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Carl Van de Velde


(b Antwerp, c. 1555; d Antwerp, c. 1585).

Flemish painter and draughtsman. According to van Mander, as a young boy de Backer was abandoned by his father, also a painter, who had to flee Antwerp because of an impending court trial. Jacob then worked for several years in the studio of Antonio van Palermo (1503/13–before 1589) and later entered the workshop of Hendrick van Steenwijck. Van Mander further claimed that the strenuous labour that van Palermo had imposed on the young man had so wrecked his health that he died at the age of 30, in the arms of his former master’s daughter. This, van Mander added, happened a long time ago, thus implying that de Backer died before van Steenwijck left Antwerp in 1586. This is confirmed by other evidence, including the age of van Palermo’s daughter Lucretia, who was baptized in Antwerp on 25 July 1561. She lived until 1626 and at the time of her death still possessed six paintings by de Backer....


(b Brussels, Aug 20, 1848; d Ixelles, Brussels, Dec 13, 1914).

Belgian architect, designer, painter and writer . He came from a family of artists: one brother, Charles Baes, was a glass painter and two others, Henri Baes and Pierre Baes, were decorative painters. Jean Baes studied decorative design at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, and, from 1867 to 1871, in the firm of Charle-Albert. He subsequently trained in architecture in the studios of Emile Janlet, Wynand Janssens and Alphonse Balat. Baes devoted most of his professional career—which was cut short in 1895 by a debilitating illness—to architecture but he also worked as an interior designer, a graphic designer, an architectural draughtsman and, especially, as a watercolourist of architectural subjects. In 1872 he was a founder-member of Belgium’s Société Centrale d’Architecture and after 1874 he collaborated on its journal, L’Emulation. In 1886 he became Assistant Director of the newly established Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Brussels, where his pupils included Paul Hankar and ...


Laura Mattioli Rossi

Italian family of artists, architects and collectors . Pietro Bagatti Valsecchi (b Milan, 15 April 1802; d Milan, 27 Nov 1864) was adopted by Baron Lattanzio Valsecchi and assumed the latter’s surname and inherited his estate. He gained a degree in mathematics and physics but later devoted himself to painting miniatures on ivory, enamel, glass, metal and porcelain, specializing in these techniques in Paris and Geneva. Returning to Milan, he soon gained considerable recognition for such work and took part in major exhibitions. In 1837 he presented a group of works at the Salon in Paris, including a miniature copy on ivory of Francesco Hayez’s Mary Queen of Scots Mounting the Scaffold (1827; Milan, Bagatti Valsecchi Col.) and a copy on porcelain of Francesco Podesti’s Raphael’s Studio (Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana). In 1842 he was made a noble of the Austrian Empire for his artistic achievements, and the Emperor Ferdinand acquired one of his paintings on porcelain, ...


Maryvelma O’Neil

(b Rome, c. 1566; d Dec 30, 1643).

Italian painter, draughtsman and writer . He executed canvases and frescoes of religious and mythological subjects, and portraits. He was given important commissions by popes and aristocrats and sold his works to patrons in Italy and abroad. Baglione’s arguably greater fame as a writer derives from Le nove chiese di Roma (1639) and especially from his Vite de’ pittori, scultori, architetti (1642), containing biographies of more than 200 artists who worked in Rome between 1572 and 1642.

Although born in Rome, where he spent most of his life, Baglione claimed descent from a noble Perugian family. His only acknowledged training (in the autobiography appended to Le vite, 1642) was an apprenticeship with Francesco Morelli, a little-known Florentine painter in Rome. However, drawings for works from the late 1580s and 1590s (such as the Finding of Moses, the Denial of St Peter and the Arrest of Christ...


Marco Carminati

(b Orzivecchi, nr Brescia, c. 1548; d Brescia, c. 1625).

Italian painter and architect . An accomplished exponent of Lombard Mannerism, he was trained in Rome, where in 1566 he was in the employment of Alfonso Gonzaga, the lord of Novellara. On his return from Rome he settled in Novellara and came into contact with Lelio Orsi, whose influence on his art proved fundamental and enduring. Between 1569 and 1571 Bagnadore produced three altarpieces for the Jesuit church in Novellara, none of which has survived. The Pietà (Modena, Gal. & Mus. Estense), formerly attributed to Orsi, also dates from this period. In 1575 he went to Brescia, where he painted another Pietà (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo). Back in Emilia in 1580 he painted the great Ascension in the church of S Stefano in Novellara. Evidently his stay was brief, for in March 1582 he was again in Brescia, probably on his way to Bressanone. Between 1582 and 1584 he painted a cycle of frescoes depicting stories from the ...


J. Bruyn

(b Leiden, 1584; d Leiden, Oct 1657).

Dutch painter and draughtsman . The son of a Flemish immigrant who was a calligrapher and fencing-master, Bailly was apprenticed to a local surgeon-painter and then to Cornelius van der Voort (1576–1624), a portrait painter in Amsterdam. In the winter of 1608 he started out as a journeyman, spending a year in Hamburg and then travelling through several German cities to Venice and Rome. On the return voyage he visited several courts in Germany, working for local princes, including the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. While no works survive from the immediate period following his return to the Netherlands in 1613, descriptions in old sale catalogues suggest that he may have produced history paintings in the manner of his contemporaries Pieter Lastman and the Pynas brothers.

Bailly executed many portraits, of which a fair number have survived. These include meticulous small-scale drawings done in pen or with a fine brush, dating from ...


Gjergj Frashëri

(b Tiranë, Aug 4, 1937).

Albanian painter and draughtsman . He studied at the Jordan Misja Arts Lyceum (1935–7) and later at the Higher Institute of Arts in Tiranë (1961–5). His cycles of drawings such as War Dance (1971; Tiranë, A.G.) typify his style and subject-matter, which were inspired by legendary epics and medieval Albanian art. Other cycles, in watercolours and drawings, and the postage stamp series, such as War of Shtimja (1981), are notable for their powerful symbolism and show Bakalli’s transition towards monumental painting. His murals on historical themes, Confrontation (18.4×5.6 m, 1982; Krujë, Mus. N. Hist.) and The Assembly of Dukagjin (4×3.2 m, 1986; Burrel, Hist. Mus.), successfully combine a historical subject with contemporary ideas of Albanian heroism, in their use of dynamic and psychologically eloquent outline and their wealth of traditional ethnographic elements.

New Albania, 5, 7 (1972); 2, 4 (1973); 1 (1974); 4, 12 (1975)...


(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...


Maarten Wurfbain

(b The Hague, Aug 31, 1824; d Leiden, Jan 31, 1882).

Dutch painter and draughtsman . He first trained under Cornelis Kruseman at the Academie in The Hague (1841–5), then specialized in history painting at the Antwerp Academie under Gustaf Wappers from 1845 to 1848. He set up as a painter in The Hague in 1848 and exhibited large history paintings in 1848 and 1849. An example of a history painting from this period is Death bed of Frederick Henry (Apeldoorn, Pal. Het Loo; study, Leiden, Stedel. Mus. Lakenhal). By 1852 he was living in Leiden but the following year, because of failing eyesight, he temporarily gave up painting until 1858 or 1859, when he started painting small-scale, realistic genre scenes based on photographs (e.g. The Pastry Cook; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). From 1861 until his death he regularly exhibited genre paintings. Most of these are small and generally depict one or more women (never men) engaged in conversation or domestic occupations. He was awarded the knighthood of Leopold when ...


Ioana Vlasiu

(b Bucharest, Jan 22, 1895; d 1979).

Romanian painter, illustrator, watercolourist, draughtsman and pastellist . She studied at the School of Fine Arts in Bucharest (1913–16) and had private lessons with the painters Eustaţiu Stoenescu (b 1885) and Gheorghe Petraşcu. Between 1919 and 1922 she studied in Paris at the Académies Julian and Ranson, and the Academia Pedro Correja d’Aranjò with Paul-Albert Laurens (b 1870), Othon Friesz, Maurice Denis, Paul Sérusier and Edouard Vuillard. During this period she showed works at the Salon des Artistes Français and the Salon d’Automne. In Romania between the World Wars she exhibited at the official Salon and with the groups New Art (Arta Nouă) and the Association of Women Painters (Asociaţia Femeilor Pictore). She was awarded prizes in Romania and abroad, for example at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris, 1937. Her work included illustrations for books by Tudor Arghezi, ...


Libero Andreotti

(b Rovereto, Dec 10, 1896; d Milan, Sept 26, 1982).

Italian architect, stage designer and painter . After studying at the Scuola Reale Elisabettiana, an applied arts school in Rovereto, he joined the Futurist movement, headed locally by Fortunato Depero. After serving in World War I, he enrolled at the Scuola Superiore di Architettura del Politecnico, Milan, graduating in architecture in 1922. He then spent four years (1922–6) in Berlin working as a stage designer and frequenting the avant-garde milieu around Max Reinhardt, Erwin Piscator and Oskar Kokoschka. He returned to Italy in 1926 and set up his own practice. His first important commission, the remodelling of the Bar Craja (1930; with Figini and Pollini) in Milan, with its handsome glass and steel interior, established Baldessari’s reputation as an innovative designer. He collaborated again with Figini and Pollini on the De Angeli-Frua office building (1931–2) in Milan, a fine example of Italian Rationalism at its most restrained. Baldessari’s architectural masterpiece of this period was, however, the Press Pavilion (...


Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...


Hilary Pyle

(b Dublin, Sept 22, 1943).

Irish painter and printmaker . He studied architecture at Bolton Street Technical School, Dublin, from 1961 to 1964. While acting as assistant to Michael Farrell in 1967, he was introduced to hard-edge abstraction and decided to learn to paint. His natural inclination was towards figurative art, initially in his use of the figure as a silhouette in the Marchers series and subsequently in 3rd May—Goya (1970; Dublin, Hugh Lane Mun. Gal.) and other pastiches of paintings by Poussin, Ingres and Delacroix, in which he filled in the outline with flat colour. Such early works were heavily influenced by photography and by a social or political commitment, reinforced with a striking visual wit. These were followed by paintings satirizing the awakening interest in contemporary art in Dublin, as in Woman with Pierre Soulages (1972; Dublin, Bank of Ireland Col.) in which a figure is shown scrutinizing an abstract canvas.

A visit to Brussels, where Ballagh studied the work of Magritte, led him gradually to model his figures, both in portraits and in quasi-Surrealist autobiographical works, in a Photorealist technique in which he alluded to his artistic preoccupations and to his wife and family. The stylistic features of his paintings lent themselves also to silkscreen prints. He has photographed unusual aspects of Dublin architecture, which he published in book form as ...



(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...


Ivanka Gergova

Art school in Bansko, south-east Bulgaria, that flourished from the late 18th century to the end of the 19th. The Bansko school artists worked on the decorative painting of houses and churches, and produced architectural designs, frescoes and icons. The first well-known artist in Bansko, and the founder of the school, was Toma Vishanov (b c. 1750), called Molera, who studied painting in Vienna in the second half of the 18th century. There are strong Baroque and Rococo elements in his icons and church frescoes, which also show traditional orthodox scenery and the influence of Western Catholic art. Vishanov’s successors—his son, Dimitar Vishanov Molerov (d 1868), his grandson, Simeon Dimitrov Molerov (1816–1903), and his great-grandson, Georgi Simeonov Molerov (1844–78)—did not adopt his artistic views. Instead, as masters of line and colour, they followed the Creto-Athonite style of 18th- and 19th-century Bulgaria, working in the south-east of the country, in ...


Wouter Th. Kloek

[Theodorus Bernardus Amsterodamus]

(b Amsterdam, 1534; d Amsterdam, May 26, 1592).

Dutch painter and draughtsman . He probably received his first training from his father Barend Dirckszoon, nicknamed ‘Doove’ (Deaf) Barend. In 1555 he went to Rome and Venice, where he presumably worked for a while in Titian’s studio. Other Venetian artists, including Bassano family, §I, (2), also had an important influence on him. He returned to Amsterdam shortly before or during 1562, the year in which he married Agnies Florisdrochter, by whom he fathered at least eight children. He remained there for the rest of his life. He moved in cultivated circles and was an accomplished musician, mathematician and linguist. He introduced the Venetian style of painting to the Netherlands: strong colours and rapid, sketchy brushwork. Of his few surviving works there are two group portraits of members of Amsterdam’s civic guard: Fourteen Guardsmen of Squad G (1562; Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.) and the Perch Eaters (1566; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). Their lively compositions provide a welcome change from the stiff civic guard groups typically produced around that time in Amsterdam. The only dated portrait to survive, ...


Richard Jeffree

(b ?Lincs, c. 1626; d London, bur Aug 11, 1704).

English painter, etcher and draughtsman. In 1650, following his probable apprenticeship to the portrait painter William Sheppard (fl 1641–60), he was made free of the Painter-Stainers’ Company. He was by then a mature draughtsman, as can be seen by his drawing of David Slaying the Lion (1648; London, BM). In 1652 Edward Benlowe’s poem Theophila: Or Love’s Sacrifice, a Divine Poem was published in London with a frontispiece portrait of the author and a further 11 fine plates by Barlow (drawing for one plate in London, BM; drawing for another in London, V&A). Following Theophila, Barlow produced plates for numerous books, such as Richard Blome’s The Gentleman’s Recreation (1686). He published his own major edition of Aesop’s Fables in London in 1666 (dated 1665); two further editions, one in 1687 with additional plates and one in 1703, were dedicated to William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire. Many drawings for both the original and expanded editions survive (London, BM). Barlow also contributed plates to the revised version (...



Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...


William L. Pressly

(b Cork, Oct 11, 1741; d London, Feb 22, 1806).

Irish painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer.

He was the son of a publican and coastal trader and studied with the landscape painter John Butts (c. 1728–65) in Cork. Early in his career he determined to become a history painter: in 1763 he went to Dublin, where he exhibited the Baptism of the King of Cashel by St Patrick (priv. col., on loan to Dublin, N.G.) at the Dublin Society of Arts, by whom he was awarded a special premium for history painting. He studied under the portrait and history painter Jacob Ennis (1728–70) at the Dublin Society’s drawing school. He attracted the attention of Edmund Burke, who in 1764 found work for him in London preparing material for volumes of the Antiquities of Athens with James ‘Athenian’ Stuart. From 1765 to 1771 Barry travelled in Europe, financially supported by Burke. He was mostly in Rome, where he moved in the circle of the Scottish painters John and Alexander Runciman and the sculptor Joseph Nollekens; he seems also to have known the Swedish Neo-classical sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel. In ...


Annamaria Negro Spina


(b Perugia, 1615; d Rome, Nov 7, 1700).

Italian engraver, draughtsman and painter . He lived in Rome from 1635, initially as the pupil of Poussin, later serving Christina, Queen of Sweden, as an antiquarian. He was an indefatigable engraver of Roman monuments, and his work was published in, for example, Admiranda Romanorum Antiquitatum (Rome, 1693). He also engraved from Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Carracci and Lanfranco, and on subjects of his own invention. As a draughtsman, Bartoli reproduced the Codice Virgiliano (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Cod. Vat. 3867) in 55 plates (1677; Rome, Calcografia N.), commissioned by Cardinal Camillo Massimi, for whom he also executed drawings of ancient Roman paintings and mosaics (Glasgow, U. Lib.). He lived for a long time in Paris, where he was introduced at the court of Louis XIV.

DBI C. Pace: ‘Pietro Santi Bartoli: Drawings in Glasgow University Library after Roman Paintings and Mosaics’, Papers of the British School at Rome...