. In 1926 in Paris he studied the works of Léger, Braque, Picasso and others in the collection of Léonce Rosenberg. He was also influenced by the art of Brancusi and Joseph Csáky, as well as André Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme (Paris, 1924). From the outset, Hincz’s work revealed a number of different objectives. Although he experimented with abstraction, the reference to the figure is always present in one form or another. His profound interest in humanity and its social interaction was based on, and motivated by, this interest in the figure. His early paintings are expressionist in mood and are composed of flattened forms in a shallow space in a manner reminiscent of Cubo–Futurist art. Elements of Purism and Surrealism are also present. After World War II he became increasingly preoccupied with realism, political agitprop art and the problems inherent in creating new symbols; a study trip to Korea, China and Vietnam in ...

Article

(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...

Article

Johannes Offerhaus

(b Amersfoort, June 20, 1884; d Florence, March 25, 1963).

Dutch art historian. He studied medieval history at Utrecht University, specializing in medieval manuscript illumination. In 1908 he was appointed Research Assistant there to Professor W. Vogelsang, who held the first chair in the History of Art in the Netherlands. In 1909 he went to Rome, where he began studying archival documents concerning Dutch artists active in Italy. He completed his studies in 1912 with a dissertation on 16th-century Dutch painters in Italy. The same year he became the first member of staff of the Nederlands Historisch Instituut in Rome, of which he was Director from 1924 to 1950. From 1950 to 1955 he held the chair of Iconography and Iconology of Early Christian Art at Utrecht University.

Hoogewerff’s publications helped to provide a historical basis for the history of Dutch art. His important research into the daily lives of Dutch artists in Rome was published in two volumes in the 1940s. He also wrote the first history of late medieval and Renaissance painting in the northern Netherlands. He contributed to the theoretical debate concerning early Christian iconography, and as early as ...

Article

David Cast

(b London, April 12, 1875; d London, Aug 20, 1969).

English writer. He wrote some 36 books, most of them on the history, art and literature of Italy. As a young man he travelled much in Europe, especially Italy, and in 1898, after his marriage, settled in Settignano, Florence, where he was a member of the circle around Bernard Berenson. During World War I he was at the Foreign Office as an expert on Italian affairs and in 1918 was instrumental in founding the British Institute in Florence. That year he returned to England. When World War II broke out he was asked to compile a volume about art treasures in Italy that was used by the Allied Intelligence Corps. Perhaps the most lasting of his works will be his editions of A New History of Painting in Italy by J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle and of James Dennistoun’s Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino and his own study of the Roman marble workers, ...

Article

Evelyn M. Cohen

(fl 15th century).

?Portuguese writer of Jewish origin. A treatise on the preparation of colours and gold for use in manuscript illumination (Parma, Bib. Palatina, MS. De Rossi 945) has been attributed to him (for a contrary opinion see Metzger); it is the only extant book of this kind apparently written by a Jew. The Portuguese text is written in Hebrew characters. An ornate signature of Abraham ibn Hayyim appears on fol. 20r, and an inscription of fol. 1r states that the work was written by him in Loulé in 1262; the author was consequently believed to have lived in the 13th century, but the treatise is now generally accepted as being of the 15th century, when Portugal, especially Lisbon, was an important centre of Hebrew manuscript illumination. It has been suggested that Joseph ibn Hayyim, the artist who illuminated the Kennicott Bible (1476; Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Kenn. 1; ...

Article

Robert Williams

(b London, Nov 29, 1843; d Godalming, Surrey, Dec 8, 1932).

English garden designer and writer. Best remembered for her books on horticulture and the gardens she made with the architect Edwin Lutyens, she first trained (1861–3) as a painter at the Kensington School of Art, London, and (c. 1870) under Hercules Brabazon Brabazon. Private means allowed her to concentrate on learning one art or craft after another, from embroidery to stone-carving. In 1882 she began contributing horticultural articles to magazines and advising acquaintances on planting schemes. She met the young Lutyens in 1889 and introduced him to some of his first important clients. He designed Munstead Wood, Godalming, for her in 1896. True to her Arts and Crafts background, Jekyll promoted the cottage-garden style of old-fashioned flowers, informally planted; her opinions and expertise made her a household name. Her first book, Wood and Garden, illustrated with her own photographs, appeared in 1899. Her schemes for about 300 gardens are known (numerous plans, Berkeley, U. CA, Coll. Envmt. Des., Doc. Col.), of which about 100 involved ...

Article

Michael Spens

(Alan)

(b London, Oct 8, 1900; d July 16, 1996).

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (1928–33), becoming its Principal in 1939. His projects of the 1930s include the village plan (1933) for Broadway, Hereford & Worcs, a model document under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932, and, with Russell Page (1906–85), a pioneer modernist restaurant and visitors’ centre (1934) at Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Important garden designs of these years include Ditchley Park (...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Valencia, 1757; d Madrid, after 1807).

Spanish illustrator, printmaker and painter. He was nominated Miembro de Mérito of the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, in 1781. He made reproductive engravings of paintings and illustrated such books as Juan Antonio Pellicer’s (1738–1806) annotated edition of Don Quixote (1797), the Fábulas morales (1781–4) by Félix María de Samaniego (1745–1801) and the 1803 edition of the short stories Novelas ejemplares by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616). In his depiction (1790) of the fire in the Plaza Mayor in Madrid and in his interiors of prisons and barracks he pioneered the use of aquatint. He produced the series Caprichos y bombachadas and illustrated the title-page of Ideas y caprichos pintorescos (Madrid, 1807). He had two sons: Laureano (1802–58), an engraver, and Vicente (1796–1857), a history painter.

M. Ossorio y Bernard: Galería biográfica de artistas españoles del siglo XIX...

Article

Andrew Wilson

(b Brockley, Kent, Nov 1, 1895; d Harrow, nr London, Oct 28, 1974).

English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, illustrator and poet. His creative life was largely determined by two experiences. During World War I he served on the Western Front with the 15th Royal Welch Fusiliers, an event that he regarded as epic and imbued with religious, moral and mythic overtones, in which Divine Grace manifested a continual presence, an approach to thinking about the war distilled in the structure of his epic poem In Parenthesis (London, 1937). The second experience, related to the first, was his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1921. This immediately led him to join Eric Gill’s community at Ditchling, Sussex, where he was a postulant in the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, after having spent three fruitless years at the Westminster School of Art, London, where he had been taught by the English painters Walter Bayes (1869–1956) and Bernard Meninsky (1891–1950) and occasionally by ...

Article

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovakia], Dec 13, 1834; d Budapest, Sept 2, 1902).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and critic. He studied drawing with his father, the landscape painter Karl Klette von Klettenhof (1793–1874), while he was a law student at the University of Pest. In Vienna he continued as a law student and also attended Carl Rahl’s art school in 1855. In 1861 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Eduard Schleich and Friedrich Voltz (1817–86) and in the private school of Johann Heinrich Fischbach (1797–1871). In 1867–8, under the patronage of the liberal Romantic writer Baron József Eötvös, Keleti undertook a long European tour to study teaching methods in art academies, with the intention of establishing such an institution in Hungary. The Design and Drawing Teachers‘ Institute was founded in Budapest in 1871, and Keleti was its Director until his death. In the 1870s he became a well-known painter of historical landscapes and views. His detailed and picturesque drawings were in the Neo-classical and Romantic style of his father and of his professors. His most famous painting is ...