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Enrique Arias Anglés



Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...


[Angelika ] (Catharina )

(b Chur, Graubünden, Oct 30, 1741; d Rome, Nov 5, 1807).

Swiss painter and etcher. She was a serious and prolific painter of portraits (see fig.) and one of relatively few women artists painting in the Neo-classical style to specialize in subject pictures as well. She attracted glittering and international patronage (the family of George III in Britain, Grand-Duke Paul and Prince Nikolay Yusupov in Russia, Stanislav II Poniatowski and Stanislav Kostka Potocki in Poland, Queen Caroline of Naples, and Emperor Joseph II of Austria) and was much admired by her fellow artists. In Rome she was accepted into the Accademia di S Luca at the precocious age of 23, and in London she was a founder-member of the Royal Academy and an invited participant in virtually every important public project involving painting, from the abortive scheme to decorate St Paul’s Cathedral to the decorations for the Royal Academy’s own rooms at Somerset House and John Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery. The final tribute paid to Kauffman in Rome at her funeral, which was arranged by ...


(b Augustinusga, May 13, 1768; d Leeuwarden, July 14, 1836).

Dutch painter and teacher. He came from a family of civil servants, but from an early age he showed an interest in drawing and painting. At 12 he took lessons with local house painters, and after 1783 his father sent him to Johannes Verrier, an amateur painter in Leeuwarden who had been a pupil of Jan Maurits Quinkhard. After the revolution of 1795 van der Kooi, a patriotic supporter of the Batavian Republic, was elected Representative of the People of Friesland. In 1798 he was appointed the first Lecturer in the Art of Drawing at Franeker University, although drawing had been part of the university’s programme since 1744—mainly for the benefit of students of medicine and mathematics. He reorganized the drawing classes according to the traditional academic pattern, and he seems to have taken considerable trouble to make the latest French prints available to his students. However, his attempts to establish a full-scale art academy were unsuccessful. In ...


Efrem Gisella Calingaert

(b Piacenza, Jan 6, 1756; d Piacenza, Feb 24, 1830).

Italian painter. After a brief training in Piacenza, he was sent to Rome in 1781 by his patron, Marchese Giovan Battista Landi. He studied under Pompeo Girolamo Batoni and Domenico Corvi and copied works by Raphael, Michelangelo and 17th-century masters. In Rome he also established a close friendship with Antonio Canova, with whom he shared a preference for studying from live models. Praised for his use of colour, his soft, perfectly measured brushwork and his sense of composition, Landi acquired immediate fame and received numerous commissions for mythological and religious paintings and portraits. Works such as his two large pictures in Piacenza Cathedral, the Funeral of the Virgin (1802) and the Apostles at the Empty Tomb (1804), testify to his attachment to 17th-century imagery. In 1809 and 1811 he was one of the painters who received imperial commissions to glorify Napoleon, for example Napoleon Concluding an Armistice with Prince Liechtenstein, Minister Plenipotentiary of Vienna...


Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...


(b Rouen, Nov 11, 1738; d Paris, May 7, 1826).

French painter, illustrator and writer. He began his studies in Rouen and, at 17, won first prize for drawing at the city’s Académie. Shortly afterwards he travelled to Paris, entering the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture as a student of Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre. In 1767–8 he was in Rome, a fact confirmed by a number of dated and inscribed drawings and paintings, including the pen, ink and wash drawing Landscape Inspired by the Gardens of the Villa d’Este at Tivoli (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He was in Switzerland in 1776, where he spent several years drawing illustrations for Beát Zurlauben’s Tableau de la Suisse ou voyage pittoresque fait dans les treize cantons du Corps Helvétique (Paris, 1780–86). In 1780, having returned to France, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale and received (reçu) in 1785 with Jupiter Asleep on Mount Ida (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Thereafter he regularly exhibited moralistic pictures at the Salon until ...


Alain Jacobs

(b Antwerp, March 31, 1739; d Brussels, March 30, 1822).

Flemish painter and writer. He was the son of the flower painter Cornelis Lens (d after 1766) and studied first under Charles Ykens II (1719–53) and then under Balthazar Beschey. In 1756 he was awarded first prize at the Academie of Antwerp and in 1763 was appointed to the staff on the strength of his decoration (destr.) of the refectory of the Alexians at Lier. He also came to the attention of Charles Alexandre, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, Governor-General of the Netherlands, who appointed him court painter in the following year.

Lens subsequently spent four years in Rome (1764–8), at a time when the theories of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were influential. Charles, Comte de Cobenzl, became his patron and introduced him to leading figures in Roman society, such as Cardinal Albani. Lens’s sketchbooks and notes bear witness to his curiosity and fascination with finds from recent archaeological digs in the Campagna; from the moment he encountered these he devoted himself to the Antique. He also took a particular interest in the works of Raphael, Guido Reni and the Carracci. On his return to Antwerp in ...



(b Sainte-Anne, Guadeloupe, Jan 10, 1760; d Paris, April 21, 1832).

French painter. He was the illegitimate son of a white government official and a freed black slave. Although his real name was Guillon, as the third child of the family he called himself Letiers, Lethiers and finally, from 1799, when recognized by his father, Lethière. While accompanying his father to France in 1774 Lethière entered the studio of Jean-Baptiste Descamps at the Académie in Rouen, where he won a drawing prize for an académie in 1776 (Rouen, Bib. Mun.). In 1777 he went to Paris and enrolled at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, studying under Gabriel-François Doyen and winning a first-class medal in July 1782. Lacking influential friends and patrons, before the Prix de Rome of 1784 Lethière attempted to attract support by writing to Mme de la Palum (related by marriage to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes), asking her to intercede in his favour with the Premier Peintre du Roi, Jean-Baptiste Pierre (Paris, Archv. N., A.N. 1. O 1917 2, item 91). In the Prix, Lethière won second prize with the ...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Aug 29, 1826; d Passy, Aug 4, 1890).

French painter, illustrator and pastellist. He was a pupil of Alexandre Abel de Pujol and François-Edouard Picot at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and made his début at the Salon of 1848. In 1854 he won the Prix de Rome with Abraham Washing the Feet of the Angels (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1855 he sent Noah Cursing Canaan (Aurillac, Mus. Parieu) from Rome for exhibition at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, and the work was bought by the French government. He specialized in classical and biblical subjects executed with the soft colouring, linear precision, prettiness and graceful poses of the Neo-classical style. He became particularly famous for his antique pastoral love scenes, such as The Bowl: Idyll (Pau, Mus. B.-A.), which were much appreciated by such contemporary critics as Jules Claretie (1840–1913). However, he also depicted moments of violence and drama such as the Death of Orpheus...


Oscar E. Vázquez, Enrique Arias Anglés, M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco and Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

Spanish family of artists, teachers, critics and museum directors. Its members included some of the most important artists in 19th-century Spain. (1) José de Madrazo y Agudo was a Neo-classical painter who had trained under David in Paris and also in Rome. He remained faithful to the tenets of Neo-classicism in subject-matter and style and became director of both the Real Academia de S Fernando and the Museo del Prado in Madrid. Two of his sons, (2) Federico de Madrazo y Küntz and Luis de Madrazo y Küntz (b Madrid, 27 Feb 1825; d Madrid, 9 Feb 1897), were also painters. Federico became the foremost portrait painter in Spain as well as holding all the significant posts in the art establishment. José’s other sons were the art historian and critic (3) Pedro de Madrazo y Küntz, whose work includes studies of the Prado collection, and the architect Juan de Madrazo y Küntz (...


Emily Braun

(b Rome, Feb 15, 1902; d Rome, March 31, 1965).

Italian painter. Mafai was the central figure of a group of artists called the Scuola Romana. His preference for lyrical, intimate subject-matter contrasted with the monumental neo-classicism of the Novecento Italiano. From 1922 until 1925 he attended the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. There he met his future wife, the artist Antonietta Raphael, who introduced him to the work of the Ecole de Paris. By 1927 the painter Scipione and the sculptor Marino Mazzacurati (1907–1969) gathered regularly in Mafai’s studio, giving rise to an association known as the ‘Scuola di Via Cavour’. During this period Mafai painted views of the River Tiber in a deliberately unschooled manner, self-portraits and still-lifes such as Quartered Bullock (1930; Milan, Brera), reminiscent of Chaïm Soutine. His series of still-lifes called Dried Flowers was begun after a year in Paris in 1930.

While Scipione went on to develop an increasingly expressionist style, Mafai responded to the formal research of Giorgio Morandi by stressing the tonal qualities in his paintings. This concentration on the subtle gradation of values endowed the commonplace objects of his still-lifes with a heightened, magical reality. After ...


Mónica Martí Cotarelo


(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Rome, 1690; d Rome, Oct 19, 1768).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was apprenticed in Rome, first to Andrea Procaccini and later to Maratti. His work is characterized by a classicism derived from Guido Reni and ultimately from Raphael. According to Pio, he was ‘nourished first by the perfect milk of Maratti, and then saturated with the divine nectar of Raphael’. One of the last artists of Maratti’s school, he was also a precursor of the movement known as Proto-Neo-classicism, which flourished in the Roman art world during the 1720s and 1730s, and the inventor of the new code of portraiture that evolved from the Maratti school.

Masucci entered the competitions held by the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, and won prizes in 1706, 1707 and 1708 with the Killing of Tarpeia, the Battle between the Horatii and the Curiatii, Ancus Marcius and Accius Nevius; on becoming an academician in 1724, he painted the Martyrdom of St Barbara...


Mimi Cazort



(b Marseille, Oct 14, 1824; d Marseille, June 29, 1886).

French painter. In 1846, after studying at the Ecole d’Art in Marseille, Monticelli left Provence to study in Paris with Paul Delaroche. Although he had been trained to work in a Neo-classical style by his teachers in Marseille, in Paris he admired the Troubadour pictures of such artists as Pierre Révoil and Fleury Richard and the bold colours and rich surface impasto of Delacroix’s oil sketches. He also copied many of the Old Masters in the Louvre. When he returned to Marseille in 1847 Emile Loubon (1809–63), newly appointed director of the Ecole de Dessin in Marseille and a friend of many realist landscape painters in Paris, encouraged him and another local painter, Paul Guigou, to record the landscapes and traditional village scenes of Provence (e.g. Rural Scene, Marseille, Mus. Grobet-Labadié).

In 1855–6 Monticelli returned to Paris, where he met the Barbizon landscape painter Narcisse Diaz. They went on painting excursions to the Forest of Fontainebleau together; Monticelli often followed Diaz’s example of including nudes and Watteau-inspired costumed figures in his landscapes, as in the ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...


John Wilton-Ely

Term coined in the 1880s to denote the last stage of the classical tradition in architecture, sculpture, painting and the decorative arts. Neo-classicism was the successor to Rococo in the second half of the 18th century and was itself superseded by various historicist styles in the first half of the 19th century. It formed an integral part of Enlightenment, the in its radical questioning of received notions of human endeavour. It was also deeply involved with the emergence of new historical attitudes towards the past—non-Classical as well as Classical—that were stimulated by an unprecedented range of archaeological discoveries, extending from southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean to Egypt and the Near East, during the second half of the 18th century. The new awareness of the plurality of historical styles prompted the search for consciously new and contemporary forms of expression. This concept of modernity set Neo-classicism apart from past revivals of antiquity, to which it was, nevertheless, closely related. Almost paradoxically, the quest for a timeless mode of expression (the ‘true style’, as it was then called) involved strongly divergent approaches towards design that were strikingly focused on the Greco-Roman debate. On the one hand, there was a commitment to a radical severity of expression, associated with the Platonic Ideal, as well as to such criteria as the functional and the primitive, which were particularly identified with early Greek art and architecture. On the other hand, there were highly innovative exercises in eclecticism, inspired by late Imperial Rome, as well as subsequent periods of stylistic experiment with Mannerism and the Italian Baroque....


Elise Madeleine Ciregna

Elise Madeleine Ciregna

Term coined in the 19th century to describe the overwhelmingly dominant style in the fine and decorative arts in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries. Neo-classicism is not one distinct style, but rather the term can describe any work of architecture or art that either copies or imitates ancient art, or that represents an approach to art that draws inspiration from Classical models from ancient Greece and Rome. The most influential theorist of Neo-classicism was the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose major work, Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, was translated into English in 1765. The Neo-classical style in North America was most popular from about 1780 to 1850.

Interest in Classical art and architecture has remained more or less constant throughout Western history, peaking most notably during the Renaissance and again in the 18th century. The systematic excavations and ensuing scholarship on the archaeological sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii, buried by the volcanic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in ...


Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...