English firm of glass manufacturers. The late 17th-century Whitefriars Glass Works, on the site of the Whitefriars monastery in the City of London, was bought in 1834 by a merchant James Powell (1774–1840). In 1844 his sons added a stained-glass department to cater for the growing demand for windows. In 1851 the firm was commissioned by the stained-glass specialist Charles Winston (1814–64) to re-create medieval glass through its proper chemical constituents. This ‘antique’ glass was produced on a large scale from 1853 (e.g. the west window of Norwich Cathedral, painted by George Hedgeland in 1854) and was used by many other studios. Powell’s was one of the most successful Victorian firms because it had a policy of employing many distinguished artists as freelance designers. Although there was no distinctive house style, standards of design were high. Edward Burne-Jones provided cartoons from 1857 to 1861; he was succeeded in ...
German glasshouse founded in Jena in 1884 by Otto Schott (1851–1935). The factory made both industrial and domestic glass, notably the tableware of Wilhelm Wagenfeld in the 1930s. Under the Nazis the factory made glass for military purposes, and on 17 March 1945 the factory was bombed. In 1945, in the move known as ‘the odyssey of the 41 glassmakers’, key employees (especially those with expertise in optical glass) were taken by American troops and relocated in West Germany; after various moves, they were relocated in Mainz in 1952. The Russians occupied Jena, and reopened the factory there. The two companies had identical names (‘Ven Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen’) from 1945 to 1981, and products are distinguished by the names ‘Jena’ and ‘Mainz’. In 1981 the companies were formally separated into Veb Jenaer Glaswerk in the East and Schott Glaswerke in the West. In 1994 the company returned to Jena, and since ...
Margaret Moore Booker
(b El Paso, TX, Jul 30, 1940; d Hondo, NM, Jun 13, 2006).
Hispanic American sculptor and printmaker. He specialized in larger-than-life, vibrantly colored, fiberglass, and epoxy sculptures that celebrate humanity and reflect his Mexican American heritage. He was also an accomplished printmaker (lithographs and etchings) and draftsman (colored-pencil drawings). As the “Godfather” of Chicano art, the artist of working-class people and mentor to numerous Hispanic artists, he played an important role in bringing Chicano sensibilities into mainstream art.
Born the son of an illegal immigrant, Jiménez grew up in El Paso, TX, where he learned to weld, wire, and airbrush in his father’s neon-sign shop. After receiving a BFA in 1964 at the University of Texas at Austin, and a brief stay in Mexico City, he moved to New York City where he worked with Seymour Lipton (1903–1986) and found success parodying 1960s American pop culture in his work.
In the early 1970s he returned to the Southwest (eventually dividing his time between El Paso and Hondo, NM), where he gained success and controversy as a sculptor of outdoor figures. Drawing inspiration from the social realist Mexican and Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals, he combined large scale, color, and pose to create a dramatic and heroic effect in his work. Like the New Mexican ...
(b Budapest, Dec 23, 1873; d Budapest, June 10, 1940).
Hungarian painter and decorative artist. In 1892 he was a pupil of Simon Hollósy in Munich, then he spent three years studying at the Académie Julian in Paris. Returning to Hungary in 1897 he painted the Factory Canteen: Agitator (Budapest, N.G.), a Realist picture imbued with a socialist message. This was followed by more joyful scenes of peasant life often in bold and glowing colours (e.g. the harvesting scene Plums; 1901, Budapest, N.G.). In 1905 he settled in Nyergesújfalu, becoming the leading figure of a group of artists with radical bourgeois views. In 1906, however, he left for Paris once more, where he was impressed by the style of the French Fauves, especially the work of Matisse. This is evident in Kernstok’s richly coloured portrait of Béla Czóbel (1906; Budapest, N.G.)
Kernstok’s most original contribution to the development of modern Hungarian painting came after 1910 when he started to concentrate on the subjects of boy nudes and nude horsemen, shown in a decorative but vigorous style with heavy contours and emphasis on the overall structure of the picture, as in ...
(b Long Eaton, Derbys, Aug 4, 1877; d London, July 7, 1970).
English painter and designer. She studied at Nottingham College of Art from 1889. In 1894 the deaths of her mother and grandmother left her dependent on her own earnings, and she taught art from a studio in the Castle Rooms, Nottingham. From 1903 she exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, London, and in the same year married the painter Harold Knight (1874–1961); they lived in an artists’ community in Staithes, north Yorkshire, until 1907, also spending time in another community in Laren, Netherlands. They then moved to Newlyn, Cornwall, attracted by the presence of a number of prominent artists. The couple exhibited together at the Leicester Galleries, London, in 1912. Although Knight painted various subjects, her reputation was founded on paintings of the ballet and the circus, which became predominant after she moved to London. Technically of a high standard, her narrative realist works were painted in bright colours and have limited depth of expression (e.g. ...
(b New York, May 31, 1929; d Los Angeles, CA, Feb 5, 1999).
American painter. Krushenick studied at the Art Students League, New York (1948–50), and Hans Hoffman School, New York, and organized window displays at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1951–7), before running an art gallery (1958–62). He experimented with various styles as a student, from Expressionist and Picasso-esque abstraction to figuration, but he began to be recognized in the early 1960s for comical, hard-edged abstraction, executed in vivid acrylics. These were clearly influenced by Matisse’s cut paper collages of the 1950s, but Krushenick’s interest in Abstract Expressionism also led him to suggest the extension of his forms beyond the edges of the canvas. Typically, his pictures of this period included weaving motifs reminiscent of netting; these were boldly defined by thick black lines that divided the pictures into animated shapes filled with areas of syncopated primary colour. Untitled (1962; see 1972 exh. cat., p. 33) is typical in its combination of webbing with a looping line. Toward the end of the 1960s he began to experiment with shaped canvases: ...
(b New York, March 31, 1835; d Newport, RI, Nov 14, 1910).
American painter, decorative artist, and writer. He grew up in New York in a prosperous and cultivated French-speaking household. He received his first artistic training at the age of six from his maternal grandfather, an amateur architect and miniature painter. While at Columbia Grammar School, he learnt English watercolour techniques and afterwards studied briefly with George Inness’s teacher, the landscape painter Régis-François Gignoux. In 1856, while touring Europe, he spent a few weeks in Thomas Couture’s studio. Returning to New York via England, he was impressed by the Pre-Raphaelite paintings at the Manchester Art Treasures exhibition of 1857 and later said that they had influenced him when he began to paint. In 1859 he decided to devote himself to art and moved to Newport, RI, to study with William Morris Hunt.
Unlike Hunt, who never broke away from the manner of Couture and Jean-François Millet, La Farge rapidly evolved a highly original and personal style characterized by free brushwork, unusual colour harmonies, and great delicacy of feeling (...
Gordon Campbell and Jane Shadel Spillman
(b 1910; (d 1987).
American glassmaker. He worked in the glass industry, where he invented the fibre used for the insulating tiles that cover the Columbia space shuttle. In 1965 he left the industry and established a studio in Grand Rapids, OH, where he made blown-glass pieces, many of them with extraordinary colour effects made possible by his knowledge of glass chemistry. He was, together with ...
(b Ay, Marne, April 6, 1860; d Paris, 1945).
French jeweller, glassmaker and designer. He began his studies at the Lycée Turgot near Vincennes and after his father’s death (1876) he was apprenticed to the Parisian jeweller Louis Aucoq, where he learnt to mount precious stones. Unable to further his training in France, he went to London to study at Sydenham College, which specialized in the graphic arts. On his return to Paris in 1880, he found employment as a jewellery designer creating models for such firms as Cartier and Boucheron. His compositions began to acquire a reputation and in 1885 he took over the workshop of Jules d’Estape in the Rue du 4 Septembre, Paris. He rejected the current trend for diamonds in grand settings and instead used such gemstones as bloodstones, tourmalines, cornelians and chrysoberyls together with plique à jour enamelling and inexpensive metals for his creations. His jewellery, which was in the Art Nouveau style, included hair-combs, collars, brooches, necklaces and buckles (e.g. water-nymph buckle, ...
Glass figurines and ornamental groups made from glass heated in the flame of a lamp and blown and shaped by hand. Nineteenth-century examples range from simple figures sold at fairs to complex and delicate models of ships. In the 20th century Bimini Glass, the company founded in 1923 by the Austrian glassmaker Fritz Lampl, produced graceful figurines made from lamp-blown glass; the popularity of these products has made ‘bimini’ a generic term for lamp-blown European glass of the interwar period. In ...
Geoffrey R. Edwards
(b Sydney, July 6, 1950).
Australian glass artist. He studied science at the University of Sydney and in 1972 began a series of studies in glass in Australia, the USA and England. While in the USA he attended the Pilchuck School founded by Dale Chihuly and established a close association with the Pilchuck programme. His spectacular deployment of neon tubing as a floating serpentine pattern across panels of glossy, black moulded glass, brought him a number of major architectural commissions including large-scale murals for the Coal Board Building in Singleton, New South Wales, and the ANZ Bank in Melbourne. From the early 1980s Langley developed a series of idiomatic sculptural objects in which heavily textured and sandblasted slabs of fused glass are embedded with symbols and geometric emblems composed of intricate tesserae.A. McIntyre: ‘Warren Langley Glass Works: Art of Man Gallery, Paddington, December 1978’, Craft Australia, 2 (Winter 1979), pp. 50–51 I. Bell: ‘Warren Langley’, ...
Jan Jaap Heij
(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).
Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.
Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...
Peter W. Guenther
(b Münster, Oct 2, 1865; d Raron, Switzerland, Oct 8, 1937).
German designer and painter. After an apprenticeship in a stained-glass workshop, he studied painting at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin (1894). An exhibition of his work at Fritz Gurlitt’s gallery in Berlin established his reputation. His friendship with the German poet Stefan George led him to design books as works of art in their own right, for example an edition of Maurice Maeterlinck’s Der Schatz der Armen (Leipzig, 1898) and George’s Teppich des Lebens (Berlin, 1900). He was influenced in his book designs by the work of William Morris. In 1900 he won the Grand Prix at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, for his design of the Pallenberg Saal (Cologne, Kstgewmus.; mostly destr.), a reception room designed for the industrialist Jakob Pallenberg, in which ornaments and inscriptions filled walls and ceiling; the centrepiece was a painting Consecration at the Mystic Well (see Wissmann, p. 36). In ...
(b Utrecht, Nov 26, 1876; d Blaricum, Nov 13, 1958).
Dutch painter and designer. He served his apprenticeship in several stained-glass studios in Utrecht (1891–9), after which he received a scholarship to study at the Nationaal school voor Kunstnijverheid, Amsterdam (1900–04). At the same time he attended evening classes at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten, Amsterdam, under August Allebé. His earliest work reflected several stylistic sources. His paintings were influenced first by the Symbolists Anton Derkinderen and Jan Toorop and then by the Amsterdam Impressionists George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls, while his designs for a collector’s edition of the Song of Solomon, which he produced in 1905 in collaboration with his close friend, the architect and furniture maker Piet Klaarhamer, showed an Egyptian influence. Following a brief and uninfluential visit to Paris in 1907, van der Leck spent the next nine years moving between Amsterdam, Utrecht, Amersfoort, The Hague and the province of Overijssel.
In keeping with other progressive artists of the time in the Netherlands, van der Leck developed an abiding interest in the way of life of the Dutch proletariat in his search for an authentic 20th-century social realism. He turned to the prosaic world of the washerwoman, the fishwife, the stallholder and the labourer as the starting-point for a simple, universally valid and comprehensible style that embraced the principle of ‘unity in diversity’, a theory augmented by his belief in the manipulation of humanity by forces beyond its control. The theme of textile workers in Overijssel returning home from the factory provided van der Leck with the first indications of a solution to his stylistic goal. The similarities in the appearance and behaviour of the employees prompted him to reduce the incidental details of form and subject-matter and led to his first significant painting, ...
Ellen Paul Denker
American glass factory founded by William L. Libbey (1827–83), who had owned the New England Glass Co. in Cambridge, MA, since 1872. In 1888 his son Edward Drummond Libbey (1854–1925) decided to close the factory during a long strike and to take advantage of the natural gas available in the Midwest. When the firm again made glass in 1888, it was as the W. L. Libbey & Son Co. of Toledo, OH; in 1892 it became the Libbey Glass Co. The success of the Libbey Glass Co. enabled Edward Drummond Libbey to help found the Toledo Museum of Art, OH, in 1901 and to bequeath to it his collection of European paintings, supplemented by a trust provided by his estate.
Many fashionable cut-glass patterns were produced at Libbey during the so-called ‘Brilliant period’ between 1880 and 1915, and Libbey produced some magnificent exhibition pieces, including a cut-glass table 813 mm high and a cut-glass floor lamp nearly 1.5 m high. The firm’s major product was a more popular line of goods made from blanks; these had previously been pressed in a metal mould in the pattern to be cut, thus avoiding the expense of mould-blowing blanks and marking them for cutting. As one of the most important American cut-glass factories at the time, the firm erected a large crystal palace for the ...
Ellen Paul Denker
(b Corning, NY, June 14, 1922; d Spruce Pine, NC, Dec 13, 2013).
American glassmaker, potter and teacher. He was introduced to glass science and technology by his father, Jesse Littleton, director of research for the Corning Glass Works, and had an academic art education under the sculptor Enfred Anderson at the Corning Free Academy. He studied industrial design at the University of Michigan (1947) and then sculpture and ceramics at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI. During summer vacations he worked at Corning. Despite some early experiments in glass casting from ceramic models, Littleton worked primarily in ceramics from 1946 until the late 1950s, when he gradually realized that glassblowing could be carried out in small art studios and did not need to be confined to factory production. In 1962 in his workshop at the Toledo Museum of Art, OH, he demonstrated this idea to young artists with Dominick Labino (1910–87). He thus provided the foundation for forming studio glass courses in American universities; the first was set up in ...
Austrian glass company. Founded in Vienna in 1823 by Josef Lobmeyr (b Grieskirchen, 1792; d Vienna, 1855). Glass for the firm was made mainly in the Lobmeyr’s Neffe factories, at the Harrachhütte glassworks in Neuwelt, and the Vetterhütte glassworks in Parchen. In 1835 the first large table service was delivered to Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand (Vienna, Hofburg-Schauräume; Vienna, J. & L. Lobmeyr). In 1848 the firm was commissioned by Emperor Francis Joseph for the banqueting service for his coronation, which was designed by Josef Lobmeyr’s son, Ludwig Lobmeyr (b Vienna, 1829; d Vienna, 1917). In the same year Ludwig’s elder brother Josef Lobmeyr jr (b Vienna, 1828;d Vienna, 1864) was commissioned with the lighting of the palace of the Khedive Abbas I Hilmi (reg 1848–54) in Cairo, using glass vases with Arabic enamel painting. In 1851 the firm established a studio in Polevsko for cutting, painting, and engraving blanks. In ...
Bohemian glass factory. In 1836 a glass factory was founded by Johann Eisner von Eisenstein in Klostermühle in the Bohemian forest. In 1840 production was taken over by Eisenstein’s son-in-law Friedrich Hafenbrädl, who began making window and table glass. In 1851 Dr Franz Gerstner (1816–55) and his wife Susanne Lötz-Gerstner (b 1809), who had previously been married to Johann Lötz (1778–1848), bought the factory. From 1858 the company was named and in 1863 registered as Lötz Witwe (‘Lötz widow’). In 1878 the factory exhibited a range of coloured glass at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. The following year Lötz-Gerstner’s grandson Max Ritter von Spaun (1856–1909) took over the company and employed Eduard Prochaska (d 1922) as managing director. Over the next two decades the factory was substantially enlarged, and by 1891 the company employed 200 glassworkers, 36 cutters, and 30 glass painters. The company had representatives in various European cities, including ...
(b 1895; d 1964).
French designer. He worked primarily in ceramics, but also designed for glass and gold. His ceramics, in an Art Deco style, were manufactured in Limoges (see Limoges §2), Creil and in Sept-Fontaine (by Villeroy & Boch). In the 1920s he created (with Marcel Goupy) an elegant table service for Sèvres Porcelain Factory, and in the early 1930s he designed a porcelain service called ‘Normandie’. In ...