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Vanina Costa

(b Quiévy, Nord, April 29, 1882; d Paris, 30–31 Jan 1960).

French painter. He studied drawing at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lille, from 1898 to 1901, when he settled in Paris. The initial influence of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism visible in paintings that he sent to the Salon des Indépendants in 1906 gradually gave way to an involvement with Cubism after his move in 1909 to the Bateau-Lavoir studios, where he met Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and Juan Gris; he was also encouraged by his friendship with Wilhelm Uhde. His work was exhibited in the same room as that of Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes and Fernand Léger in the Salon des Indépendants of 1910, and in 1912 he participated in the influential Section d’Or exhibition (see Section d’Or). After producing his first abstract paintings in 1917, Herbin came to the attention of Léonce Rosenberg who, after World War I, made him part of the group centred on his Gallerie de l’Effort Moderne and exhibited his work there on several occasions in ...


[Josef, Jozef]

(b Antwerp, June 11, 1839; d Brussels, Dec 1921).

Belgian painter. He studied at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp from 1854 to 1856, and in Paris from 1856 to 1858. In Paris he met Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, Théodore Rousseau and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, whose ideas he absorbed; under their influence he overcame the rigid training he had received in Antwerp. After returning to Belgium he worked with a group of young artists that included Franz Courtens, Jacob Rosseels (1828–1912) and Isidore Meyers (1836–1917) at Kalmthout, north-east of Antwerp, and at Termonde on the River Escaut. The artists’ colony at Kalmthout was visited by the painter Théodore Baron (1840–99), with whom Heymans soon became friends. Heymans moved to Brussels in 1869, and the two artists worked together in a studio there, although Heymans also worked at Wechel-ter-Zande in the Campine region. He became associated with the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. His works of this period show the influence of the Barbizon school, as in ...


Sepp Kern

(b Berne, March 14, 1853; d Geneva, May 19, 1918).

Swiss painter. He came from a poor family and lost both of his parents at an early age. He received his first training from Ferdinand Sommer (1822–1901), a painter from Thun who produced lake and mountain landscape views for tourists. In 1871 or 1872 Hodler moved to Geneva to attend lectures in natural science at the Collège de Genève and to copy paintings by Alexandre Calame and François Diday in the museum there. In 1873 he became a pupil of Barthélemy Menn at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva and while there undertook an intensive study of Dürer’s writings on proportions. In 1878 he travelled to Madrid, spending almost a year there, and was strongly influenced by the Spanish landscape and by the works of such masters as Titian, Poussin, Claude, Velázquez and Goya in the Museo del Prado. He returned to Switzerland in 1879, having learnt to lighten his colour....


(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...


Josef Maliva

(b Loucká u Ředhoště, nr Roudnice nad Labem, Jan 14, 1872; d Častolovice, nr Rychnov nad Kněžnou, Aug 11, 1941).

Bohemian painter. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague, in 1887–91 under Maximilián Pirner, in Munich in 1891–3 under Anton Ažbé and Otto Seitz (1846–1912) and again in Prague until 1894 under Václav Brožík. He spent some time studying in Italy (1902 and 1909) and had numerous one-man exhibitions from 1900 onwards. His early work concentrated on the figure, inspired by lyrical plein-air painting, and for a while he was influenced by Art Nouveau and Symbolism (e.g. Spring Fairy-tale, 1898; Prague, N.G.). Having come into contact with the school of Julius Mařák in 1897, Hudeček devoted himself to landscapes, producing a large group of paintings of the village of Okoř. The works of this period approach the lyricism of the Glasgow School (exhibited Prague, 1903) and the sensuous impressionism of his friend Antonín Slavíček. Hudeček gradually renounced melancholy, symbolic colour harmonies and refined techniques, using his brush with greater flourish and accenting light with more striking colours (e.g. ...


Belinda Thomson

(b Paris, Nov 30, 1867; d Paris, Feb 1936).

French printmaker, illustrator and painter. He became one of the original members of the Nabis as an art student at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1888–9. He joined in the early group ventures such as printmaking, puppet plays and theatre design, but he was never involved with the more esoteric Symbolist aspirations of some of the group’s leading members. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1891 and participated in the Nabis’s group shows at Louis Le Barc de Boutteville’s gallery. With Edouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis, he was quick to attract public attention, the nature of his work earning him the sobriquet ‘le Nabi journaliste’. His art was inspired by contemporary life, with subjects drawn from the spectacle of modern Paris, particularly from the café, circus and boxing ring. Both in subject and technique he can be likened to such artists as Adolphe Willette, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, and his work shares many characteristics with theirs, notably an economy of line and a simplicity of shapes and colours. Such features derived in Ibels’s case from the art of Honoré Daumier, Japanese printmakers and Paul Gauguin and the Pont-Aven group....


Hans H. Hofstätter

(b Zawodzie, nr Tarnów, Poland, Sept 10, 1869; d Vienna, April 21, 1939).

Austrian painter. He first studied music in Vienna, but in 1885 he joined the general painting course at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the German painters Franz Rumpler (1848–1922) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1892–3 he took a short course at the Badische Kunstakademie at Karlsruhe, earning his living as a scenery painter in Leipzig and Dresden in 1894–5. In 1895 he won the Prix de Rome and a six months’ study period in Italy, and from 1897 to 1898 he resumed his studies at the Meisterschule für Graphische Künste in Vienna under William Unger (1837–1932), becoming a member of the Vienna Secession in 1898. In 1910 he was appointed a professor at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, and in 1925 he took over the general painting course.

Jettmar was an important exponent of European Symbolism. His work, related to that of Arnold Böcklin, Ferdinand Hodler and Max Klinger, drew its motifs primarily from his rich imagination. The main theme of his paintings is the human figure, unclothed or in timeless dress, before a heroic landscape or against deserted townscapes with architecture reminiscent of Italy’s. Apart from individual works he produced cycles and portfolios, including ...


Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Jan 3, 1851; d Copenhagen, Dec 18, 1935).

Danish painter. He trained at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster from 1868 to 1875 under Jørgen Roed. In 1871 he began to visit the fishing hamlet of Hornbæk on the north coast of Zealand, not far from Copenhagen, often with painters such as Peter Severin Krøyer and Kristian Zahrtmann. Here Johansen painted pure landscapes, or alternatively figures from the village’s traditional population, seen in their homes. A Meal (1877; Copenhagen, Hirschsprungske Saml.) shows an elderly fisherman seated at table eating potatoes, attended by his wife; dull daylight from a window in which a net is drying illumines the frugal interior and worn figures.

Johansen first visited Skagen, the northernmost town in Denmark, with Michael Ancher in 1875. Five years later both men married girls who were cousins from the town. Johansen and his family remained based around Skagen, but passed the winters in Copenhagen. Kitchen Interior: The Artist’s Wife Arranging Flowers...


(b Metz, Dec 21, 1859; d Paris, Sept 5, 1936).

French writer, theorist and critic. The family moved to Paris in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, and Kahn was then educated at the Ecole des Chartes and the Ecole des Langues Orientales. In 1879 he met Jules Laforgue and Stéphane Mallarmé and published his first ‘poèmes en prose’. After Charles Baudelaire, Mallarmé was the greatest influence on his poetry and artistic theories. From 1880 to 1884 he did his military service in North Africa and on his return to Paris he soon became involved in the world of literary symbolism. He ran several periodicals, including La Vogue and Le Symboliste in 1886, and the Revue indépendante in 1888. Kahn was a pioneer, though not the sole creator, of ‘free verse’, poetry free of conventional syntactic, metrical and other restrictions. In 1887 he published Les Palais nomades, the first collection of ‘free verse’ poetry.

In his article ‘Réponse des symbolistes’ (...


Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...


(b The Hague, Feb 11, 1868; d The Hague, Feb 28, 1943).

Dutch painter, printmaker, draughtsman and writer. He learnt the rudiments of painting from his mother. Some of his first works, mainly landscapes, were made in the area around Meerssen in South Limburg, where his family had a country house. He received further training from Johannes Christiaan d’Arnoud-Gerkens (1882–4) and at the Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1884–6). In 1894 he settled in Scheveningen, where he was to remain, with the exception of short visits to Paris in 1886, 1901 and 1906 and to Maastricht in 1886–7.

Initially van Konijnenburg made mainly lithographs, both caricatural and for advertising. In the Haagsche Kunstkring of 1898 he exhibited the painting The Deer, now in the hunting lodge of St Hubertus on the Veluwe near Otterlo, the first work in which he placed great emphasis on balance and serenity to monumental effect in the composition. Among his influences were the works of Leonardo da Vinci and particularly of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, which he regularly studied in Paris, and on whose principles of form he elaborated in his own art. In his most important works, made after ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Moscow, May 2, 1884; d Moscow, May 6, 1958).

Russian painter. He received his first art lessons from his father, the painter Pyotr Krymov, who painted in a style close to that of the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki). Krymov also studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, originally in the architecture department (1904–7), and then from 1907 to 1911 in the landscape studio of Apollinary Vasnetsov. He took part in the Blue Rose exhibition (1907) and also in exhibitions of the Union of Russian Artists (1906–23). Krymov’s early works are outstanding and original examples of Russian Symbolist landscape, in the spirit of the Blue Rose group. His Symbolist work also derives from his participation in the design of the journal Zolotoye runo (‘Golden Fleece’, Moscow, 1906–9). In the early works, realist subjects become types of landscape dream or memory, with milky-blue or faded gold tones reminiscent of tapestry (e.g. Pines, 1907...


Aya Louisa McDonald

[Kuroda, Kiyoteru; Seiki]

(b Kagoshima Prefect., June 29, 1866; d Tokyo, July 15, 1924).

Japanese painter. He is best known for introducing the plein-air palette of French Impressionism to Japan. He was the most successful and politically influential advocate of Western-style painting (Yōga; see Japan §VI 5., (iv)) in Japan at the turn of the century. Born into a wealthy aristocratic family, Kuroda was adopted by his uncle Viscount Kuroda Kiyotsuna (1830–1917) and educated in French and English in preparation for a career in the Foreign Service. In his teens he studied pencil sketching and watercolours under Hosoda Shūji (fl 19th century), a minor follower of the Western-style painter Takahashi Yūichi.

In 1884 Kuroda was sent to Paris to prepare for a career in law. It was then that his interest in art was reawakened, not only by the city of Paris itself but also by his contact and friendship with other Japanese such as Fuji Masazō (...


Marian Burleigh-Motley


(b Saratov, Nov 17, 1878; d Moscow, Feb 21, 1968).

Russian painter. After initial training in Saratov, he studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture from 1897 to 1904 under Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov. Rejecting the style of his teachers, Kuznetsov soon became the leader of a group of Moscow artists who looked to Viktor Borisov-Musatov and Mikhail Vrubel’ for inspiration. He helped organize exhibitions in Saratov called Alaya roza (‘Crimson rose’; 1904) and in Moscow Golubaya roza (‘Blue rose’; 1907), which gave a name to the Blue Rose group. In both exhibitions the favourite Symbolist themes of dreams and visions predominated. The critics denounced the works as ‘decadent’—long a favourite word of abuse for Russia’s Symbolist poets. Kuznetsov’s tempera painting Blue Fountain (1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) embodies the aesthetic attitudes of the group. Around a fountain, symbolizing life, a group of shadowy figures in a predominantly blue space reach towards one another in attitudes of yearning....


Ellen W. Lee

(b Versailles, June 18, 1868; d Alençon, June 29, 1916).

French painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated family of artistic inclination and independent means. He first studied with his mother, the printmaker and painter Laure Lacombe (1834–1924), and received further guidance from the French painters Georges Bertrand (1849–1929), Alfred Roll and Henri Gervex, who were family friends. From 1888 to 1897 he spent the summers at Camaret on the Brittany coast. In 1892 he befriended Paul Sérusier and was soon attracted to the aesthetic of the Nabis. He painted Breton figural scenes and stylized seascapes characterized by flat patterns, Japanese print devices, and mysterious, often anthropomorphic imagery. Familiarity with Paul Gauguin in 1893–4 aroused his interest in wood-carving (an interest that may also have been nurtured by his father, an amateur cabinetmaker) and encouraged him to employ a deliberately crude technique. Known as ‘the Nabi sculptor’, Lacombe explored Symbolist themes such as the cycle of life and death treated in ...


Alberto Cernuschi

(b Narbonne, 1875; d Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, 1931).

French painter, watercolourist and illustrator. Laprade had good basic training, first at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Montauban and later at the Académie Carrière in Paris. He exhibited first at the Salon des Indépendants in 1901 and later showed his work regularly at the Salon d’Automne and at the Salon des Tuileries. A Post-Impressionist who looked above all to the example of Cézanne, he was also a great admirer of the work of 18th-century French painters, and it is their example that accounts for his loose, fluid brushstrokes, subdued colours, delicacy and tendency to sentimentality. He travelled often to Italy, making three prolonged visits there from 1908 to 1914, and underwent the influence of Italian artists such as Giovanni Fattori and Filippo Carcano. In his pictures he treated both intimiste interiors and melancholic landscapes, for example The Corn (1919; Paris, Pompidou) and the watercolour Les Alyscamps (Montpellier, Mus. Fabre). He also produced a number of suggestive views of French cities, for example ...


Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Makowiec Duży, nr Mińsk Mazowiecki, Sept 3, 1865; d Kraków, March 23, 1956).

Polish sculptor and ceramicist. He began studying sculpture in 1885, initially at private schools in Warsaw and then between 1891 and 1896 in Paris at the studios of Antonin Mercié, Alexandre Falguière and Jean-Léon Gérôme. Laszczka exhibited in Poland and abroad from 1889. From 1899 to 1935 he was a professor of sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts, Kraków, where he created the ‘Kraków school’ of sculpture, as distinct from that in Warsaw.

Laszczka’s work has several stylistic phases. While at Falguière’s studio he produced realistic pieces, and in the early 20th century Rodin’s influence can be seen in his sculptures. However, most of his sculptures reflect his fascination with folklore and symbolism. Folk trends are evident in his genre sculptures (e.g. Country Urchin and Kasia’s First Attempts at the Loom) and in his ceramic work, which was prolific: he collaborated with the majolica factories in Dębniki and ...


Vanina Costa

(Eugène Augustin)

(b Port-Louis, Mauritius, Aug 7, 1862; d Versailles, 1939).

French painter and pastellist. He studied briefly under Alexandre Cabanel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1880, but his admiration for the Impressionists led him to reject this academic training and to work alone from 1882 to 1887 at Etaples in northern France. He first exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he won third prize in 1891, and later at the Salon de la Société Nationale. The subject-matter and smoothly painted surfaces of some of Le Sidaner’s early paintings, such as Sunday (1898; Douai, Mus. Mun.), a picture of evanescent young girls in long white dresses against a very low horizon, caused him to be compared with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood but also allied him with the Symbolists. From 1900, when he moved to Beauvais and later to Gerberoy, Oise, he began to paint urban landscapes and gardens, often in a deserted state. He began at that time to favour broken brushwork reminiscent of Georges Seurat, while working primarily from memory rather than from direct observation. After a stay in Venice in ...


Michèle Lavallée

(b Champsecret, Orne, July 23, 1862; d Paris, May 24, 1934).

French painter, illustrator, and sculptor. He went to Paris in 1878 to study under the painter Emile Bin until 1885, when he entered the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. From 1883 onwards, he exhibited landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits (those of women and children being particularly popular) in oil and pastel at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français.

Léandre also taught drawing until 1897. His fame was due chiefly to the vast number of Symbolist drawings he produced for newspapers and magazines. His first post was as a caricaturist for Le Chat noir, and he later worked for Le Journal, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, and Le Journal amusant; his most important work was for Le Rire, for which he often illustrated the front page. In 1907 he helped to found the Société des Artistes Humoristes, publishing a magazine, Les Humoristes, in 1910.

Léandre produced posters for the nightclubs of Montmartre, artists’ balls, and chansonniers’ tours, and for the first two exhibitions of the Société des Peintres Lithographes. He illustrated many literary works, of which the most famous was Gustave Flaubert’s ...


(b Mâcon, July 9, 1867; d Paris, Aug 27, 1958).

French writer and critic. He studied law first in Dijon and from 1885 in Paris, where he worked first as a lawyer and then as a government official before devoting himself to literature. At the age of 15 he had already produced a journal called La Salade and in 1888 he became editor of the periodical La Cravache, which soon became an important forum for the Symbolists, with contributors such as Félix Fénéon, Joris-Karl Huysmans and Gustave Kahn. Paul Verlaine’s poem Parallèlement first appeared in it and much space was devoted to art criticism. By the following year, however, Lecomte and the Symbolists moved to the periodical La Vogue. Despite his association with the Symbolist writers and poets, his own preferences in the visual arts were mainly for Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist works. In 1890 his friend Fénéon, who ran the biographical pamphlet series Hommes d’aujourd’hui, decided to devote some issues to ...