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(b Augsburg, May 7, 1563; d Prague, Oct 16, 1613).

German draughtsman, painter and antiquary. He was a significant figure in the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II. The son of an Augsburg advocate, by 1580 he is documented as a fully trained miniaturist. He may have worked for Ulisse Aldrovandi in Bologna before taking service (1597–1604) with the Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1601 he was summoned to the court of Rudolf II in Prague on the recommendation of Hans von Aachen, and he was confirmed in the post of miniaturist there on 28 December 1601. After returning to Italy he continued to work for Rudolf II and was eventually appointed court miniaturist in 1603, though he does not seem to have settled in Prague until 1604. In 1607 Fröschl was appointed court antiquary: between then and 1611 he drew up the inventory (Vaduz, Samml. Liechtenstein) of Rudolf II’s Kunstkammer, listing works belonging to the categories of nature (...


Philip J. Jacks

(b ?Palestrina, c. 1440; d Rome, 1527).

Italian antiquary and writer. His early career is obscure. A precocious disciple of Pomponio Leto’s Academy, he quickly joined the circle of Roman antiquaries. Fulvio is probably to be identified with ‘Andreas Praenestinus’, who composed a short epigram appended to Thomas Ochsenbrunner’s Priscorum heroum stemmata (1494, 2/1510). Another of Fulvio’s youthful poems prefaced Francesco Albertini’s Opusculum de mirabilibus novae et veteris urbis Romae of 1510. Albertini relied heavily on Fulvio (‘vir doctissimus’) for archaeological and epigraphic matters.

Fulvio’s first independent tracts, the Ars metrica and Epistola nova, published some time between 1510 and 1512, bear the cognomen ‘Sabinus’, reflecting his new status as Roman citizen. While serving as maestro regionario in his neighbourhood of S Eustachio, he composed a description of Rome’s ruins in Virgilian hexameter. Dedicated to Leo X and published a few months after his election in 1513, the Antiquaria urbis was an encomium to both the ancient and the modern city. In discussing the Capitoline Fulvio cites the famous antiquities restored to the Comune by Sixtus IV; in closing he praises the Roman Gymnasium (Sapienza) founded under Eugenius IV and promoted by Alexander VI. It is ironic that a poem by ...


Peter Boutourline Young

(b Pisa, Feb 15, 1564; d Arcetri, nr Florence, Jan 18, 1641).

Italian scientist, astronomer, mathematician and writer. He studied medicine at Pisa University from 1581, eventually becoming a lecturer there (1589–91), due to the influence of Cosimo II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (see Medici, de’ family, §19). He subsequently held the chair of mathematics (1592–1610) at Padua University, where in 1609 he constructed a telescope. He used it to calculate the movements of Jupiter and its satellites, and to observe the true physical nature of the moon, even going so far as to observe the sun as well. In 1610 he settled in Florence, where he was a member of the Accademia della Crusca and the Accademia del Disegno. Galileo was also appointed philosopher and mathematician extraordinary to Cosimo II, who set up a telescope for him at Arcetri. He formulated the law on the acceleration of masses and studied ballistics, optics, hydrostatics and acoustics. In ...


Patricia Collins

(b Siena, Sept 22, 1564; d April 28, 1641).

Italian antiquary and theorist. As a boy he took drawing lessons from Francesco Vanni. He studied as a physician at Siena University, gaining his doctorate in 1597, and later occupied the chair of mathematics in the faculty of medicine. He was a member of the Accademia dei Filomati, Siena, and from at least 1593 produced papers on scientific and artistic subjects, including Dell’arte in comparation a la natura and Della nobilità dell’architectura. Among his pupils was Fabio Chigi, who later, as Pope Alexander VII, collected a portion of Gallaccini’s antiquarian writings, L’Antichità risorta, and had them prepared for publication. Gallaccini was not an innovative thinker, although his writings show evidence of extensive reading of Classical and contemporary literature. He laid particular emphasis on primary evidence, such as inscriptions, medals and archival documents, to support his theories. His best-known treatise is his Trattato sopra gli errori degli architetti (1625). Although paradoxically he was somewhat old-fashioned in his adherence to established values and methods of architecture, his strictures against ornament and views on restraint in art and architecture were in keeping with the neo-Palladian sympathies of the 18th century and drew his work to the attention of such later figures as Joseph Smith and Antonio Visentini....


Clifford M. Brown

(b Parma, 1506; d Rome, 1575).

Italian bishop, antiquarian and collector. He went to Rome some time before 1527, serving as a canon of St Peter’s and as vicar of S Giovanni in Laterano (where his mortuary monument remains) before being made Bishop of Gallese by Pius IV in 1562. By this date he had published five books, the first of which, De reggimenti pubblici delle città, appeared in 1544. In 1550 Ulisse Aldrovandi recommended his readers to the antiquarian collection ‘nella camera di messer Hierolimo Garimberto’ in the Palazzo Gaddi on Monte Citorio.

In 1562 Garimberto helped to evaluate the antiquities that Paolo Bufalo offered to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. He also served as archaeological adviser to Cesare Gonzaga, Lord of Guastalla, and to his cousin Guglielmo Gonzaga, 3rd Duke of Mantua. The extensive correspondence (1562–73) with the former and the letters written to the latter in 1572–3 provide a highly readable source of information on the contemporary Roman antiquities market and on Garimberto’s relations with such other antiquarians and dealers as Alessandro de’ Grandi (...


Marco Collareta

(b Gauro, nr Salerno, c. 1482; d 1528–30).

Italian humanist and writer. He took his surname from the village where he was born, which in the 15th century belonged to the domain of Giffoni near Salerno. In 1501 he moved to Venice and then to Padua, where he attended the university. After 1505 he left Padua and went first to Rome, then to Naples. He remained there from 1512 on, and until 1519 held the chair of Humanities at the university. Until 1526 he served as tutor of the Prince of Salerno and his wife. He was a distinguished poet but his importance for the history of art is based on his De sculptura, a substantial Latin treatise written in Padua in 1503 and published in Florence in 1504. It is in the form of a Ciceronian dialogue, in which Gauricus himself instructs two learned interlocutors, the Latinist Raffaele Regio and the philosopher and collector Leonico Tomeo, on the noble art of sculpture. Gauricus presents himself not only as an erudite man but also as an amateur sculptor, a personal friend of Tullio Lombardo, Andrea Riccio and Severo da Ravenna. Much of the treatise is devoted to bronzes, which were popular in Renaissance Padua. His discussion of this topic is divided into two distinct parts: the ...


François Quiviger

(b Florence, Aug 12, 1498; d Florence, July 24, 1563).

Italian writer. He was closely connected with the Accademia Fiorentina, where he made his mark as the most distinguished 16th-century commentator on Dante. He wrote two works on the visual arts, an academic lecture delivered and published in 1549 and an unfinished series of artists’ biographies, which remained unpublished until the end of the 19th century. The 1549 lecture took the form of a commentary on Petrarch’s two sonnets (lxxvii and lxxviii) dedicated to the portrait of Laura (untraced) by Simone Martini. Gelli interpreted the sonnet ‘Per mirar Policleto a prova fiso’ as a eulogy of the painting according to Platonic doctrine, and the second sonnet ‘Quando giunse a Simone l’alto concetto’ as one according to Aristotelian doctrine. After a brief exposition of the fundamental principles of Neo-Platonism, based on the De dogmate Platonis of the Greek philosopher Albinos, Gelli explained that the painter had reflected on human nature in order to portray his model’s features. However, he believed this mode of vision to be incompatible with the soul’s perceptive ability and considered that, while the sonnet was learned and ingenious, it lacked any resonances in reality. The analysis of the second poem is a paraphrase of some extracts from Aristotle’s ...


(b Fabriano; d Fabriano, 1584).

Italian ecclesiastic and writer. He seems to have passed almost his whole life in Fabriano, where he was canon of S Venanzo, and from 1579 until his death was a hermit in the hermitage of S Vincenzo. Between 1550 and 1580 he published various works, almost all in Venice. The most important of these is the Topica poetica (1580), a vast resumé of ancient rhetoric for the use of contemporary writers. His works are dedicated to high-ranking personages, which makes it hard to understand the scarcity of biographical information on him.

Gilio da Fabriano dealt directly with figurative art only in the second of his Due dialogi, published in Camerino in 1564 and dedicated to Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. This dialogue involves six young literary men of the Marches, and purportedly takes place in the garden of the villa of one of them during the spring of 1562. Stimulated by the beauty of the surrounding flowers, the learned company recognizes that painting is a subject worthy of interest; but they begin at once to discuss the ‘errors’ and ‘abuses’ committed by contemporary artists in their works....


Linda S. Klinger

(b Como, April 1483; d Florence, Dec 11, 1552).

Italian historian, physician, humanist and collector. He belonged to the Zanobi, one of the oldest and most prominent families in Como, and was devoted to his cultural patrimony, especially to Como’s great historians, the elder and younger Pliny. His guardian and mentor was his elder brother, Benedetto Giovio (1471–c. 1545), a prominent civic figure, local historian and antiquarian who, among other projects, was involved with Cesare Cesariano on the translation and annotation of Vitruvius’ De architectura (Como, 1521). In compliance with his brother’s wishes, Paolo trained as a physician in Pavia and Padua (1498–1507), studying with Marc’antonio della Torre and Pietro Pomponazzi. The university environment of Lombardy and the Veneto exposed him to contact with artistic enterprises of the early 16th century and with those who promoted them. For instance, della Torre apparently collaborated with Leonardo da Vinci on an illustrated anatomical text during Giovio’s studentship....


Alicia Cámara Muñoz

(b Burgos; fl 1565–1600).

Spanish soldier and writer. He was a member of an illustrious family, and his military career apparently began c. 1565, since a document of 1583 (Simancas, Archv Gen.) states that he had been serving with Philip II in Flanders, the Levant and Portugal for 16 years. The poet Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola wrote of him that he possessed ‘valour, wit and a skilful hand’. González de Medina Barba’s career exemplifies the combination of science and experience required by experts in fortification. In 1599 he wrote a treatise Examen de fortificación, but there is no certain evidence that he contributed to the design of any fortifications. His treatise takes the form of a dialogue between a ruler and a master of the profession. González de Medina Barba was aware of Italian methods of fortification, and the structural form he considered best for a fortress was the pentagon, the type most favoured in 16th-century citadels. He used illustrations to explain the construction of fortresses and the various elements involved. The work also discusses the number of men and artillery pieces needed and gives the dimensions required by some of the buildings, the parade ground and the streets of a fortified city. The treatise also covers urban planning, with such details as construction of suburbs, the radial plan of streets, the modernization of old city walls and the theory of the citadel. These all give the work added interest in the context of Spanish 16th-century treatises....


(b Parma, Jan 3, 1460; d Parma, Oct/Nov 1515).

Italian scholar and writer. He studied for a time with the Bolognese humanist scholar Filippo Beroaldo I (1453–1505), and he then qualified as a notary. From 1486 he was a lecturer in humanities at the Studio (later University) of Parma. He held various public offices in the city, including the chancellorship of the Commune in 1497, and he was often entrusted with diplomatic missions. His most important written work was De partibus aedium (1494), which gives the correct Latin names of the various parts and contents of the house. Dividing the house into two—the ground floor (atrium, courtyard, cellars and kitchen garden) and the upper floors (living quarters)—Grapaldo offers a definition and an etymological explanation of the different parts of the house and of the objects within it, enriching his text with references to Classical and other authors. A valuable source of information on contemporary antiquarian scholarship, the book also offers an insight into domestic life and building in late 15th-century Parma, including the use of private chapels, which Grapaldo recommends should be decorated with devotional images by local artists. Conceived and completed in ten months, ...


Kai Budde

(b Cologne; fl Strasbourg, 1590s).

German cabinetmaker, writer and engraver. He is recorded as a cabinetmaker and citizen of Strasbourg from 1596. He appears to have been a pupil of the architect Johann Schoch, who designed Schloss Gottesau, near Karlsruhe (c. 1587), and the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Schloss (c. 1601–7). Guckeisen, in collaboration with Veit Eck (fl Strasbourg, 1587), wrote a Kunstbüchlein (Strasbourg, 1596) dedicated to masons and cabinetmakers. He also wrote a similar work, Etlicher Architectischer Portalen, Epitapien, Caminen Und Schweyffen, published in the same year in Cologne. They were followed in 1599 by a series of engraved designs for six chests, also published in Cologne. In collaboration with the cabinetmaker and etcher Hans Jakob Ebelmann, Guckeisen also produced the Schränke (1598), Seilenbuch (1598), Architectura Kunstbuch Darinnen Alerhand Portalen Reisbetten Undt Epitaphien (1599) and Schweyfbuch (1599), the last dedicated to the cabinetmaker Jacob Riedel in Strasbourg. As a designer of ornament, Guckeisen was familiar with the whole repertory of Renaissance decoration, using it in varied combinations....


[Lodovico di Jacopo di Piero Guicciardini]

(b Florence, Aug 19, 1521; d Antwerp, March 22, 1589).

Italian merchant and writer, active in the southern Netherlands. He was the son of Jacopo Guicciardini (d 1552) and Camilla d’Agnolo des Bardi (d 1557) and nephew of the historian Francesco Guicciardini (1483–1540); as a member of a patrician family, he received a good education and learnt to read Latin and a little Greek. He spent most of his adult life in Antwerp, where he is first documented in 1542. He was briefly imprisoned in 1567 and his house confiscated for his criticism of the regime of the Duque de Alba, Governor of the Netherlands. He published a number of works, including collections of anecdotes and maxims, but the most celebrated is his account of the Low Countries, the Descrittione di…tutti i Paesi Bassi, first published in Antwerp in 1567 and dedicated to Philip II, King of Spain; a French edition, dedicated to Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain, appeared later in the same year. The volume is one of the most valuable sources of information for the country in the 16th century, describing the geographical, social and political aspects of the region and referring to notable Netherlandish artists....


Catherine Wilkinson-Zerner

(b Mobellán, Santander, c. 1530; d Madrid, Jan 15, 1597).

Spanish architect, theorist and inventor. He was the principal architect to Philip II, King of Spain, from the early 1570s until he retired from official duties c. 1587. He is often credited with replacing the chaotic diversity of Late Gothic and classicizing regional styles of the 1540s and 1550s with a new authoritative classicism that remained a model for Spanish architects until the 18th century. Although his contribution to this process was shared by many other classicizing architects active in Spain towards the end of the 16th century, he was the first Spaniard fully to embody the Renaissance conception of a great architect, as defined by Leon Battista Alberti.

Herrera was born into a hidalgo family of modest means. He studied Latin and philosophy at Valladolid University until 1548 and then joined the retinue of the crown prince Philip on his progress through Italy and Germany to meet Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in Brussels in ...


Anthony Hughes



[Iñigo López de Loyola]

(b Castle of Loyola, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1491; d Rome, 31 July 1556; can 1622; fd 31 July). Spanish saint. The founder of the Jesuit Order, he came from a noble Basque family and began his career as a soldier. He was wounded at the siege of Pamplona in 1521 and thereafter resolved to become a soldier of Christ. After a year in retreat near Manresa (1522) he embarked on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where the local Franciscans prevented him from preaching; he returned to Spain in 1524. Still concerned with the conversion of others, he studied at the universities of Barcelona, Alcalá, Salamanca, and for seven years, from 1528, in Paris. There, among his fellow Spanish students, he found the true disciples he sought. With a committed band of six men he vowed to complete his mission to Jerusalem (1534). They travelled to Venice, but war made the Holy Land inaccessible and Ignatius directed his energies to the founding of a new order, the Society of Jesus, which was recognized by Pope Paul III in ...





(b Lyon, ?3–9 June 1514; d Paris, Jan 8, 1570).

French architect and writer. He was the most important French architect of the 16th century and, with his contemporaries Pierre Lescot and Jean Bullant, was one of the founders of the classical style in France. In his buildings he attempted to synthesize the elements of ancient Roman and Renaissance Italian architecture with French traditions of design and construction, adding innovations that stemmed from his concern with Stereotomy, the theory of stone-cutting. He published two treatises, of which Le Premier Tome de l’architecture was the most comprehensive of the 16th century in France. It remained unsurpassed until François Blondel’s Cours d’architecture in the 18th century.

Philibert de L’Orme presumably received his early training from his father, Jean de L’Orme I, a wealthy master mason in Lyon, working with him on his building projects, while at the same time undertaking humanistic studies. From 1533–6 he was in Rome, where he moved in humanist circles, meeting Marcello Cervini (...