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[Cesari, Carlo de; Pallago, Carlo; Palazzo, Carlo; Zeherin, Karl]

(b Florence, 1540; d Mantua, c. 1598).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and bronze-caster. His work was considered to be by two artists until Keutner (1991–2) proposed that Carlo di Cesari and Carlo Pallago were the same person. Most of his creative career was spent working at the courts of German princes; so far his name has been connected with surviving works only north of the Alps. He is documented as working, in his early years, as an assistant to Vasari and Giambologna at the Medici court in Florence. In 1565 he was accepted as a member at the Accademia del Disegno in Florence, continuing to pay his subscription until 1568. From 1569 to 1573 he worked for Hans Fugger in Augsburg (see Fugger family §(3)), making sculptural decorations in stucco and terracotta for his house (partly destr. 1944) as part of Friedrich Sustris’s decorative scheme. Twelve pairs of almost life-size terracotta satyrs have survived in the library, which remains intact. In ...

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Stephen K. Scher

(di Giovan Michele de’) [Pastorino da Siena]

(b Castelnuovo della Berardenga, c. 1508; d Florence, Dec 6, 1592).

Italian medallist, glass painter and die engraver. He was one of the most prolific and able medallists of the Italian Renaissance, producing around 200 medals. He held various official positions including several in the mints of Emilian courts: in Ferrara (1554–9), in Bologna (1572), in Novellara (1574) and in Florence (1576). In Florence he was ‘maestro di stucchi’ under Grand Duke Francesco de’ Medici (1541; 1574; 1587). He was also renowned as a portraitist in coloured wax for which he apparently developed new materials and techniques to represent hair and skin.

Pastorini trained as a glass painter under Guillaume de Marcillat, who worked in Arezzo until his death in 1529. He practised this craft through the 1530s and 1540s, first at Siena Cathedral (1531–7) and later in the Sala Regia in the Vatican and in San Marco (...

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Jacques Thirion

(b Paris, c. 1525; d Paris, Feb 3, 1590).

French sculptor and medallist. He was the dominant figure in French sculpture of the second half of the 16th century after the exile of Jean Goujon in 1562. His monument for the Heart of Henry II (marble, 1561–5; Paris, Louvre) is one of the most admired sculptures of the French Renaissance, and in such religious works as the Virgin of Sorrows he produced some of the most moving sculptures of the Counter-Reformation in France. His career was sufficiently successful for him to have acquired several properties in Paris by the end of his life. Of his many children by three marriages two became sculptors, Raphael Pilon (1559–90) and Germain Pilon the younger (b 1571), and a daughter Claude Pilon (b 1564) married the painter Nicolas Leblond in 1583.

He trained in the Paris workshop of his father, the sculptor André Pilon, and records exist of several religious statues and recumbent tomb effigies (untraced) that they executed in collaboration. Since Connat and du Colombier established that Pilon was born ...

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(b Lodi, c. 1569–70; d Graz, bur March 6, 1633).

Italian painter, architect, engineer and medallist, active in Austria. He trained as a painter in Venice, probably in the workshop of Tintoretto. Although no dated or signed works from his Venetian period are known, a number of paintings are now attributed to him that were earlier ascribed to the circle of Tintoretto, including the Resurrection (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.), the Flagellation (Prague Castle) and the Triumph of Virtue (Madrid, Prado), all between 1584 and 1589. Around 1589 Pomis entered the service of Archduke Ferdinand II, later Holy Roman Emperor, who appointed him official painter to the court in Graz in 1597. In the service of the Archduke, Pomis travelled in 1598 to Rome, Loreto and Spain, in 1601 to Hungary and in 1608 to Florence. His works from this period include an altarpiece representing the Apotheosis of the Counter-Reformation (1602; Graz, St Anton von Padua), an energetic composition probably influenced by Tintoretto, a painting of the ...

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(b Caravaggio, 1512; d Florence, Oct 13, 1562).

Italian medallist, painter, sculptor, goldsmith and armourer. The son of Girolamo d’Andrea degli Ortensi (Girolamo dal Prato), a goldsmith and medallist, he was called ‘dal Prato’ after the location of his dwelling on the Prato d’Ognissanti in Florence. Vasari described him as the best goldsmith of his time and mentioned that he had made a fine medal of Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Florence (untraced), which was placed in the foundations of the gate at Faenza, and another, a struck piece, of Pope Clement VII (?1529–30; Florence, Bargello) with a reverse of Christ bound to a column for the flagellation, commemorating the Pope’s imprisonment during the Sack of Rome (1527). His identity as a medallist, however, is precarious, as his work and that of Domenico de’ Vetri have long been confused, and, since there are no signed medals, his oeuvre has not yet been established. Aside from the surviving ...

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Mark Jones

(fl c. 1575–88).

Medallist, probably of Italian origin, active in France. Although both his name and the style of his work are Italian, all Primavera’s known medals seem to have been made in France. His sitters included the poets Jean Dorat, Philippe Desportes, Jean-Antoine de Baif, Pierre de Ronsard and Caye Jules de Guersens, as well as Catherine de’ Medici, Elizabeth I of England, Mary Queen of Scots, François, Duke of Anjou, Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, and Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (e.g. Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles). These portraits are very similar to those made by Primavera’s contemporaries in Italy, but they differ in that they lack reverses. It is uncertain whether this reflects difficulties that Primavera encountered in introducing the Italian concept of personal medallic portraiture into France or whether it is the result of his own limitations. It is significant, however, that portrait medals with reverses did not become popular in France until 15 years after Primavera had ceased work....

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Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500/1510; d Leipzig, Jan 29, 1581).

German medallist and goldsmith. He trained as a cabinetmaker and executed the panelling for a room in Halle, probably in 1538, to a commission from Cardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg. In the following year he became a citizen of Leipzig and worked there as a medallist, but the Leipzig guild of goldsmiths was not prepared to recognize medal-making as an independent craft, so Reinhart was forced, in spite of his relatively advanced age, to complete a five-year apprenticeship as a goldsmith. Reinhart’s medals, mainly produced between 1535 and 1545, were marked with his initials hr. It is noteworthy that he cast his medals from wooden models and not, as was usual in goldsmith work, from stone models. After he had qualified as a master goldsmith in 1547, his work as a medallist took second place, but no goldsmith work has been identified as being by him.

Reinhart’s oeuvre as medallist is not extensive: Habich lists fewer than 50 medals. Among them are portraits of the ...

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Stephen K. Scher

(b L’Aquila; fl 1560–1609).

Italian medallist and goldsmith. He was the son of the goldsmith Bartolomeo Romanelli (fl c. 1550) and the brother of Raffaele Romanelli, who was also a goldsmith. The Florentine writer Antonio Francesco Doni wrote a letter to Romanelli (see Armand and Pollard), included in an edition of the sonnets of Burchiello, in which he thanked him for a medal, which is recorded by Armand as being in the Mazzuchelli collection (Brescia, Gian Maria Mazzuchelli priv. col., see Armand, ii, pp. 24, 200; iii, p. 103). The most commonly found medals of the artist are of the Florentine scholar Pietro Vettori the younger (1499–1585; examples, London, BM, and Florence, Bargello). There are five such medals, only one of which is signed with the initials ‘g. r. f.’. In good examples of these pieces the portraiture is adequate but not distinguished, and the reverses show a singular lack of invention. Pollard adds two medals to Romanelli’s oeuvre: one (examples, London, BM, and Florence, Bargello), dedicated to Carlo Pitti, a Florentine senator, is a convincing attribution. The second (Florence, Bargello), of Nicholas de Lange of Lyon (...

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Stephen K. Scher

(b Milan, 1517; d after 1575).

Italian medallist and gem-engraver. Beginning his career in Milan, he moved to Venice in the early 1540s and to Rome in 1546, to work for the papal mint. On stylistic grounds a medal of Pope Julius III (1550–55; Kress, no. 369A) is attributed to de Rossi, but his first signed medal is of Pope Marcellus II (1555; Kress, no. 370). From 1557 to 1560 de Rossi resided in Florence, and in 1557 he accepted a commission to carve a large cameo showing Cosimo I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and his Family (Florence, Pitti), from a preliminary drawing (Oxford, Christ Church) attributed to Vasari; the cameo admirably displays de Rossi’s technical brilliance. In 1560 he returned to Rome, and in 1561 he became warden of the papal mint, a position he retained until his death. In this post he produced not only papal medals but a medal of ...

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Mark M. Salton

(di Tommaso)

(b Reggio Emilia, 1521; d Reggio Emilia, 1576).

Italian medallist. He held various prominent positions in the city’s administration, and in 1571 he was appointed Superintendent of the Reggio Mint. Together with such artists as Agostino Ardenti, Andrea Cambi (‘Bombarda’, fl c. 1560) and Gian Antonio Signoretti (d 1602), he ranks among the foremost medallists of the Emilian school in the 16th century. The work of these artists is closely related though Ruspagiari’s modelling is perhaps the finest. His medals are uniface, of low relief, and cast in lead or a lead alloy. A characteristic of his portraits, and Emilian portraiture in general during that period, is that the arms are cut abruptly at or just below the shoulders. The artist’s signature is sometimes placed on the exposed truncation. Sitters are portrayed in elaborate, eccentric costumes and exuberant coiffures. Ruspagiari’s earliest work probably dates to c. 1536 with the portrait of Ercole II d’Este. Two self-portraits form part of Ruspagiari’s oeuvre. On the larger he refers to himself not only in the legend ...

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Steven F. Ostrow

(b Villa di S Quirico, Trecasali, nr Parma, 1565; d Rome, 1630).

Italian sculptor and medallist. According to Giovanni Baglione, he moved c. 1590–95 to Rome, where he dedicated himself to making small portraits in coloured wax. His artistic origins remain obscure, but in Rome he studied first with the Vicentine sculptor Camillo Mariani and then with the Milanese medallist Giacomo Antonio Moro (d 1624), who was master of the papal mint from 1610 to 1624.

Under the instruction of Moro, Sanquirico acquired considerable skill as a medallist. Most of the medals he executed were for Pope Paul V, whose building enterprises were documented in Sanquirico’s foundation medals: the façade of St Peter’s (1608) and the fountain of Acqua Paola (1610), both in Rome, the Port of Fano (1613) and the fortress at Ferrara (1609 and 1611). In these medals, most of which are cast in bronze rather than struck, Sanquirico revealed himself to be a highly sophisticated portraitist and recorder of architecture....

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(fl 1491–1528).

Italian goldsmith and sculptor. Documents dating from between 1491 and 1528 record his activity as a goldsmith in the area near the church of Sant’Agata in Padua, from which he derives his name. His one securely documented work to survive, a boxwood Hercules with a Club (London, Wallace), signed opvs. francisci. avrificis, was highly praised in 1560 by Bernardino Scardeone, who stated that it was in the collection of Marc’Antonio Massimo in Padua. This sleek and highly finished statuette of a muscular Hercules wielding his club established the standard against which a number of similar boxwood and bronze figures have been compared. The analogies between the work’s posture and modelling and those of another statuette of Hercules (Oxford, Ashmolean) prompted some critics to ascribe this to da Sant’Agata as well, although it has been reattributed to Vittore Gambello.

Other bronzes associated with da Sant’Agata include statuettes of a languid Niobe...

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Janez Höfler

(b 1477–8; d Ulm, 1549).

German painter and medallist. He produced some of the outstanding altarpieces of the Renaissance in Swabia. His birthdate is suggested by a self-portrait medal of 1522 (Munich, Staatl. Münzsamml.) on which he describes himself as aged 44. He was obviously trained in Jörg Stocker’s workshop in Ulm: his name first appears on the reverse side of the winged altar made by Stocker in 1496 for St Martin at Ennetach (Sigmaringen, Fürstl. Hohenzoll. Samml. & Hofbib.), where he signed the Carrying of the Cross. Yet Schaffner’s contribution here would have been confined to subsidiary details; Stocker, a rather conservative and spiritless artist, could have imparted only basic painting skills to the young painter. An altar wing with paintings on both sides (1500; Ulm, Ulm. Mus.), perhaps also painted by Schaffner in Stocker’s studio, seems old-fashioned, though not totally devoid of the charm of his later figures. Schaffner was a taxpaying householder in Ulm in ...

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Hermann Maué

(b Augsburg 1492; d after 1521).

German sculptor and medallist. He was probably a descendant of Ulrich Schwarz, a burgomaster of Augsburg, and at some time after 1506 trained as a wood-carver under Stephan Schwarz (fl 1493–1535; possibly a relative) in Augsburg, where the dominant artistic influence was the work of Hans Burgkmair I.

It appears probable that in the years 1512 to 1518 Schwarz travelled throughout south Germany, becoming familiar with the Danube school. Müller ascribes to him some carved wood reliefs on altar wings, some three-dimensional figures in small format and some relief tondi (e.g. Munich, Bayer. Nmus.). These early works already show his marked ability to characterize his figurative portrayals in a precise and individual manner.

Schwarz is regarded as the true originator of the German Renaissance medal. In 1518, after some tentative experiments, he executed some 25 portrait medals of notable persons who had attended the Imperial Diet in Augsburg and of Augsburg citizens; these include ...

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J. Oberhaidacher

(fl 1496; d after 1520).

German painter, sculptor and bronze-founder. He worked for the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. First mentioned in 1496 as a painter in Munich, from 1502 he was court painter to Maximilian. In 1508 he was entrusted by the Emperor with the execution of life-size bronze figures of Habsburg ancestors for his tomb; he had worked on designs for them previously. That year he moved to Innsbruck to start work in the nearby Mühlau foundries on the figure of King Ferdinand of Portugal, collaborating with the caster Peter Leiminger [Löffler]. Shortly afterwards he was assigned his own foundry: thereafter he had sole responsibility for the project.

Sesselschreiber’s lack of expertise in casting and his problematical attitude to business nearly led to the project foundering. In 1513, with only the figure of Ferdinand of Portugal ready (and even that incomplete) the Emperor ordered an inventory to be carried out of work done so far; this revealed that besides this standing figure another six statues had been started and existed in sections. Conditions were then imposed on Sesselschreiber; but these must have proved ineffective for in ...

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Frank Dabell and Stephen K. Scher

[Spinello]

Italian family of artists. They were active in Tuscany in the 14th and 15th centuries. Like his brother and father, Luca di Spinello worked as a goldsmith and two of his sons were artists: the painter (1) Spinello Aretino and the goldsmith and sculptor Niccolò Spinelli. Spinello was one of the most popular, prolific and important Tuscan painters of the late 14th century and early 15th. Niccolò, who settled in Florence, was the oldest contestant in the 1401–2 competition to make the bronze doors of the Baptistery in Florence. He married the daughter of the painter Andrea di Nerio, who probably trained Spinello. Spinello’s son, (2) Parri Spinelli, was also a painter. Niccolò’s two sons, Cola Spinelli (1384–1458) and Forzore Spinelli (1397–1477), were goldsmiths in Florence. Forzore’s son, (3) Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli, was a medallist who produced numerous large portrait medals.

(b Arezzo, 1350–52...

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Mary Margaret McDonnell Ford

(b Parma, Feb 15, 1508; d Venice, May 24, 1572).

Italian medallist, sculptor, bookbinder and dealer. He was an industrious student of the goldsmith Gianfrancesco Bonzagni, to whom he was related. In 1533 he produced a medal celebrating the foundation of the Venetian church of S Francesco della Vigna (begun by Jacopo Sansovino). This event was also commemorated in a medal (e.g. Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) by a pupil of Vittore Gambello. Both works depict Doge Andrea Gritti, who laid the foundation-stone of the church in 1534, as well as showing Sansovino’s design. Spinelli’s medal contains a bust of Gritti on its face with the inscription ‘Gritti DVX Venetiar MDXXIII’. The Doge is shown facing to the left, bearded and clothed in a cap and robe. A portion of the chest and cap extends over part of one of the two circles encompassing the bust. On the reverse of the medal is an inscription, surrounded by maple leaves, to ‘DIVI Francisci MDXXXIIII’, and, in the exergue, the signature ‘An Sp F’ (Andrea Spinelli Fecit), together with the date. The design on the reverse is from a perspective drawing of the church, which intersects the inner of the two circles, as the bust of the Doge does on the obverse side. The inscription within the two circles surrounding the design also appears on both sides. The medal, cast in bronze, has a predominantly light brown patina, although part of it has a covering of black lacquer. An unusual spot or mark is visible behind the neck of the Doge....

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Hermann Maué

(b Zurich, 1505–6; d Zurich, July 2, 1579).

Swiss goldsmith, medallist and die-cutter. He belonged to a famous Zurich family of goldsmiths and learnt the craft from his father. He probably also worked for a South German medallist, possibly in Augsburg or Nuremberg. Returning to Zurich in 1530, he entered his father’s workshop; his first medal, a portrait of his father, dates from 1531. In 1533 he became a Master. In the following years he held important public offices in Zurich. He made medals that were widely circulated of Ulrich Zwingli, Oecolampadius (1531–40) and other figures of the Reformation in Switzerland. Stampfer’s ‘Moralpfennige’, medals with religious images, also enjoyed great popularity. However, his most costly medal, which was commissioned in 1547 by the Swiss Confederation, depicted the 13 Coats of Arms of the Confederation and was intended as a gift to Henry II, King of France, on the occasion of his daughter’s christening. From 1588 onwards Stampfer cut the dies for numerous Zurich coins, among which the artistic ‘Wappentaler’ (heraldic talers) deserve especial mention, and also made dies for the Archbishop of Salzburg and for the Palatinate Mint in Meisenheim. The only extant pieces of his goldsmith work are four goblets and a terrestrial globe....