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(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Flemish family of artists. The earliest known member of the family is the painter Jan Collaert I (b ?Brussels, c. 1470 or earlier; d c. 1524 or later). Hans [Jan] Collaert I (b Antwerp, c. 1530; d Antwerp, 1581) was an engraver and draughtsman. He is not recorded in the records of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke but worked as an engraver after drawings by Lambert Lombard (e.g. Moses Striking Water from the Rocks, pubd by Hieronymous Cock, 1555; Hollstein, no. 1) and Crispin van den Broeck (e.g. the Virgin and Child on the Crescent Moon, 1576; Hollstein, no. 2). He also executed several series of ornamental engravings, for instance Friezes with Birds (pubd by Hans Liefrinck; Hollstein, nos 51–62) and Monilium. Bullarum inauriumque artificiosissimae icones (pubd by P. Galle, 1581; Hollstein, nos 209–18). He also made the drawings for the second part of the latter series, ...


(b Antwerp, c. 1560; d Antwerp, June 29, 1618).

Flemish draughtsman, engraver, print publisher and dealer. He was probably trained by the engraver and publisher Philip Galle, whose daughter Justa (d 1616) he married in 1586, and with whom he collaborated. In 1580 Adriaen was admitted to the Antwerp Guild of St Luke as a master’s son; in 1596 and 1597 he was respectively assistant dean and dean. Collaert produced a notable and extensive oeuvre of c. 600 engravings, including various series after his own drawings of birds, fish and animals (e.g. Animalium quadrupedum, Hollstein, nos 596–615; and Avium vivae icones, 1580; Hollstein, nos 616–47). Also after his own designs are the series of engravings of the Four Elements (pubd by himself; Hollstein, nos 453–6) and Flowers (pubd by Theodoor Galle; Hollstein, nos 679–702). All these rather uneven compositions are characterized by the faithful representation of nature. Collaert’s own compositions often include decorative borders consisting of flowers, animals and grotesques. This suggests he was important as a designer of ornament. However, by far the majority of his work comprises engravings after other Netherlandish artists, including ...


Christine van Mulders

(b Antwerp, 1590; d Antwerp, 1627).

Flemish engraver. He may have been a member of the Collaert family family or a son of Adriaen Collaert, for he was admitted to the Antwerp Guild of St Luke as a master’s son in 1610. He is best known for his engravings after Rubens, including frontispieces and 11 plates for a missal (Hollstein, nos 3–13)....


(b Amsterdam, 1522; d Gouda, Oct 29, 1590).

Dutch printmaker, poet, writer, theologian and philosopher. His work as a printmaker began in Haarlem in 1547, when he made a woodcut for a lottery poster after a design of Maarten van Heemskerck. From then until 1559 Coornhert worked as Heemskerck’s principal engraver. Initially he etched his plates, but during the 1550s he turned to engraving. He was possibly also responsible for the woodcuts after Heemskerck and the publication of Heemskerck’s early prints. In addition, he engraved designs by Willem Thibaut (1524–97) in 1556–7, Lambert Lombard in 1556 and Frans Floris in 1554–7. During this period Philip Galle was his pupil. In 1560 Coornhert temporarily stopped his engraving activities, set up a print publishing house, became a clerk and devoted himself to his literary work. In 1567 he was arrested for political reasons but managed to escape to Cologne in 1568. During his exile, which lasted until 1576...


(b c. 1472–7; d before Oct 18, 1533).

North Netherlandish painter, designer and woodcutter. He was the brother of Cornelis Buys I (fl 1490–1524), who is usually identified as the master of alkmaar (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I), the uncle of Cornelis Buys II (c. 1500–1545/6) and the father of the portrait painter Dirck Jacobsz.. All four artists used the same housemark with their monogram. Van Mander reported Jacob’s birthplace as Oostsanen, a suggestion perhaps based on the fact that the artist’s family managed some land in that region. Jacob’s birthdate is estimated from van Mander’s statement that Dirck Jacobsz. was almost 70 years old in 1567.

The linear and patterned aesthetic of Jacob’s early works suggests that he was trained first as a goldsmith or woodcut designer, perhaps by a relative. The best evidence for his further training is found in his painted figure types, which synthesize elements from the Haarlem Master of the Figdor Deposition (...


Timothy Riggs


(b Hoorn, nr Alkmaar, 1533; d Rome, before April 22, 1578).

North Netherlandish engraver and draughtsman, active in Flanders and Italy. His first documented works are a series of engravings issued by the Antwerp publisher Hieronymous Cock, beginning c. 1553. Cort may have been an apprentice within Cock’s establishment, as none of these prints was inscribed with his name until after the plates had passed out of Cock’s hands. A letter of 1567 to Titian from the Netherlandish writer and painter Domenicus Lampsonius (1532–99) describes Cock as Cort’s master. By 1560 Cort had developed a bold and strongly modelled sculptural style of engraving, influenced in part by the Italian Giorgio Ghisi, who worked for Cock between 1550 and 1555. Cort was particularly successful in reproducing the Italianate figure compositions of Frans Floris, after whom he engraved more than 50 prints, notably the Liberal Arts (seven prints; 1565) and the Labours of Hercules (ten prints; 1565). He also reproduced compositions by ...


Tiziana Mancini

(b Stilo di Calabria, 1605; d Rome, Jan 13, 1682).

Italian painter and etcher. He painted religious works and decorative frescoes, in a classical style of exceptional purity and restraint. He probably moved at the end of the 1620s to Rome, where he studied with Domenichino (Pascoli), whose influence is evident in his first dated work, St Joseph with Child and Angels (1632; Rome, S Andrea delle Fratte). Here Cozza’s isolation from the most modern trends in Roman painting, and his fidelity to Domenichino and to the Roman works of Annibale Carracci, is already established and was to endure throughout his career. In 1634 and 1635 he worked on frescoes of the Virtues in the pendentives of the dome of S Ambrogio alla Massima, Rome (in situ). Unlike the pendentive figures by Domenichino at S Andrea della Valle and at S Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, which respond to the illusionism of Giovanni Lanfranco’s Baroque art, Cozza’s Virtues...


[Master of the Crayfish; Master F.C.]

(b Mechelen, c. 1480; d Mechelen, 1553).

South Netherlandish printmaker. Friedländer first identified the Master of the Crayfish (Flem. Crabbe) as Frans Crabbe in 1921. It seems likely that Crabbe met and was influenced by Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s visit to Mechelen in June 1521. In 1539 Crabbe acquired the workshop of Nicholas Hogenberg; he is recorded in Mechelen as a master in the Guild of St Luke and head of the Brotherhood of Our Lady. His work is transitional, combining late northern medieval subjects and compositions with a style and technique showing the influence of the Italian Renaissance. He was especially indebted to Lucas van Leyden in his concern for atmosphere and depth in landscape, and to Jan Gossart for Italianate figure types. He worked as an engraver, woodcutter and etcher but is noted for etching because of his unusual success in a medium considered by his contemporaries to be limited. His achievement lies in his ability to create graphic equivalents for a painterly style in this experimental medium (e.g. ...


(b ?Brescia, c. 1460; d ?Rome, c. 1520).

Italian engraver. His career can be traced through 27 engravings with his signature (usually io.an.b or io.an.bx) and many others attributed to him. He appears to have begun work in the circle of Andrea Mantegna, and a number of engravings of the Mantegna school are generally assigned to him, including three prints after Mantegna’s Triumph of Caesar (b.17b, 18b, 19b) and a version of the Four Dancing Ladies (b. 29b). This early phase probably ended about 1506, when the school dispersed after the death of Mantegna. A transition period is suggested by a group of prints that demonstrate the technical conventions of Mantegna with stylistic influence from the work of Benedetto Montagna: Nativity (b. 4); Virgin and Child (b. 9); St Barbara (b. 12); and Justice (b. 27). In the Virgin and Child the view of a distant landscape may have been inspired by the engravings of Albrecht Dürer, which arrived in northern Italy in this period. Giovanni Antonio executed four copies of ...


Marco Collareta

(fl c. 1490–1520).

Italian engraver and draughtsman. Among the Italian engravings datable to c. 1500 is a Resurrection known in two different states, the first signed opvs peregrino and the other de opus peregrini ces . Scholars are generally agreed in accepting this as the signature of Peregrino da Cesena, despite the fact that no artist by this name is known from documents or other sources. About 40 marked engravings have been attributed to Peregrino, and about 35 unsigned or unmarked engravings appear to be by the same hand. Peregrino appears to have been the pupil, in Bologna, of Francesco Francia, to whom are attributed several nielli, which are stylistically close to the works bearing Peregrino’s mark. These latter have generally been described as Niello print, but the fact that the inscriptions—as well as the relationship between right and left—are the correct way round, identifies them as proper engravings, albeit executed in the manner of nielli. Certain drawings bound into a volume containing three of Peregrino’s engravings (Paris, Louvre, Cab. Estampes) have also been attributed to him....


Jan Johnson

(b Trent; fl Bologna, c. 1527).

Italian printmaker. Of six documented chiaroscuro woodcuts by the artist (two signed, four mentioned by Vasari), five are skilfully cut in a very controlled two-block style, for example Nude Man in a Landscape (b. p. 148, no. 13). The sixth, the Martyrdom of Two Saints (b. p. 79, no. 28), is among the best of Italian multiple-block chiaroscuros. All are after designs by Parmigianino. According to Vasari, Parmigianino, arriving in Bologna after the Sack of Rome in 1527, stayed with a friend for several months and retained Antonio to instruct him in the cutting of two- and three-block prints. Elsewhere, though, Vasari stated that Parmigianino prepared many other designs to be incised in copper and printed, and he implied that Antonio was also employed for this purpose. The project foundered because of Parmigianino’s painting obligations, whereupon Antonio stole all the prints (or possibly matrixes—Vasari is not clear) in copper and wood and as many drawings as possible and disappeared. Since the 18th century attempts have been made to rediscover him in the person of the etcher and painter ...


[il giovane]

(b Treviso, c. 1498; d Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1544).

Italian painter, draughtsman, sculptor and military engineer. He is first documented in 1523 in Bologna but had probably arrived there c. 1520. Between 1515 and 1520 he produced an engraving (initialled) of Susanna and the Elders and a series of drawings that were engraved by Francesco de Nanto, depicting scenes from the Life of Christ. A series of paintings, some of them initialled, were attributed to him by Coletti and this attribution is now generally accepted. The group includes two small canvases (transferred from panels that were initialled hirtv) representing Isaac Blessing Jacob and Hagar and the Angel (both Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), the monogrammed Sleeping Venus (c. 1520–29; Rome, Gal. Borghese), which contains an echo of Marcantonio Raimondi’s so-called Dream of Raphael (b. 274, 359), the initialled Female Nude (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), derived from a drawing by Raphael (London, BM) that was engraved by Raimondi (b...


Hans-Joachim Eberhardt

[Liberale di Jacopo dalla Biava]

(b Verona, c. 1445; d Verona, 1527–9).

Italian illuminator, painter and woodcut designer. His father, the baker Jacopo, came from Monza; his mother, Jacoba, was the daughter of the Veronese painter Zeno Solimani (fl c. 1438) and sister of the painter Nicolò Solimani (fl c. 1462–1493). The latter, according to Vasari, was Liberale’s teacher (but mistakenly called Vincenzo di Stefano in the Vite). Liberale is documented in Verona in 1455 and 1465, but works from this period are not known. His career thereafter may be divided into two periods: as a young artist he was based in Siena, where his work on a group of choir-books for the cathedral demonstrates his originality as an illuminator; in or soon after 1476 he returned to Verona, where he established himself as one of the city’s major painters. During both periods he travelled and worked in other centres.

Called to Siena before 1467 by the Olivetans, Liberale illuminated four choir-books (Chiusi, Mus. Cattedrale, Cods A, Q, R and Y) for the abbey of Monte Oliveto Maggiore. The miniatures show a mixture of styles: Sienese influences, especially the Late Gothic ornament of Sano di Pietro, are combined with such stylistic components from the Veneto and Emilia as sculpturally modelled, animated draperies, expressive physiognomies and tense, nervous gestures. Liberale worked as an illuminator for Siena Cathedral from ...


(b Paris, c. 1604; d Laluque, Landes, March 29, 1678).

French painter, engraver and print publisher. Although it was as a painter that he was received (reçu) in 1663 by the Académie Royale, it is as an engraver that he is now remembered. His earliest known print is dated 1630, and he later made many plates, particularly reproductive engravings after his contemporaries Jacques Blanchard and Claude Vignon. He was one of Simon Vouet’s best interpreters, and Vouet himself commissioned from him at least 11 plates after his own paintings. Daret’s most important projects were the engraving of plates for and the publication of M. de Gomberville’s La Doctrine des moeurs (Paris, 1646) and the monumental collection of over 100 portraits in the Tableaux historiques où sont gravez les illustres français et estrangiers (Paris, 1652). His translation of Vasari’s life of Raphael, Abrégé de la vie de Raphael Sansio d’Urbin (Paris, 1651), is celebrated as the first monograph on an artist published in France....


Marianne Grivel


(fl 1540–56).

French engraver. Very little is known about his life and career. Only one of his engravings, the Apostles Contemplating Christ and the Virgin (1546; Zerner, L.D. 55) after Giulio Romano, bears a full name, ‘Lion Daven’; all the others have merely the monogram ‘L.D.’, under which his work is usually catalogued. Until Herbet’s study, this monogram was taken to be the signature of the Fleming Léonard Thiry. Davent made engravings from 1540, turning to etching c. 1543–4. Herbet attributed 221 plates to him, Zerner only 98.

Davent reproduced principally the works of Francesco Primaticcio, whose style he rendered boldly and freely. Zerner considered him the finest engraver of the school of Fontainebleau. Davent was able to reproduce the elegance and grace of Primaticcio, and his best works—Jason Slaying the Dragon (z 16), Rebecca and Eliezer (z 23), The Goddesses and The Muses (z 25–36) and the medallion-shaped prints showing hunting and fishing (...


Marianne Grivel

(b ?Paris, c. 1519; d Paris, 1583).

French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver. He was recorded as a journeyman goldsmith in Paris in 1546 and was appointed to the royal mint in January 1552. He was, however, removed in June that year. A number of medals, including one of Henry II (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles), are attributed to him. He did not become an engraver until about 1557; his first dated prints, a series of 12 plates illustrating the Old Testament (Linzeler and Adhémar, nos 3–14) and two designs for hand mirrors (l & a 308–9), were made in 1561. He found his models in the work of such Italian artists of the Fontainebleau school as Rosso Fiorentino, Nicolò dell’Abate and especially Luca Penni, rather than in that of Francesco Primaticcio. The year 1569 seems to have marked the peak of Delaune’s Fontainebleau production, with about ten prints inspired by the Italian masters. As a Calvinist he left Paris at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre on ...


Babette Bohn

(b Ravenna; d Rome, 1527).

Italian engraver. He was active in Rome during the early 16th century. Some early writers confused him with Silvestro da Ravenna, and his family name was unknown until its rediscovery by Zani. He studied with Raimondi, Marcantonio and was strongly influenced by the latter’s style. He often collaborated with Musi, Agostino dei, another Marcantonio student who also had some influence on Dente’s work. Dente was evidently born in Ravenna, although his birth date is undocumented. His earliest signed and dated print is inscribed 1515, suggesting that he was active from c. 1510 and was probably born in the late 15th century. He was killed in the Sack of Rome in 1527.

Dente produced over 60 reproductive engravings, primarily after works by Raphael and his circle and after the Antique. Occasionally he made engravings after other artists, such as the Massacre of the Innocents (1520–21; b. 21) after Baccio Bandinelli. He engraved several copies after ...


Michel Sylvestre

(b Nancy, c. 1588; bur Nancy, Oct 20, 1660).

French painter, engraver and draughtsman. After a period of training in Rome he returned to his native Lorraine in 1619 to succeed Jacques Bellange as the most important painter in the duchy. For more than 40 years he ran a large and successful workshop in Nancy that provided mural decorations, portraits, devotional pictures and secular easel paintings for the court, the nobility and bourgeoisie; Claude (le) Lorrain worked in his studio in 1625–6. Déruet continued to work in a Mannerist style long after this had become old-fashioned in Italy and in Paris. The scale of production in his workshop can be judged from an inventory drawn up two years after his death and published by Jacquot in 1894. Many of his works survive, but they have yet to be studied in depth as a corpus. Déruet’s son Charles Déruet (1635–66) was also a painter.

Déruet came from a family of clockmakers originating in Champagne. His father entered the service of ...


Nicoletta Pons

[Alunno di Domenico]

(fl Florence, c. 1475–c. 1500/05).

Italian painter, draughtsman and designer. His only documented works are the seven predella panels for Domenico Ghirlandaio’s altarpiece of the Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Gal. Osp. Innocenti), painted in 1488 for S Maria degli Innocenti, the church of the Foundling Hospital, Florence (Bruscoli). Berenson (1903), before he knew the artist had been identified, grouped a body of work around the painter of the Innocenti panels under the name Alunno di Domenico (‘pupil of Domenico’). Later archival work (Pons) revealed that Bartolomeo di Giovanni was not the same person as Bartolommeo di Giovanni di Miniato, a bookseller and brother of the illuminators Gherardo and Monte del Foro, as Venturi proposed. Nor is it likely that he was the same person as the Bartolomeo di Giovanni Masini, who was a painter of banners (sargie) cited in the Red Book of the Compagnia di S Luca, Florence (Fahy, ...