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Article

George Tibbits

(b Bendigo, Victoria, Aug 16, 1865; d Melbourne, June 22, 1933).

Australian architect. He served articles with William Salway (1844–1902) in Melbourne and practised alone from the late 1880s to the early 1930s, with a circle of clients and friends drawn from varying levels of Melbourne society. As well as a commitment to the ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement, he aimed to create an Australian idiom and saw architecture as an art rather than a profession. His talent for sketching and his flair for writing on architecture were also recognized at an early stage in local building journals.

His earliest designs show the influence of H. H. Richardson, whom he greatly admired, but the Viennese Secession may have influenced the Springthorpe Memorial in Kew cemetery, Melbourne (1897). His well-known houses at 32, 34 and 38 The Eyrie, Eaglemont (1902–3), are free and decorative adaptations of a half-timbered, roughcast and Marseilles-tiled idiom fused with an Arts and Crafts approach, which he continued to develop in examples such as the Norman Macgeorge house at Alphington (...

Article

Belinda Thomson

(b Etrepagny, nr Gisors, Jan 26, 1861; d Paris, Aug 19, 1932).

French painter. He came to Paris in 1882 and studied art at the Ateliers of Bonnat and Cormon, where he was a contemporary and friend of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Emile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh. His early work shows the influence of Impressionism and of Edgar Degas. In 1887 Anquetin and Bernard devised an innovative method of painting using strong black contour lines and flat areas of colour; Anquetin aroused much comment when he showed his new paintings, including the striking Avenue de Clichy: Five O’Clock in the Evening (1887; Hartford, CT, Wadsworth Atheneum) at the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels and at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris in 1888. The new style, dubbed Cloisonnisme by the critic Edouard Dujardin (1861–1949), resulted from a study of stained glass, Japanese prints and other so-called ‘primitive’ sources; it was close to the Synthetist experiments of Paul Gauguin and was adopted briefly by van Gogh during his Arles period. Anquetin’s works were shown alongside Gauguin’s and Bernard’s at the Café Volpini exhibition in ...

Article

Sally Mills

(Pollock)

(b Newport, KY, Oct 5, 1851; d Fort Washington, PA, June 16, 1912).

American painter and teacher. In 1872 he moved to New York, where he enrolled at the National Academy of Design. By 1875 he had advanced to the life class but found the Academy ‘a rotten old institution’. Moving to Philadelphia, Anshutz entered a life class taught by Thomas Eakins at the Philadelphia Sketch Club and transferred to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts when it opened its new building in 1876. Continuing to study under Eakins and Christian Schussele (1824/6–79), Anshutz soon became Eakins’s assistant demonstrator for anatomy courses taught by the surgeon William Williams Keen.

Anshutz’s style quickly progressed from a tight linearity toward an emphasis on solid form, expressed through simplified modelling and a thorough knowledge of anatomy. For his first mature works he sought subjects in the active lives around him, whether in the lush pastoral setting of The Father and his Son Harvesting...

Article

Elizabeth Edwards

Photography and anthropology emerged almost simultaneously in the third decade of the 19th century and have been entangled ever since. There are two major strands to anthropological or ethnographic engagements with photography. In the first, photography has functioned as a tool through which to explore anthropological questions about cultural production, from art making to agriculture, as well as the construction of social identity, such as gender and race. Studies that adopt this approach rely on photographs to provide empirical evidence for analysis. The second strand concerns the anthropology of photographic practices. This work has explored different cultural uses, styles, and social expectations of photography as a medium; it has addressed the nuances, similarities, and differences through which photography functions as a social medium. In this body of work it becomes clear how the value of photographs is not necessarily determined through the content of images but through their capacity as social objects to mediate social relationships. Around these issues of social value, memory, and history, anthropological or ethnographic photography has become a site for both cultural critique and cultural recuperation, especially by indigenous, First Nations, and diasporic communities....

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Valencia, 1832; d Madrid, 1917).

Spanish architect, teacher and writer. He studied at the recently established Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid and received his degree in 1855. He was noted for the historical knowledge that he was able to apply to the theories of eclecticism in the pursuit of pure historicism. He was more a theoretician than a practising architect, devoting 50 years to teaching at the Escuela de Arquitectura as Catedrático de Construcción. He was director of the Escuela between 1896 and 1910 and bequeathed his library to it.

Aparici y Soriano’s early architectural works, such as the monument to Mendizábal, Argüelles and Calatrava (1857) in the cemetery of S Nicolás, Madrid, shows his scholarly interests. Immediately after, however, his style came under the influence of Viollet-le-Duc, of whom he became a fervent follower, as is apparent in his few completed projects. The most important of these was the sober and monumental basilica of Nuestra Señora de Covadonga (...

Article

Annemieke Hoogenboom

[Lodewijk Franciscus Hendrikl]

(b The Hague, Sept 6, 1850; d The Hague, Nov 22, 1936).

Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Johannes Franciscus Hoppenbrouwers (1819–66) and Pieter Stortenbeker (1828–98) and studied at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. His first exhibited work, in 1869, was a summer landscape, but he made his name with A January Evening in the Hague Woods (c. 1875; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). He specialized in winter landscapes; his works became extremely popular in the last quarter of the 19th century. In views such as Wood in Winter (c. 1884; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.) staffage, in the shape of skaters, horse-drawn sleighs and so on, is subordinated to the overall mood. In this respect he differs from other Dutch painters of winter scenes such as Andreas Schelfhout and Hoppenbrouwers. Apol had a broad, pronounced manner of painting and was considered one of the minor masters of the Hague school. He made many drawings on a trip to Novaya Zemlya in ...

Article

(Gooch)

(b Shalford, Essex, 1854; d 1924).

English mezzotint engraver. He worked in London from the late 1870s until 1903. His early work includes prints after Luke Fildes (e.g. Roses, exh. RA 1877) and Frederic Leighton. Although he continued to engrave contemporary work, he achieved prominence with his prints after 18th- and early 19th-century English portrait painters, copying works by, among others, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery manufactory in Le Castellet, near Apt (about 65 km north of Marseille) established in 1723 by César Moulin, who produced a distinctive marbled yellow-glazed pottery; the designs are modelled on English pottery (perhaps Wedgwood), and look more English than French. The success of this pottery encouraged others to open in and around Apt, which is still an important pottery centre....

Article

Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Rome, Oct 22, 1844; d Madrid, Dec 18, 1916).

Spanish architect. He was the son of the watercolourist and printmaker Manuel Arbós y Ayerbe (d 1875) and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1862–5). In 1865 he entered the Escuela de Arquitectura in Madrid, where he received a bursary to train in Paris (1867). He was awarded the title of Architect in 1869 and in 1884 was appointed Architect to the Ministry of Justice. In 1898 he became a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid; his acceptance speech was entitled Transformaciones más culminantes de la arquitectura cristiana.

Arbós y Tremanti’s work represents the pure eclecticism characteristic of architecture in the period after the restoration of Alfonso XII in 1874. The differences between his style, which reveals Italian and French influences mixed with a Byzantine type of orientalism, and that of his contemporaries may be explained by his training in Rome, Paris and Madrid....

Article

Irene Puchalski

(b Inverness, Dec 14, 1872; d Montreal, March 2, 1934).

Canadian architect of Scottish birth. From 1887 to 1893 he was an apprentice in the architectural office of William MacIntosh in Inverness. He settled in Canada in 1893, joining the office of Edward Maxwell in Montreal, where he was employed as draughtsman and assistant.

From 1897 to 1915 he formed a partnership with Charles Jewett Saxe (1870–1943), in which Archibald’s role was predominantly administrative. The partnership’s work included schools, large residences, residential blocks and office buildings. Early commissions in Montreal included the F. H. Anson Residence (1904), 466 Côte St Antoine, Westmount; Montreal Technical School (1909); and several additions to the Queen’s Hotel (1909–13; destr. 1988), 700 Peel Street. After 1915, in his own independent practice, Archibald built the Baron Byng High School (1921); the Masonic Memorial Temple (1928); and St Mary’s Memorial Hospital (1932), all in Montreal. In the 1920s ...

Article

Micheline Nilsen

Genre of Photography that encompasses both practical documentation of Architecture and aesthetic expression. The scope of the genre has been broad, including exterior and interior views of élite, industrial, or vernacular buildings, and groups of structures in urban or rural settings. Although the beginnings of architectural photography date back to the origins of photography, the study of its history and a critical discourse are more recent developments. Study and discourse accompanied the emergence of an art market for photographs in the 1970s, the collection of architectural photographs by museums, and the ensuing publication of scholarship that investigated the intellectual significance and cultural contingency of photographers’ points of view when their lenses have focused upon architectural subjects.

Article

Robert Buerglener

[motor car]

Architecture and the automobile have been intimately connected since the late 19th century. The attributes of cars required specific architectural solutions for manufacture, sales, and service. On a broader level, the overall built environment was forever changed by roadside structures designed to meet the needs of drivers.

Automobile factories evolved in tandem with mass production; modular form and open floor spaces provided flexibility in machine placement and possibilities for expansion as production needs changed. Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn, with his associate Ernest Wilby (1868–1957), set a new standard for 20th-century industrial buildings through innovative use of space and materials. For the Packard Company’s Building Number Ten (Detroit, 1905; enlarged 1909), Kahn used reinforced concrete to create modular bays, repeatable horizontally and vertically, with wide interior spans and large window surfaces. For Ford’s Highland Park factory (begun 1909; see fig.), Kahn designed a multi-building complex of reinforced concrete and steel-framed buildings that housed machinery strategically in the sequence of production. In Ford’s River Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, MI (...

Article

Flemish (Belgian) family of collectors and patrons. The ancient county of Arenberg, situated between the duchy of Juliers, archbishopric of Cologne and county of Blankenheim, was raised to a principality in 1576 and a duchy in 1664. Members of the family played important roles in the politics of the Netherlands, France and Germany. Louis Engelbert, 5th Duke of Arenberg (1750–1820), made major acquisitions of prints and drawings, especially of views, towns and statues, during visits to France, Italy and Switzerland. He also acquired drawings by Lambert Lombard, 400 of which form part of the Arenberg Album (Liège, Cab. Est. & Dessins), and commissioned painters and sculptors. His brother, Auguste-Marie-Raymond, 6th Duke of Arenberg (1753–1833), was a connoisseur and a great bibliophile and was the first member of the family to create a gallery of paintings. By 1808 he had begun to purchase works of art at sales in Holland, London and Paris, as well as through such dealers as ...

Article

(b Boulogne-sur-Seine, May 3, 1870; d Paris, Aug 14, 1935).

French architect. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Paul-René-Léon Ginain and Louis-Henri-Georges Scellier de Gisors, receiving his architectural diploma in 1892. His early work included S. Bing’s Art Nouveau pavilion (destr.) at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 (inspired by Louis Bonnier’s initial project), blocks of flats in Paris in ashlar work, for example 236–238 Boulevard Raspail, 105 Rue Raymond Poincaré (both 1906) and the corner site of the Avenues du Bois de Boulogne et Malakoff (c. 1908), as well as regionalist constructions (garage in Neuilly and rural buildings in Herqueville and Heilly). He participated regularly in the competitions organized by the City of Paris, building low-cost housing schemes in the Rue Brillat-Savarin (1914–30) and the garden city at Chatenay-Malabry (1920–32) in collaboration with Joseph Bassompierre and Paul de Rutté. Following World War I he was named architect for the reconstruction schemes for the districts of Aisne and Pas-de-Calais....

Article

Dianne Timmerman and Frank van den Hoek

(b Loenen, April 3, 1858: d Abcoude, July 11, 1918).

Dutch architect. He trained as a carpenter’s assistant and took evening classes at the Society for the Workers, afterwards becoming a draughtsman for Jan Galman. From 1876 he worked in the office of Gerlof Bartholomeus Salm, where he was involved in, among other projects, the design of the building for the Vrije Gemeente (built 1879–80) on the Weteringschans, Amsterdam. In 1882 van Arkel set up as an independent architect. Rather than adopt Salm’s eclectic style, he was influenced by Netherlandish Renaissance architecture. His preferred Renaissance Revival style is particularly apparent in his early smaller works, such as the shop at Kalverstraat 200, Amsterdam. Following H. P. Berlage’s ideas, van Arkel also became more sparing in his use of decorative elements. An example of this sober style, related to Jugendstil, is the photographic studio at Spui 15–19, Amsterdam. He always remained active as a draughtsman and had a great interest in historic buildings, illustrating the book by ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Yefimovich)

(b Yegorovo, Ryazan province, Aug 15, 1862; d Moscow, Sept 25, 1930).

Russian painter. He trained at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture under Vasily Perov, Aleksey Savrasov, Vladimir Makovsky and Vasily Polenov and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1889 and the Union of Russian Artists in 1903. While indebted to the realist painting of Perov, Arkhipov also gave particular attention to effects of light, rhythm and texture, even in his most didactic canvases, such as Washerwomen (late 1890s; two versions Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal. and St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Arkhipov found a rich and diverse source of inspiration in the Russian countryside and the peasantry; he painted peasants at work, the melting of the snow, the local church and priest, the villages of the far north and the White Sea. Works such as The Lay Brother (1891) and Northern Village (1903; both Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.) are evidence of Arkhipov’s important position in the history of late 19th-century Russian landscape painting. His concentration on ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b London, June 18, 1828; d London, Dec 4, 1905).

English sculptor, silversmith and illustrator. He was the son of a chaser and attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. At first he gave his attention equally to silverwork and to sculpture, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1851. An early bronze, St Michael and the Serpent, cast in 1852 for the Art Union, shows him conversant with the style of continental Romantics, and his debut in metalwork coincided with the introduction into England of virtuoso repoussé work by the Frenchman, Antoine Vechte (1799–1868). In the Outram Shield (London, V&A), Armstead displayed the full gamut of low-relief effects in silver, but its reception at the Royal Academy in 1862 disappointed him, and he turned his attention to monumental sculpture. Among a number of fruitful collaborations with architects, that with George Gilbert I Scott (ii) included a high degree of responsibility for the sculpture on the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, London. Here Armstead’s main contribution was the execution of half of the podium frieze (...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(Walker)

(b Devonport, April 19, 1864; d London, June 9, 1930).

English Orientalist and historian of Islamic painting. He was attracted to Oriental studies while reading classics at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he was inspired by Edward Cowell and William Robertson Smith. From 1888 he taught philosophy at the Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, India. With the appearance of his Preaching of Islam (1896), an account of the spread of Islam, he achieved high academic acclaim and in 1898 became professor of philosophy in the Indian Educational Service, teaching at Government College, Lahore. He returned to London in 1904 to become assistant librarian at the India Office Library, where he studied illustrated manuscripts and made significant purchases. He also taught Arabic at University College. In 1909 he was appointed Educational Adviser for Indian Students in Britain and after 1917, as secretary to the Secretary of State, was responsible for Indian students. When he retired from the India Office in 1920...

Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

Meredith L. Clausen

Term used to refer to a movement or set of concerns espoused by a small number of left-wing artists and architects in the 1890s and early 1900s, mainly in Brussels and Paris. A significant number of leading Art Nouveau artists and architects, including Victor Horta, Héctor Guimard and Frantz Jourdain (the main spokesman for the movement) were involved. Art à la Rue, which focused specifically on bringing art to the working classes, was part of a broader movement aimed at social reform, whose roots were in the French socialist movement, the political theories of the Russian anarchist Prince Kropotkin and William Morris’s later essays. In challenging the élitist status of art, it urged those in the arts to forget the world of museums and collectors and to concentrate instead on relating art to everyday life, so that it assumed a more socially responsive role in society. The main arena for this was the ...