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Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Li Liu-fang; zi Maozai, Changheng; hao Tanyuan, Xianghai, Paoan, Shenyu Jushi]

(b She xian, Anhui Province, 1575; d 1629).

Chinese painter and poet. His family moved to Jiading, now part of Shanghai, where he spent most of his life. Li received his juren degree in 1606 and twice attempted the higher examinations, failing the first and arriving late for the second, which disqualified him. Having the means, he chose to abandon pursuit of a government career to lead a cultured life of leisure. He built a house and garden in Nanxiang, near Jiading, called Tan yuan (Sandalwood Garden) after the sandalwood trees that grew there, using the garden’s name thereafter as one of his hao names. He is classed, along with Tang Shisheng (1551–1636), Lou Jian (d 1631) and Cheng Jiasu (1565–1644), as one of the Four Gentlemen of Jiading. All were well-known poets, and Li and Cheng were painters. Li is not known as a calligrapher, although he had an adequately trained hand in a style based on that of Su Shi. In seal-carving, contemporaries praised him as the rival of He Shen (...


Jacqueline E. Kestenbaum

(b Tokyo, Sept 16, 1928).

Japanese architect, teacher, urban planner and writer. He studied with Kenzō Tange at the University of Tokyo (BArch, 1952), and then studied at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI (MArch, 1953), and at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (MArch, 1954). From 1954 to 1956 he worked for Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in New York and Sert, Jackson & Associates in Cambridge, MA; he then taught at Washington University, St Louis (1956–62), and at Harvard (1962–5). In 1965 he returned to Tokyo and opened his own office. Maki’s background enabled him to synthesize a comprehensive understanding of Western architecture with a Japanese sensitivity to scale and detail. He made his architectural debut as an urban planner and founder-member of the Metabolist group in 1960. While he remained a convinced modernist in his use of new technology, modular planning and standardized construction, he was also interested in a contextual approach to design. One of his principal ideas, developed with ...


Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....


[Iwase Samuru; Rissai, Seisai, Santō Kyōden]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1761; d Edo, 1816).

Japanese print designer, book illustrator and writer. Together with Kitao Masayoshi (1764–1824) and Kubo Shunman, he was one of Kitao Shigemasa most brilliant students. He made his début in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) in 1778 with his illustrations for the kibyōshi (‘yellow cover books’; comic novels) Kaichō ryaku no meguriai. During the next few years he produced illustrations for popular novels, in the manner of other artists in the Kitao studio. At the same time he began to design single-sheet prints, including yakushae (‘pictures of actors’). In the early 1780s Masanobu illustrated extravagant ehon (‘picture books’) and kyōka (‘crazy verse’) books and also produced nishikie (‘brocade pictures’; full-colour prints) series of bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In 1783 he published his most famous work, Seirō meikun jihitsushū (‘Collection of writings of the wise ruler of the greenhouses’; woodblock-print; London, BM, which consists of 14 tate ōban...


Richard Vinograd

[zi Shuming; hao Huanghe Shanqiao, Xiangguang Jushi]

(b Wuxing, Zhejiang Province, c. 1308; d 1385).

Chinese landscape painter, poet and scholar–official. He is traditionally ranked as one of the Four Masters of the Yuan, with Huang Gongwang , Ni Zan and Wu Zhen . He was the leading figure in the development of a type of landscape that blended monumental, powerful visual presence with complex, ambiguous structures evocative of mental states and personal situations. Later generations of artists painted landscapes in imitation of Wang Meng, creating an image of his style that at times has obscured his own achievement and identity.

Wang Meng was born into an eminent family of scholars, artists and officials. His father, Wang Guoqi (1284–c. 1366), was a poet, calligrapher and connoisseur; his maternal uncle was the painter–official Zhao Yong, and his maternal grandfather was Zhao Mengfu, the leading painter and calligrapher of the early part of the Yuan period (1279–1368). Little is known of Wang Meng’s early life except that he had a talent in poetry. Family connections were probably crucial in his securing an introduction into cultured circles. Wang moved to Mt Huanghe near Hangzhou, from which derives his literary name, Huanghe Shanqiao (‘Fuel gatherer of Mt Huanghe’), and embarked on a career as a painter, perhaps in the early 1340s, although no genuine works survive from this period. He also travelled widely in nearby areas of south-eastern China, including Suzhou and Wuxi (Jiangsu Province) and Songjiang (in modern Shanghai Municipality), visiting famous sites, attending literary gatherings and becoming acquainted with the leading writers and painters of the day....


Shao Mi  

Ellen Johnston Laing

[zi Sengmi; hao Guachou]

(fl c. near Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1626–40).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. Shao did not prepare for the civil service examinations because of ill-health and in mid-life developed a lung or kidney ailment; he was introverted and prone to mild eccentricities, such as an anxiety about cleanliness and order.

As a painter, Shao initially followed the artistic traditions of Suzhou. He owned a painting by Tang Yin, and some of his works were influenced by Tang’s wet washes and glyptic brushline. Other paintings, such as his album Landscapes and Figures (Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.), echo the slender, gnarled pine tree in a sparse landscape and other motifs popularized by the late 16th-century descendants and students of Wen Zhengming. By 1640 Shao had come under the influence of the theorist and painter Dong Qichang, who favoured the styles of the Song (960–1279) and Yuan (1279–1368) periods as best suited to artistic expression. Shao’s handscroll ...


Maggie Bickford

[Wang Mien; zi Yuanzhang; hao Zhushi Shannong]

(b Zhuji, Shaoxing District, Zhejiang Province; d Kuaiji, in modern Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, 1359).

Chinese poet and painter. He was the most influential master in the later momei (‘ink-plum’) tradition and the only early plum specialist with a substantial surviving oeuvre.

Born into a modest family of the gentry, Wang, like many southern Chinese scholars under the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), was thwarted in his ambition to enter official life. He became an eccentric itinerant, winning recognition as a scholar, poet and painter but failing to obtain sustained private or political patronage. He depended on painting plum blossoms for his living. In 1348, on returning south from the capital Dadu (modern Beijing), he predicted chaos and withdrew to Mt Jiuli. In 1359, shortly before his death, he emerged from seclusion to offer strategic advice to the rebel forces of Zhu Yuanzhang; Zhu later became the emperor Taizu (reg 1368–98), first ruler of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). A problematic figure in his own time, Wang was idealized by later scholars; he remains best known for his fictional role as a paragon of virtue in the 18th-century novel ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

(b 1579; d 1638).

Japanese Courtier, poet and calligrapher of the early Edo period (1600–1868). He was the son of the courtier Karasumaru Mitsunobu (1549–1611) and in 1606 himself became Councillor of State (Sangi) and Minister of the Right (Udaijin). In 1609, shortly after being moved to the post of Minister of the Left (Sadaijin), he was dismissed after a scandalous affair between court nobles and women chamberlains known as the Inokuma Incident. In 1611, having been pardoned by the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616), he was reinstated and in 1620 he rose to the position of Senior Second Rank (Shōnii) and the post of Major Counsellor (Dainaigon). He served as an emissary between court and shogunate and was energetically involved in the construction of the Tōshōgū Shrine at Nikkō.

An erudite man of many talents, Mitsuhiro was skilled in the tea ceremony, calligraphy, renga (linked verse) and waka...


Kohtaro Iizawa

revised by Karen M. Fraser

(b Osaka, Oct 10, 1938).

Japanese photographer and writer. He studied photography at the studio of Takeji Iwamiya (1920–89) in Osaka. He moved to Tokyo in 1961 hoping to join the radical Vivo (Esperanto: ‘life’) photography group. It was on the verge of dissolving, however, and instead he became an assistant to Eikoh Hosoe. Moriyama drew inspiration from former Vivo members Hosoe and Shōmei Tomatsu, as well as the American photographer William Klein. He developed a distinctive style that employed grainy, blurred and spontaneous snapshot imagery, shooting either without looking through the viewfinder or from a moving car, for example, and cropping images in unexpected ways. These qualities created a vivid physical sensibility in Moriyama’s work, which he described as taking photos with his body more than his eye. His first major collection of work, Nippon gekijō shashinchō (‘Japan: A photo theatre’, 1968), firmly established his representative style. It featured high-contrast, rough images of Kabuki and avant-garde theatre performers interspersed with random snapshots to create a loose, impressionistic, and dreamlike narrative. It also established one of his preferred formats, the photobook, which he would use repeatedly to present a sequence of disconnected images together in bound form....


Du Mu  

Haiyao Zheng

[Tu Mu; zi Muzhi

(b Chang’an [modern Xi’an], 803; d ?852).

Chinese poet and calligrapher. He was born into a high-ranking official family, his grandfather, Du You, having been a prime minister under the Tang dynasty (ad 618–907). He was educated by his family and at the early age of 26 received the civil-service degree of jinshi. He spent most of his life as an official both in and out of the court. He and the revered poet Du Fu were bracketed together by the respective nicknames Young Du and Old Du. His poetry was diverse: some poems expressed his thoughts on historical events and sites, others, usually thought superior, were lyrical descriptions of rural scenes. Du also wrote critical and prescriptive pieces on social evils, such as the prose–poem Afang Palace.

Documents from the Song period (960–1279) claim that his writing could be seen on the doors of the farmer’s house in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, where he worked as a local governor and that his brushstrokes were vigorous and powerful. His only extant authentic work of calligraphy is the ...


Toru Asano

(b Tokyo, Jan 18, 1901; d Tokyo, March 22, 1977).

Japanese writer, director and painter. Although he entered Tokyo Imperial University in 1921 with the intention of studying philosophy, he soon left to study in Berlin, where he became absorbed in painting and drama. Initially fascinated by the work of Vasily Kandinsky and by Constructivism, he later became dissatisfied with the detachment of Constructivist works from the concrete properties of objects; he decided it was possible to provoke concrete associations, and to obtain a variety of sensory effects using real or ‘ready-made’ objects. He named this method (a kind of collage or assemblage) ‘conscious constructivism’. An example of this is Construction (1925; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.)

On returning to Japan in 1923, he formed the small avant-garde group Mavo. He continued to exhibit works while publishing provocative criticism in art magazines and the Mavo magazine (founded in 1924). He immediately became a central figure in the avant-garde art movement of the Taisho period (...


Stephen Addiss

[Gion Mitsugu; Hōrai, Nankai]

(b Kii Province [now Wakayama Prefecture], 1677; d Kii Province, 1751).

Japanese painter, calligrapher and poet. Along with Sakaki Hyakusen and Yanagisawa Kien, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)) and is also celebrated as a poet and calligrapher in the Chinese style (Karayō). He was the eldest son of a doctor and Confucian scholar and as a youth accompanied his father to Edo (now Tokyo), where he studied Confucian texts and Chinese poetry with Kinoshita Jun’an (1621–98). Nankai returned to Kii in 1697 but in 1700 was banished for some unspecified offence. Because he was highly regarded as the finest Chinese-style poet of his day and as an accomplished calligrapher, Nankai was pardoned in order to participate in receptions for the Korean mission of 1710. Three years later he was appointed the official teacher in the clan Confucian academy.

Nankai took up painting in the Chinese literati manner shortly after his pardon in order to supplement his poetry and calligraphy. He was primarily self-taught and more influenced by Chinese woodblock-printed books than by imported Chinese paintings themselves. He was also influenced by immigrant Chinese monks of the Ōbaku sect, many of whom were fine calligraphers and some of whom also painted. Nankai became the prototype of the literati artist, painting as a form of personal expression and devoting himself to literati landscape themes, as in the hanging scroll ...


Cecil H. Uyehara


(b 1565; d 1614).

Japanese government official, poet, painter and calligrapher. Together with Hon’ami Kōetsu (see Hon’ami family §(1)) and Shōkadō Shōjō, Nobutada is recognized as one of the Kan’ei no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the Kan’ei [1624–44] era’), despite his death a decade earlier. The Konoe family belonged to the powerful Hokke branch of the Fujiwara family; Nobutada was the son of Fujiwara [Konoe] Sakihisa, a court official. He became Minister of the Left at the age of 21, but resigned this post in 1592 after a disagreement with the then Regent, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He participated without permission in Hideyoshi’s ill-fated invasion of Korea in 1592, incurring imperial displeasure, and in 1594 was exiled to Satsuma in southern Kyushu. He returned to Kyoto in 1596, however, regained his ministerial portfolio and became Regent in 1605. He was one of the best-known calligraphers of his time. He studied Zen Buddhism at Daitokuji in Kyoto, which undoubtedly influenced his approach to calligraphy. While he was initially trained in the Shōren’in tradition of calligraphy (...


Ju-Hsi Chou

revised by Michael J. Hatch

[Chin Nung; hao Dongxin]

(b Renhe, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 1687; d 1764).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. In his youth he showed promise as a poet, and his talent was appreciated by such leading scholars as Mao Qiling (1623–1716) and Zhu Yizun (1629–1709). His teacher, He Chuo (1661–1722), also praised him as a poet belonging to the tradition of the Tang-period (ad 618–907) poets Meng Haoran (689–740) and Gu Juang (c. 725–814), and as the best among his peers. Jin became a notable figure in the Nanping shi she (Nanjing Poetry Club), whose members included such distinguished literati figures and artists as Li E (1692–1752), Huang Shijun (1696–1773), Ding Jing (1696–1765), and Chen Zhuan (1668–after 1748). It was at this time that he acquired the reputation of being aloof and difficult—“eccentric”—which did not, however, prevent him from being known and well received. He was seen frequently among the elites of the cultural and artistic centers of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, and Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, or of other cities visited during his wide travels. He was later designated one of the ...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Jifei Ruyi; Lin]

(b Fuzhou, Fujian Prov., 1616; d Nagasaki, 1671).

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher. He became a major figure in the Ōbaku Zen lineage in Japan. Along with Ingen Ryūki and Mokuan Shōtō, he is extolled as one of the ‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’ (Jap. Ōbaku no sanpitsu), master Zen calligraphers (see also Japan §VII 2., (iv)). Jifei was ordained at the age of 17 under Feiyin Tongrong (1593–1661), and at 21 he was accepted as a disciple by Ingen, abbot of the Zen temple Wanfusi at Mt Huangbo (Fujian Prov.), where he became a colleague of Mokuan, another outstanding disciple of Ingen. In 1651, after a brush with death by asphyxiation while fighting a forest fire behind the temple had inspired his sudden ‘enlightenment’, Sokuhi received ‘dharma transmission’ (recognition as an heir in the spiritual lineage) from Ingen and the following year was promoted to high monastic office. About this time he became abbot of Chongshengsi on Mt Xuefeng (Fujian Prov.). In late ...


Atsushi Tanaka

(b Tokyo, July 2, 1898; d Tokyo, April 28, 1978).

Japanese painter and writer. In 1919 he entered the department of Yōga (Western-style) painting at the Tokyo School of Fine Art. He went to France after his graduation in 1924 and painted in Paris until his return to Japan in 1939, submitting works to such exhibitions as the Salon d’Automne. In Paris he met Tsuguharu Fujita, as well as other painters of the Ecole de Paris. During this time he taught himself the technique of oil painting, which he had been unable to do in Japan. He was influenced by the compositions of the numerous classical paintings that he encountered in Paris and also by Fauvism and the tranquil, poetic works of such artists as Odilon Redon and Henri Rousseau. As a result of these experiences, at this time Oka initiated a circle of Japanese Western-style painting that continued after World War II. In 1940, after his return to Japan, he became a member of the Spring Season Society (...


Toru Asano

(b Tokyo, July 2, 1891; d Tokyo, June 3, 1955).

Japanese printmaker, poet and book designer. He studied at the Tokyo Art School from 1910 to 1915. Influenced by Yumeji Takehisa (1884–1934), a painter of highly popular sentimental portraits of women, and later by Edvard Munch and Vasily Kandinsky, he moved towards the expression of his inner feelings, which he termed lyricism. In 1914–15, with Shizuo Fujimori (1891–1943) and Kyōkichi Tanaka (1892–1915), he founded Tsukuhae (‘Moonglow’), a magazine of poetry and woodblock prints, in which he published abstract prints. One of these, Bright Time (1915; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A.), is possibly the first purely abstract Japanese work. He also produced polychromatic figurative woodblock prints, such as Ripples (1939; priv. col., see Kubo, pl. 202) and The Author of Hyōtō (‘Ice isle’, 1943; Tokyo, N. Mus. Mod. A., see Kubo, pl. 224), a portrait of his close friend, the poet Sakutarō Hagiwara. Works such as the illustrated poetry collection ...


Pyŏn Yŏng-Sŏp

[Yŏjŏng; ho Yŏn’gaek, Ch’osŏn, Kudo]

(b 1709; d 1768).

Korean poet, painter and calligrapher. His ancestral home was Yangch’ŏn. In 1735 he passed the first level (chinsa) in the state examinations for civil office. He was an excellent poet and was on intimate terms with Kang Se-hwang. The two men painted and travelled together, and Hŏ P’il’s criticisms of several of Kang Se-hwang’s works remain. Hŏ produced mainly landscapes (Kor. sansudo) in the literati style of the Chinese Southern school. Among his subjects were the Kŭmgang (Diamond) Mountains in central Korea. Works attributed posthumously to him include paintings of a Poem by Du Fu (Seoul, Ewha Women‘s U. Mus.), Landscape with Mt Umyŏn (Seoul, N. Mus.) and, in collaboration with Kang Se-hwang, another Landscape with Mt Umyŏn (Seoul, Korea, U. Mus.).

O. Se-ch’ang, ed.: Kŭnyŏk sŏhwa ching [Dictionary of Korean calligraphers and painters] (Taegu, 1928/R Seoul, 1975) Yu Pok-yŏl: Hanguk Loehwa taegwan [Pageant of Korean painting] (Seoul, 1979)...


Mick Hartney

(b Seoul, July 20, 1932; d Miami, Jan 29, 2006).

South Korean video artist, performance artist, musician, sculptor, film maker, writer, and teacher, active in Germany and the USA (see fig.). From 1952 to 1956 he studied music and aesthetics at the University of Tokyo. In 1956 he moved to the Federal Republic of Germany: he studied music at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich, and worked with the composer Karlheinz Stockhausen at Darmstadt, before joining Fluxus, with whom he made performance art, experimental music, and ‘anti-films’ (e.g. the imageless Zen for Film, 1962). His Neo-Dada performances in Cologne during this period included a celebrated encounter with John Cage, during which he formed a lasting friendship with the avant-garde composer by cutting off his tie. Inspired by Cage’s ‘prepared piano’, in which the timbre of each note was altered by inserting various objects between the strings, Paik’s experiments from 1959 with television sets, in which the broadcast image was modified by magnets, culminated in his seminal exhibition ...


Richard Vinograd

[Lo P’ing; zi Dunfu; hao Liangfeng, Yiyun Heshang, Huazhi Siseng]

(b Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1733; d 1799).

Chinese painter and writer. Luo was the youngest of the major Yangzhou school painters of the 18th century and a significant innovator in the genres of portraiture and depiction of ghosts. Born into a family of scholar–officials, in his early career Luo was much influenced by Jin Nong, his teacher in poetry and painting from about 1757. After Jin’s death in 1763 Luo undertook the editing of some of his mentor’s writings, together with other quasi-filial duties. Jin’s historical and selfconscious exploration of a broad range of genres, including plum and bamboo painting, portraiture and Buddhist figure painting, clearly influenced Luo’s choice of subject-matter. However, the relationship was not one-sided: Luo was more technically accomplished than his teacher and probably painted works to which Jin signed his own name. Luo’s portrait Jin Nong Taking a Noon Nap (hanging scroll; 1760; Shanghai Mus.) is notably informal and irreverent in style.

Several other paintings from Luo’s early career document both his entrance, by the early 1760s, into the cultured circles of south-east China and his exploration of the significance of portraiture. A second portrait, ...