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Article

Mayching Kao

[ Wu Kuan-chung ]

(b Yixing, Jiangsu Province, July 5, 1919; d Beijing, June 25, 2010).

Chinese painter and art educator . Wu trained at the Hangzhou National Academy of Art between 1936 and 1942, studying modern Western painting with Chinese artists returned from France, and Chinese painting with Pan Tianshou , from whom he gained a deep understanding of Chinese aesthetics. From 1947 to 1950, Wu studied oil painting in Paris at the atelier of Jean Souvérbie (1891–1981) of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. After his return to China in 1950 he took up a series of teaching positions, the final one at the Beijing Central Academy of Art and Design, from which he retired in 1989. The dominating influence of Socialist Realism in China after 1949 led to criticism and suppression of Wu’s Western formalist approach. Nevertheless, he persisted in his search for ways to make his French experience take root in China. Travelling the country, he captured its beauty in a manner that displayed unique sensibility. By the early 1960s he had evolved a personal style fusing the rich colours of the oil medium and Western formal elements with the fluidity and spiritual vitality of traditional Chinese aesthetics. From the early 1970s he experimented with Chinese ink and colours on paper, successfully introducing new themes and stylistic innovations to a time-honoured tradition. Since the late 1970s he has exhibited and travelled widely overseas, finding new inspiration for his work. Wu enjoys critical acclaim for his vibrant synthesis of Chinese and Western art; his numerous writings shed light on his own artistic struggles, as well as his perceptions of modern Chinese art and artists....

Article

Hsio-Yen Shih

Reviser Sandy Ng

[Liu Hai-su; ming Pan; zi Jifang; hao Haiweng]

(b Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1896; d Shanghai, Aug 6, 1994).

Chinese art educator and painter. Liu Haisu came from a merchant family that had supported the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864). He began to learn painting at the age of 6 by studying line drawings in the style of Yun Shouping. At the age of 13, he went to Shanghai to study Western painting but did not find any established art school. Instead he discovered the works of Diego Velázquez and Francisco Goya, which he copied in order to learn Western oil and watercolor techniques. In 1912 he established the Shanghai Academy of Painting, predecessor of the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts, with Wu Shiguang and Zhang Yuguang (1885–1968). He was an active member of Tianmahui (The Heavenly Horse Society), a prominent art organization originated in Shanghai that promoted Western-style paintings, design, and photography through exhibitions and publications.

Liu was progressive about art education: he introduced mixed-sex education, started a summer school and correspondence courses in art, instituted public exhibitions of works by members of the academy, and took students on excursions to learn outdoor sketching. In ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Flint, MI, Sep 13, 1940).

American book designer, typographer poet and teacher . His father was from Lebanon and his mother was an American-born paediatrician and bibliophile. He studied art at Wayne State University in Detroit, MI (1964) and at the nearby Cranbrook Academy of Art (1966). While visiting Iowa City, IA as an undergraduate, he met Harry Duncan (1917–97), a printer and typographer at the University of Iowa, who was also a leading participant in the revival of interest in letterpress printing. It was during that visit that he first saw a hand-crafted letterpress book. In Detroit he founded The Perishable Press Limited in 1964, followed soon after by the Shadwell Papermill at Cranbrook; involvements that gradually led to the publication of about 130 limited edition books by such well-known writers as Paul Blackburn, Robert Creeley, Robert Duncan, Loren Eiseley, Denise Levertov, W. S. Merwin, Howard Nemerov, Toby Olson, Joel Oppenheimer, Jonathan Williams, William Stafford and Paul Auster. In ...

Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Brno, Moravia [now Czech Republic], March 22, 1875; d Vienna, Jan 7, 1934).

Austrian sculptor. He came from a poor family and moved to Vienna in 1889, becoming an apprentice wood-carver there until 1893. He spent the following years as a journeyman in Austria and southern Germany. In 1898 he began to study sculpture with Edmund von Hellmer at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, completing the course with honours in 1904. From 1901 he lived with his wife at her parents’ house in Langenzersdorf, near Vienna. There he came into contact with the Primavesi family, who supported the artists of the Vienna Secession and also gave Hanak generous financial assistance. After the completion of his studies he was awarded the Akademie’s Rome scholarship and travelled to Italy in 1904–5. He subsequently became an independent sculptor, carrying out commissions for his patron, the industrialist and banker Otto Primavesi, and taking part in exhibitions by the Vienna Secession, of which he was a member from ...

Article

Ingeborg Kuhn-Régnier

(b Vienna, Dec 4, 1914; d Mödling, Feb 25, 1995).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also travelled to England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Egypt. After he was designated a ‘degenerate’ artist in 1938 (see Entartete Kunst), exhibition of his work was forbidden in Germany. From 1941 until 1945 he was a soldier. Before allying himself with the style of Phantastischer Realismus, based in Vienna, his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes and female models, most of which he destroyed.

In 1946 Hausner joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It’s me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, ...

Article

Luc Verpoest

[Georges]

(b Ghent, Aug 31, 1852; d Leuven, Feb 22, 1925).

Belgian architect and politician. In 1873 he obtained his diploma in civil engineering at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. In 1874 he was appointed assistant professor and from 1878 to 1907 was full professor at the Catholic University of Leuven (Ecoles Spéciales de Génie Civil, des Arts et des Manufactures et des Mines), where he developed a training programme in architectural engineering. While a student he met Louis Cloquet and was influenced by the Belgian Gothic Revival movement, which was founded by Jean-Baptiste Bethune, also the founder (in 1862) of the St Luke School, Ghent. Helleputte’s architecture is similar to that of the first generation of St Luke architects in its almost undecorated and rather stern style. Its formal characteristics, modelled on the local Late Gothic style and traditional brick and limestone architecture, are strictly determined by constructional and functional needs. His most important works were built in Leuven for the Catholic University: the Anatomy Theatre (...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. 2 Aug. 1941, Damgarten, Germany).

British historian of Islamic art and architecture. Hillenbrand was educated at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, earning his D.Phil. in 1974. Three years earlier he had begun teaching in the Department of Fine Art in the University of Edinburgh, where he occupied the position formerly held by D. T. Rice. He remained there throughout his career, being awarded a chair in 1989. He trained several generations of younger scholars from Europe, the USA and the Middle East. His home in Edinburgh was where he and his wife Carole, a noted historian, entertained scholars in diverse fields of Islamic studies. Holder of visiting professorships at several universities in Europe and the United States, he delivered the 1993 Kevorkian Lectures at New York University. One of the most versatile and eloquent scholars of his generation, his interests focused on Islamic architecture, painting and iconography, with particular reference to Iran and early Islamic Syria....

Article

Deborah Edwards

(b Isle of Man, Nov 27, 1894; d Sydney, Nov 19, 1937).

Australian sculptor of British birth. He studied at Nottingham School of Art from 1910 to 1915 and again, after active service in World War I, in 1919. He then transferred to the Royal College of Art, London, and was awarded a diploma in sculpture in 1921. In 1922 he received a British School in Rome scholarship for study in Italy but cut this short and emigrated to Australia in May 1923 to become head teacher of the sculpture department at East Sydney Technical College.

Hoff’s work belongs to an inter-war classical revival and his sculptures attest to his absorption of the Paganist–Vitalist theories promoted in Australia in the 1920s and 1930s by his close associate Norman Lindsay. Hoff’s work was generally life-affirming and sexually adventurous for its period. His major paganist sculpture is the relief Deluge: Stampede of the Lower Gods (4.5 m wide; 1925–7; Canberra, N.G.), which depicts crowds of mermaids, dryads, tritons, satyrs and Australian Aborigines. The life-size ...

Article

Cynthia Goodman

(Georg Albert)

(b Weissenberg, Bavaria, March 21, 1880; d New York, Feb 17, 1966).

American painter, teacher and theorist of German birth. He moved with his family to Munich in 1886 and in 1896 left home to become assistant to the director of public works of the State of Bavaria; he distinguished himself with a number of inventions, including an electromagnetic comptometer, a radar device for ships, a sensitized light bulb and a portable freezer unit for military purposes. In spite of his parents’ strong objection and their hopes for his career as a scientist, in 1898 he enrolled in the art school run by Moritz Heymann (b 1870) in Munich. Hofmann subsequently studied with a succession of teachers and was particularly influenced by Willi Schwarz (b 1889), who familiarized him with French Impressionism, a style that affected his earliest known paintings, such as Self-portrait (1902; New York, Emmerich Gal., see Goodman, 1986, p. 14).

In 1903 Hofmann was introduced by Schwarz to ...

Article

Mária Szobor-Bernáth

(b Máramarossziget [now Sighet, Romania], Feb 2, 1857; d Técső [now Tyachiv, Ukraine], May 8, 1918).

Hungarian painter and teacher. He started studying painting in Budapest but received most of his artistic training (1878–82) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. He then settled in Munich until 1895. The major work of his early period, Threshing Corn (1885; Budapest, N.G.), combines genre painting with carefully recorded naturalistic detail, very much in the spirit of Wilhelm Leibl and Jules Bastien-Lepage. He rebelled, however, against the academic tradition of history painting: in a small-scale sketch for Zrinyi Rides Forth (Esztergom, Mus. Christ.) the gentle style undermines the academic principles of the genre.

In 1886 Hollósy founded his own private school in Munich: his teaching methods were unrestricted by convention, and this drew a good many young artists to the school: Germans such as Otto Greiner as well as many Hungarians (István Csók, Károly Ferenczy and others). In 1896, with a group of young painters, he established a summer school for his students at ...

Article

Michael Spens

(b Fulpmes, Tyrol, March 27, 1886: d Salzburg, June 12, 1983).

Austrian teacher and architect. He was educated at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, where he was made professor in 1919 at the early age of 32. Although he entered architectural practice in 1914, his reputation rests largely on an influential teaching career. After a period as professor at the Staatsgewerbeschule, Innsbruck, in 1924 he returned to Vienna, becoming professor and head of the master class in architecture at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He held the professorship at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, from 1928 to 1932, while retaining the Viennese post until he was forced to leave Austria in 1938. In 1940–49 he was a professor of architecture at the Technical School in Istanbul, Turkey, and resumed his professorial post at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, in 1954. The core of his teaching method derived from the master class system, which he pursued in each post he occupied. This was particularly effective at Vienna in the 1950s. His romantic–historical approach, involving emphasis on the geographical and historical context and allowing a degree of irrationality and sensuality in his students’ work, helped to lay the foundations for Austrian architecture in the 1970s and 1980s, when a new era of experimentation and innovation emerged....

Article

Wanda Kemp-Welch

(b Dorpat, Russia [now Tartu, Estonia], April 21, 1908; d Warsaw, Aug 25, 1988).

Polish architect, designer and teacher. He graduated in architecture from Warsaw Technical University (1936) and then received a scholarship to study in Italy. His work in the 1930s included the design of posters in the style of Tadeusz Gronowski (b 1894); he also designed two tourist hostels (1933–5; with Tadeusz Sieczkowski), in Czarnohora, Ukraine, and he won first prize in a competition (1935; with others) for the development of Pole Mokotowskie, the southern quarter of Warsaw, which was not executed. Other work included interior and exhibition design, for example the interior of the Polish pavilion (1939) at the World’s Fair, New York. In 1938 he began a long teaching career at Warsaw Technical University; he first taught architectural design under Rudolf Świerczyński and after 1945 he taught architectural history and industrial design there. In 1945 he also became Director of the urban planning studio at BOS, the Office for the Reconstruction of the Capital. One of his major works was the design (...

Article

[Friedrich; Fritz]

(b Vienna, Dec 15, 1928; d New Zealand, Feb 19, 2000).

Austrian painter and printmaker. Born to a Jewish mother, he foiled the Nazis and was able to shield some of his relatives for a time. During Nazi rule he studied in Vienna, at public schools and at the Montessori school before briefly attending the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. His floridly patterned works with their haunting and rich colours are dependent on the decorative tradition that produced Art Nouveau. The luxurious, sinuous forms and expressive distortions affiliate him to figurative artists such as Klimt and Schiele. Hundertwasser’s subject-matter modified these stylistic sources and was often influenced by his great interest in a sane environment expressed as a stable relationship between man, the built world and nature. He travelled widely and developed a pictorial vocabulary unspecific to any place or time. Hundertwasser made significant contributions to printing techniques with such works as the woodcut series Nana Hiakv Mizu (1973; with Japanese artists). The decorative and technical opulence of his work made him a controversial figure with the critics, while assuring him a large popular following....

Article

Evita Arapoglou

(b Mytilene, Lesbos, Jan 11, 1853; d Athens, Dec 13, 1932).

Greek painter. He studied painting and sculpture at the School of Arts in Athens (1870–76) and in 1877 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich to continue his painting studies under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Wilhelm Lindenschmit the younger (1829–95). He remained in Munich, painting genre pictures, mythological scenes, and portraits. Influenced by German academic Realism, his most famous paintings were of children (e.g. First Steps, 1892; Athens, N.G.). In 1900 he was invited by the Greek government to return to Athens to head the National Gallery, and in 1904 he was appointed Director of the School of Fine Arts. In addition to genre paintings, mythological scenes, and some landscapes, at this time he produced formal portraits of eminent Greeks (e.g. King George I, 1914; Athens, N. Hist. Mus.). He did not adopt new artistic tendencies, including Impressionism and Expressionism, yet his late, rather decorative paintings of nudes, still-lifes, and flower compositions betray a form of reserved academic Impressionism (e.g. ...

Article

Inkhuk  

John E. Bowlt

[Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury; Rus.: ‘Institute of Artistic Culture’]

Soviet institute for research in the arts that flourished from 1920 to 1926. Inkhuk was a dominant force in the development of Soviet art, architecture and design in the 1920s. Founded in Moscow in May 1920, with affiliations in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and Vitebsk, it attracted many members of the avant-garde, especially Lyubov’ Popova and Aleksandr Rodchenko; its key administrative positions were occupied by Vasily Kandinsky (Moscow), Vladimir Tatlin (Petrograd) and Kazimir Malevich (Vitebsk). At one time Inkhuk maintained contact with Berlin (through El Lissitzky and the journal Veshch’/Gegenstand/Objet), the Netherlands, Hungary and Japan, although it never really had the chance to develop these international connections. One of the principal aims of Inkhuk was to reduce the modern movements such as Suprematism and Tatlin’s concept of the ‘culture of materials’ (see Tatlin, Vladimir) to a scientifically based programme that could be used for educational and research purposes—a development analogous to the initial endeavours of the Russian Formalist school of literary criticism, which attempted to analyse literature in terms of formal structures. In its aspiration to elaborate a rational basis for artistic practice, Inkhuk encouraged discussions on specific issues of artistic content and form, such as the debate on ‘composition versus construction’ in ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(b Südern-Linden, Nov 11, 1888; d Zurich, May 25, 1967).

Swiss painter, textile designer, teacher, writer and theorist. He trained first as a primary school teacher in Berne (1904–6), where he became familiar with progressive educational and psychoanalytical ideas. He was, however, interested in art and music, and in 1909 he decided to become a painter. He enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva but was so disappointed that he returned to teacher training in Berne. He read widely and developed an interest in religion and mystic philosophy. After qualifying he returned to Geneva and greatly enjoyed the course on the geometric elements of art run by the Swiss painter Eugène Gilliard (1861–1921). After travelling in Europe, in 1913 Itten went to Stuttgart to study at the academy of Adolf Hölzel, a pioneer of abstraction who was also convinced of the importance of automatism in art. Greatly impressed, Itten absorbed his teaching on colour and contrast and his analyses of Old Masters paintings. Encouraged by Hölzel, he made abstract collages incorporating torn paper and cloth....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Leningrad, July 3, 1929).

Russian curator and historian of Islamic art. He studied and taught at the University of Leningrad in the late 1940s and 1950s and received his Ph.D. in 1972 from the Institute of Archaeology there. From 1956 he worked in the Oriental Department at the Hermitage Museum, serving as Keeper from 1984. A specialist in the arts of Iran, he wrote many articles on metalwares and manuscript painting for such journals as Epigrafika Vostoka (Epigraphy of the East), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha (the journal about the Hermitage collections) and Iran (the bulletin of the British Institute of Persian Studies). He contributed essays and entries to such important catalogues as Masterpieces of Islamic Art in the Hermitage Museum (Kuwait, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah; 1990), Heavenly Art, Earthly Beauty: Art of Islam (Amsterdam, Nieuw Kerk; 1999–2000); Iran v Ermitazkhe: Formirovanie Kollektsii [Iran in the Hermitage: The Formation of the Collection] (St. Petersburg, Hermitage; ...

Article

American experimental music class held by John Cage in New York. Although Cage had been faculty at the New School for Social Research (called the University in Exile in the period of and immediately after World War II, and subsequently, The New School University) since the early 1950s, team-teaching with his early mentor Henry Cowell (1897–1965), his critical tenure there was 1956–1960. It was in these years that his own work was hitting its greatest strides, and his dynamic classes reflected as much. The class focused on Cage’s most exploratory moves in music, not only his own trajectory—informed by Marcel Duchamp, Zen, and the international postwar avant-garde scene—but also new developments at Darmstadt (whether he was for them or against them), the world epicenter for exploratory musical work, which was driven by a younger generation mostly engaged with new sound technology.

Cage’s pedagogical modus operandi was surprising, in part due to his strikingly “low-tech” means. He was known for exemplifying the spatialization of sound, and its capacity for constant change, by such methods as placing a pencil—rubber eraser pointing down—between the strings of the New School classroom piano, to show students how, via direct alterations to the source, sound could be ...

Article

Paul Von Blum

(Mailou)

(b Boston, MA, Nov 3, 1905; d Washington, DC, June 9, 1998).

African American painter and art educator. During her artistic career of more than 70 years, Jones powerfully extended the tradition of African American visual art, while overcoming severe barriers of race and gender. Her parents encouraged her artistic inclinations while she was growing up in Boston and after graduating from the High School of Practical Arts she studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, receiving a diploma in design in 1927. After additional studies in art, including a summer school at Harvard University, Jones accepted a position to develop an art programme at the Palmer Memorial Institute in North Carolina, a preparatory school for African Americans. In 1930 she joined the Howard University faculty in Washington, DC, where she trained generations of young artists until her retirement in 1977. Teaching design and watercolour painting, she exerted a durable influence on 20th-century African American art education....