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Eva B. Ottillinger

(fl Vienna, 1835–c. 1871).

Austrian furniture-maker. In 1835 he founded a metal-furniture factory in Vienna; its products extended from garden and park furniture to drawing-room furniture and ornamental figures in the Rococo Revival style. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Kitschelt, along with Michael Thonet and Carl Leistler, represented the Vienna furniture industry, showing seats, tables and ornamental vases with floral decoration. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris Kitschelt showed a four-poster bed and a suite designed by the architect Josef von Storck. In 1871 Kitschelt exhibited leather-upholstered seats in classical forms, designed by Rudolf Bernt (1844–1914), at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, Vienna. Thereafter Kitschelt’s successors concentrated on the production of utility furniture made of tubular steel or moulded metal, portable furniture, tubular steel beds, ladders and garden tents.

M. Zweig: Das zweite Rokoko (Vienna, 1924) E. B. Ottillinger: Das Wiener Möbel des Historismus: Formgebungstheorie und Stiltendenzen...


(b 1683; d Copenhagen, Sept 21, 1755).

Danish architect, gardener and landscape designer. He trained as a gardener in the Danish royal castle parks, and as an architect, probably on study trips to Holland and England. After his return to Denmark he was appointed gardener at the park of Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, but from 1720 he also worked as an architect and landscape architect. He planned and built the castle at Fredensborg, the summer residence of the Danish court, and he laid out the attached park (1720–35). The central corps-de-logis, with a square hall in the middle, three storeys high and roofed with a four-sided cupola, was repeatedly rebuilt and enlarged after his time. The plan derives ultimately from Palladian models. In front of the corps-de-logis is an eight-sided courtyard surrounded by original single-storey buildings. The garden was laid out as a semicircle with the main building in the middle. It was divided into six segments by seven paths, which extended as avenues into the surrounding deer park. The layout has something in common with the formal garden at ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b Dresden, March 2, 1718; d Dresden, Nov 28, 1789).

German architect, teacher, theorist and landscape designer. He was first taught mathematics and the rudiments of architecture by his uncle, Christian Friedrich Krubsacius (d 1746), a lieutenant-colonel in the engineers’ corps. He received further training from Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. In 1740 he held the post of ‘Kondukteur’ in the building department at Dresden. From c. 1745 he collaborated in the designs of the chief state master builder, Johann Christoph Knöffel. After Knöffel’s death, Krubsacius became the favoured architect of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, at that time the most important architectural patron in Saxony. In 1755 he was appointed Electoral Court Master Builder, a position created especially for him. He went on a study trip to Paris in 1755–6, at Brühl’s instigation. After the outbreak of the Seven Years War in 1756, his scope for architectural employment deteriorated, so he turned to teaching. In 1764 he became Professor of Architecture at the newly founded Dresden Kunstakademie. His most important work was Schloss Neschwitz (...



(b Hamburg, ?1575; d Rome, Jan 23, 1624).

German engraver. Based first in Hamburg and from 1614 in Nuremberg, he produced engravings after Dürer, including Christ the Gardener (1614; see Hollstein, no. 7) and Ecce homo (1614; h 8), ornamental prints, typified by the Bunch of Fruit of 1614, and a series of 14 prints of the Twelve Apostles with Christ and Paul (1614; h 9–22). He travelled subsequently to Bologna and Florence and in 1618 settled in Rome, living with other artists in the house of the painter Francesco Albani in the Via Paolina from 1621 until his death. His friendship with the engraver Francesco Villamena provided him with considerable inspiration for his own engraving. He worked in Italy from the paintings of Franciabigio and Lanfranco and, most notably, executed a series of 14 engravings of the Life of St John the Baptist (two versions, 1617 and 1618; h 30–43) after Andrea del Sarto’s frescoes (...


Pamela H. Simpson

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 28, 1877; d Miami, FL, Sept 4, 1954).

American sculptor and educator. A specialist in animal sculpture, Albert Laessle spent most of his life and career in Philadelphia. In 1894, he began attending classes at the Spring Garden Institute and the Drexel Institute before entering the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1900, where he studied with Charles Grafly and Thomas Anschutz. In 1904, with the aid of a traveling scholarship, Laessle went to Paris where he studied under Michel Beguine (1855–1929). Returning to Philadelphia in 1907, he became Grafly’s studio assistant. The two formed a life-long friendship. Laessle provided the animals for several of Grafly’s major public works. Laessle later bought a farm on the outskirts of the city so he could have his own animals to study, and he kept modeling equipment at the Philadelphia Zoo. The recipient of many honors, Laessle’s early style was in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but after 1908 he began experimenting with an expressive, less finished form. He taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for 20 years (...


Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...


F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Paris, March 12, 1613; d Paris, Sept 15, 1700).

French garden designer and collector. He was outstanding in his time for his innovation and skill in garden design, particularly in his work at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, and Chantilly, and his ardent disciples carried his gardening principles throughout France and beyond, so spreading his influence. Popular among contemporaries, he also enjoyed a special relationship with the traditionally aloof Louis XIV, who bestowed upon him the Order of St Lazare (later replaced by the even more prestigious Order of St Michel), a coat of arms, and, on his retirement, a princely pension. Although the original spelling of his name was Le Nostre, by the late 20th century the form of Le Nôtre had gained most currency.

His career was doubtless determined at an early age, since his grandfather, Pierre, and his father, Jean, were both royal gardeners, who worked principally at the Palais des Tuileries. He was thus initiated into gardening practice by his father and a coterie of distinguished gardeners that included Claude Mollet (i) (...


[Remee; Remy] [Vallemput, Remigius; Vanlimpitt, Remigeus]

(bapt Antwerp, Dec 19, 1607; d London, bur Nov 9, 1675).

Flemish (possibly French) painter, copyist, collector and dealer, active in England. In 1635 he was living in the newly developed area of Covent Garden, London; at that time he was closely associated with Anthony van Dyck and presumably assisted in his studio. Through his varied activities, van Leemput became a leading figure in the London art world, and he assembled a major collection of paintings and drawings. He bought extensively when Charles I’s collections were sold in 1649–51; his purchases included works attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Correggio and Andrea del Sarto. Later he acquired the great equestrian portrait by van Dyck of Charles I with M. de St Antoine (British Royal Col.), which he apparently attempted to sell in Antwerp but asked too high a price. It was still with him at the Restoration in 1660, when it was recovered from him for Charles II.

Although van Leemput painted original works, he was best known for his small-scale copies after van Dyck and others. A series of ‘14 … Ladies heads Copys by Remy’ (described thus in Queen ...


Eva Börsch-Supan

(b Bonn, Sept 29, 1789; d Potsdam, Jan 23, 1866).

German landscape designer and urban planner. He came from a family of horticulturists from Liège that had lived in Bonn since 1665, and he learnt botany and landscape design from his father, Peter Joseph Lenné the elder (1756–1821), in Bonn and Koblenz, and, until 1808, with his uncle Clemens Weyhe in Brühl. On visits to southern Germany in 1809 and 1812 he encountered gardens designed by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell, and in Vienna he learnt about problems of urban planning. In Paris in 1811 he was influenced by the ideas of Gabriel Thouin (1747–1829), particularly Thouin’s approach to drawing plans, use of geometrical curves and schemes for planting close to a main residence; Lenné also at this time studied architecture with Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. As imperial garden designer (1814–15) at Laxenburg, near Vienna, he designed the Schlosspark, most of which was executed. The following year he went to Potsdam as Gartengeselle, and in ...


David R. Coffin

(b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, Oct 26, 1583).

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

He was presumably born into a noble family and probably moved to Rome in 1534. At first he was active producing decorative paintings for palaces: Giovanni Baglione recorded numerous houses in Rome with façades frescoed by Ligorio in a distinctive yellow monochrome in the manner of Polidoro da Caravaggio or Baldassare Peruzzi. The only extant example of his figurative painting is a fresco depicting the Dance of Salome (c. 1544; Rome, Oratory of S Giovanni Decollato). In ...


Robert Williams

(d Edgware [now in London], Jan 12, 1714).

English garden designer. He probably first trained at St James’s Palace, and he was subsequently Bishop Henry Compton’s gardener at Fulham Palace. In 1681 he co-founded Brompton Park nursery; by 1687 Henry Wise had joined, soon becoming London’s sole business partner and co-translator of their two gardening directories.

At William III’s accession in 1688 London’s political connections secured him the post of Master Gardener and Deputy Superintendent of the Royal Gardens. William spent large sums on his palace grounds, and London and Wise brought new designs, with stock supplied from Brompton, to Kensington, Hampton Court and elsewhere. Through his contacts in architectural and aristocratic circles, London strove further to expand his business; with Wise left in charge at Brompton, London travelled ceaselessly and gradually received commissions from the provinces. He served an aristocracy demanding productive yet ostentatious gardens, and his numerous layouts were mostly developed through the 1690s and beyond. At ...


(b Florence, 1570–80; d Madrid, Dec 24, 1643).

Italian architect. His career began in Florence, where he was apprenticed to Bernardino Poccetti. He collaborated with Bernardo Buontalenti on the decoration (1593) of the Boboli Gardens and created several hydraulic systems for the gardens of Pratolino and Castello. He designed trophies to adorn the Via Tornabuoni façade of the Palazzo Strozzi and worked on stage settings, mainly with the dramatist Jacopo Cicognini at the court of Grand Duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. Lotti was sent to Spain in 1626 by Grand Duke Cosimo II to serve at the court of King Philip IV. His accomplishments enabled Philip to compete with the splendour of contemporary Italian and French courts by renovating the royal gardens, which had fallen into disrepair after the expulsion of Moorish engineers, and by producing spectacular theatre settings. Lotti designed a new theatre at the royal palace of Zarzuela (1634; destr.) and the Coliseo de Comedias (begun ...


James Stevens Curl

(b Cambuslang, Lanark [now Strathclyde], April 8, 1783; d London, December 14, 1843).

Scottish garden designer and writer. The son of a farmer, he was first apprenticed to a nurseryman and landscape gardener, moving to London in 1803 to set himself up as a garden designer. That year he published his ‘Hints…[on] Laying Out the Grounds of the Public Squares in London’ in the Literary Journal (ii/12, 31 Dec 1803, cols 739–42), advocating a judicious mixture of deciduous and evergreen plants. He also carried out work for the Duchess of Brunswick at Brunswick House, Blackheath, London, and the following year spent some time in his native Scotland, improving the estates of several aristocratic clients. The same year he exhibited three drawings at the Royal Academy and published his first book, Observations on…Ornamental Plantations. In it he emphasized his adherence to Picturesque principles and those of Uvedale Price in particular. From this time on, and in addition to several forays into architectural design, Loudon’s career as a garden designer was inseparable from his vast publishing enterprises, by which he disseminated his advice and ideas....


Michael Bollé

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Aug 18, 1835; d Berlin, July 1, 1909).

German garden designer. He was one of the most important landscape gardeners in 19th-century Berlin and one of the last representatives of the school of garden design represented by Peter Joseph Lenné and his pupil Gustav Meyer. Mächtig trained in the school of gardening at the Wildpark in Potsdam (1854–6), himself becoming in 1865 an instructor there. In 1870 he became court gardener at Sanssouci, Potsdam, and in 1875, City Inspector of Gardens in Berlin, the right-hand man of Meyer, whom he succeeded as Director of Gardens in 1877. Mächtig’s activity was confined to Berlin and its neighbourhood. Until 1888 he continued Meyer’s plan for the park at Treptow; one of his early works, in 1879, was a design, possibly never carried out, for a children’s playground in the old Sophia cemetery (Heinrich-Zille Park), with a flowerbed representing the ground-plan of a Baroque church. About 1880 he designed a monument to ...


Martin Segger

(b Sapperton, New Westminster, BC, April 11, 1860; d Victoria, BC, Aug 8, 1929).

Canadian architect. He was the son of a British Army Royal Engineer and is reputed to have been the first white child born in the city of New Westminster. He was the foremost domestic architect in British Columbia during the period 1890–1920 and established a building style and form that gave Victoria and parts of Vancouver a distinctive Canadian west-coast flavour. Maclure was a self-taught architect, although he briefly studied painting at the Spring Garden Institute, Philadelphia, PA, in 1884–5. He opened his first practice in New Westminster in 1889 and moved to Victoria in 1892, where he had an office. In 1905 a practice was established in Vancouver in partnership with Cecil Croker Fox (1879–1916), who had trained in London with C. F. A. Voysey. The office closed with Fox’s death at the Front in France in 1916. In 1920 the office reopened under Maclure’s former apprentice, ...


Robin Karson

(b Reading, MA, Nov 6, 1860; d Waltham, MA, Feb 5, 1938).

American landscape architect and planner. Manning spent his childhood in the rural countryside north of Boston and from an early age assisted in the nursery founded by his well-known father Jacob, who also took him on plant-collecting excursions in the wild. In time Manning acquired wide knowledge of both native and exotic plants, and he also became interested in landscape design, advertising his services through his father’s nursery. In 1888 he left the family business and took a position as planting supervisor in the Brookline, MA, office of Olmsted, Olmsted & Eliot.

Working alongside Frederick Law Olmsted, John Charles Olmsted and Charles Eliot, Manning learned to apply his vast horticultural repertory to a Romantic style of landscape design that combined aspects of the British Picturesque with an American appreciation for bold scenic effects and attention to the genius loci. He also learned the rudiments of sophisticated data-gathering techniques developed by Eliot during work on the Boston park system. Manning’s most important projects with the Olmsted firm included the Boston parks, the installation of plants at the Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition (...


Michael Symes

(b Hull, Feb 12, 1725; d Aston, S. Yorks, April 5, 1797).

. English clergyman, writer and garden designer. Educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1754 and was a royal chaplain from 1757 to 1772. His friends and acquaintances included such literary and artistic figures as the poet Thomas Gray, Horace Walpole (later 4th Earl of Orford), William Gilpin, the garden designer ‘Capability’ Brown and the painters Paul Sandby and Joshua Reynolds, the last of whom provided material for his ‘Anecdotes’ (posthumously published in W. Cotton’s anthology in 1859) and for Mason’s translation of De arte graphica (1668) by Charles-Alphonse Du Fresnoy.

Mason’s best-known written works are his verse history The English Garden and his satirical attacks upon the royal architect William Chambers. The English Garden, organized in four books after Virgil’s Georgics (completed 29 bc), a didactic poem on agriculture, brought together advice on the mundane activities of practical gardening and historical and critical commentary on the past and present art of landscape design, all of which was strongly coloured by Mason’s affinity with the aesthetics of the ...


Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Laeken, nr Brussels, Aug 9, 1845; d Laeken, Feb 4, 1921).

Belgian painter, decorative artist and draughtsman. A gardener’s son, he was brought up in a quiet suburb of Brussels, bordering the Parc Royal. He studied under the decorative artist Charles Albert (1821–89) and then, between 1860 and 1867, took a course in decorative design at the Brussels Académie. In 1864 he joined the studio of Jean-François Portaels to learn the techniques of modelling, painting from life and history painting. Having won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1870, he travelled to Italy, where he was inspired by the work of Mantegna. His early work treated the working lives of the Belgian poor in a social realist manner influenced by Charles de Groux: for example The Peasants (Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.)

From 1878 to 1879 Mellery stayed on the island of Marken, in the Netherlands, in order to illustrate a book by Charles De Coster, but the writer’s death in ...


Claudia Bölling

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk, Poland], March 20, 1881; d May 30, 1935).

German landscape architect and writer. After a horticultural apprenticeship and training in Hamburg he joined the landscape-gardening firm of Jakob Ochs in 1902. He rose quickly from technician to principal designer. In 1913 he left to become self-employed. Migge had joined the Deutscher Werkbund in 1912 and through designing a number of public parks in Germany he began to develop his theories about the role and function of landscape gardening. He wrote extensively on the subject, and in such books as Jedermann Selbstversorger (1918) and Die Gartenkultur des 20. Jahrhunderts (1920) he explained his ideas about the socialization of urban green space, of transforming the city into an autonomous entity without exploiting the surrounding countryside. From 1920 he put his theories into practice first with his Sonnenhof project at the artists’ colony at Worpswede, and then through his involvement with the housing reform movement. During the 1920s and early 1930s he designed the landscaping for many of the Modern Movement housing estates of the Weimar Republic. He worked with such architects as ...


H. W. Hawkes

(b Radway, Warwicks, bapt Aug 9, 1716; d London, April 23, 1780).

English architect and landscape designer. He was an amateur architect who fostered his career with the aim of turning professional should the financial need arise. Miller’s architectural work was very much part of a busy social life and the day-to-day demands of running his own estate at Radway Grange, Edgehill (Warwicks). His earliest work was the construction of Radway’s terrace (1739) to give a view of the neighbouring Civil War battlefield, where newly planted clumps represented the combatants’ positions. The thatched cottage (1743–4) that he built on the brow of Edgehill was calculated to give the appearance of a blasted stone fortress appropriated to domestic use. It was followed by the widely celebrated Edgehill Castle Tower (1745–7), modelled on one at Warwick Castle, the highest room of which was resplendently embellished with heraldic decoration, stained glass and Gothick plasterwork. A ruined arch was added (...