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Klaus Lankheit


(b ?April 9, 1691; d Mannheim, Jan 11, 1752).

German sculptor, stuccoist, draughtsman and illustrator. He was the most important sculptor active in Franconia and the Palatinate in the first half of the 18th century; nevertheless, although his very individual late Baroque sculpture, mostly carved in wood, was highly regarded by his contemporaries, he was quickly forgotten after his death. His rich oeuvre was severely depleted, particularly as a result of World War II. It was only after that date that his importance was reassessed. Egell probably served an apprenticeship with the Würzburg sculptor Balthasar Esterbauer (1672–1722) and collaborated on the interior decoration of the Banz monastery. His first documented work is an expressive Crucifix made in 1716 for St Michael’s Monastery in Bamberg (now in St Otto, Bamberg). His stylistic development was affected by his work between 1716–17 and 1719 as one of the team directed by Balthasar Permoser, which made all the sculptural decorations at the Zwinger in Dresden for ...


(b Warburg, 1553–4; d Warburg, 1603).

German goldsmith, engraver and draughtsman. Probably from a long-established Warburg family of freemen, he is first fully named in 1578, in an engraving that shows his connections with scholars as an illustrator of academic works. One of these was Michele Mercati, for whom Eisenhoit worked during a stay in Rome c. 1580 on the Metallotheca Vaticana, a work cataloguing the Vatican’s scientific collections. His style draws principally on the Roman Late Renaissance. Back in Germany by c. 1582–5, Eisenhoit began to work primarily for patrons residing near Warburg, where he had settled by 1587 at the latest. Commissions of these years show work for the Hessian courts in Kassel and Marburg and the beginning of his cooperation with Jost Bürgi, instrument-maker and mathematician to the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Between c. 1582 and 1594 Eisenhoit decorated Bürgi’s mechanical celestial globes with engravings and illustrated with etchings a treatise on engineering.

Eisenhoit’s first works in gold (...


Hans Georg Gmelin

( fl ?c. Konstanz, 1486; d Nuremberg, 1517).

German painter and illuminator . Although there is no documentary reference to him in Nuremberg, he may have been the son of the wealthy Sebald Elsner, who became a citizen there in 1456. Elsner had apparently established his reputation as a portrait painter by c. 1490, but there is no evidence of his activity as a miniaturist before 1500. His skill as a lutenist led to friendship with Sebastian Imhof, Wilhelm Haller, and Lorenz Staiber, whose patronage probably promoted his work. The earliest portraits attributed to him, of long-since-dead participants in the Council of Konstanz (1414–18), suggest that he began his journeyman years in the Upper Rhine area, in Konstanz. In the portrait of the councillor Heinrich Schilther (c. 1486; Vienna, Akad. Bild. Kst.) the head fills out the picture, with highly lifelike features; Thomas Reuss (c. 1486; Austrian priv. col.) presents the first front-view portrait in German painting, pre-dating Dürer’s ...


Patrick M. de Winter

(b Reggio Emilia, c. 1440; d before Jan 15, 1495).

Italian scribe, illuminator and Franciscan friar. Between 1477 and 1487 he wrote three, and partially decorated six, large Antiphonaries for the cathedral of Ferrara (Ferrara, Mus. Duomo). In a series of eleven Antiphonaries and six Graduals commissioned in 1490 for the convent of S Francesco, Brescia (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo, MSS 1–17), he illuminated initials as well as border decoration. In both enterprises Fra Evangelista probably had a controlling hand and used Jacopo Filippo d’Argenta as a close collaborator. Attributions of cuttings in Berlin (Kupferstichkab.) and a miniature with St Jerome (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) are inconclusive.

Fra Evangelista emulated the styles of Guglielmo Giraldi, Martino da Modena and Jacopo Filippo d’Argenta, all three active on the two series of choir-books. Like most contemporary painters in Ferrara, he was greatly influenced by the works of Cosimo Tura. His own style is characterized by a geometrically structured, balanced page layout that includes strong acanthus decoration bound within frames, and wooded or rocky scenes with large figures draped in bulky garments and with smallish heads. When working directly with Jacopo Filippo d’Argenta (best exemplified in Ferrara, Mus. Duomo, MS. Corale VI), he tended to be more inventive, his acanthus leaves stylishly framing medallions....


Patrick M. de Winter


(fl 1467–93).

Italian illuminator. He commanded a sizeable patronage at the Aragonese court and among religious institutions of the Kingdom of Naples–Sicily. His colourful miniatures are eclectic with characteristic boldly outlined, childlike figures. He apparently trained with Cola Rapicano, and such manuscripts as Albertus Magnus’s Summa (U. Valencia, Bib., MS. 820) seem to have been cooperative ventures by the two men. The earliest record concerning a manuscript that Felice illuminated independently is a payment in 1467 for a volume combining Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy and Vergerio’s De ingenuis moribus (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Pal. lat. 1470). Here he adopted the white intertwined vine-scroll borders that had become the trademark of Gioacchino de Gigantibus de Rottenburg, who was active in Naples at the same time.

Felice, to a greater degree than Rapicano, sought his own style in Catalan versions of south Netherlandish modes that Lleonard Crespi, Alfonso di Cordova (fl...


Janet Southorn

[Felix Antiquarius]

(b Verona, Aug 1433; d ?La Storta, nr Rome, after Aug 1479).

Italian calligrapher, writer and antiquary. He was the son of a wine-tax collector but, despite his relative poverty, he received sufficient education to allow him to earn a living copying texts and to develop a lifelong interest in Classical antiquity. He developed a distinctive calligraphic style and his interest in writing extended to the preparation of a treatise on the construction of the Roman alphabet, the Alphabetum Romanum (c. 1460). He also wrote several poems and a novella (c. 1474), which he illustrated with his own miniatures (1474). He is best known, however, as an antiquary, especially as a collector of inscriptions, in which he was inspired by the example of the collector and traveller Ancona, concerning whom Feliciano assembled a number of papers and biographical details (Treviso, Bib. Capitolare). His antiquarian interests were shared by Giovanni Marcanova Antenoreo, the Paduan physician and collector, whose ...


Janez Höfler

(b ?Nördlingen, c. 1495; d Ingolstadt, April 10, 1538).

German painter. A family named Feselen is documented in Nördlingen at the beginning of the 16th century. The account-books of Unsere-Liebe-Frau-Kirche in Ingolstadt, the only source for Feselen’s life, mention him as living in the town as an independent painter in 1521. In 1522 he was paid for an altarpiece and a panel painting, and he is again entered in 1528 and 1533. He would have received his basic training in Nördlingen, thus being influenced by Hans Schäufelein. Before settling in Ingolstadt, he clearly went to Passau: the first work that can be confirmed as his, a winged altar (1520) at Schloss Haidenburg near Passau, reveals Schäufelein’s teaching in the figure types of the standing saints on the reverse and the taut disposition of their robes. The scenes on the front, however, St Elizabeth Distributing Alms and St Roch Being Cured by an Angel, show the influence of Wolf Huber—then working on the ...


Claude Schaefer

(b Tours, c. 1425; d Tours, c. 1478).

French painter and illuminator. He is regarded as the most important French painter of the 15th century and was responsible for introducing Italian Renaissance elements into French painting. Little is known of his life, and, apart from a signed self-portrait medallion (Paris, Louvre), his only authenticated work is the Antiquités judaïques (Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 247). A corpus of works by Fouquet has therefore been established on the basis of stylistic criteria, but its exact chronology is uncertain.

One tempting theory about Fouquet’s training is that he was apprenticed in the Bourges workshops of Jacob de Littemont (d c. 1478), court painter of Charles VII, whose name suggests a south Netherlandish origin; this might explain the combination of Netherlandish and French traits seen in his works.

Fouquet was born around 1425 and went to Rome, perhaps as a member of the French delegation, in 1446. Later he depicted from memory in the Chevalier Hours the coronation of the pope Nicholas V, which took place in Rome on the ...


Anabel Thomas

(b ?Florence, 1377; d Florence, Aug 10, 1456).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was possibly a pupil of Mariotto di Nardo, matriculating in the Guild of St Luke in 1424. He filed a joint tax return with his brother Giunta di Jacopo (b 1379) in 1427 in which he claimed that he was not practising his art since he had ‘nothing to do’. He was documented in 1429 as involved in illumination. In 1436 he painted 12 figures of Apostles for Florence Cathedral with Bicci di Lorenzo and Lippo di Corso (1357–1404). He worked with Ventura di Moro (fl 1416–56) on scenes from the Life of St Peter Martyr (1445–6; Florence, Mus. Bigallo). Franchi’s dated works include St Blaise Enthroned (1408; Florence Cathedral), the Coronation of the Virgin (1420; Florence, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.) and the signed and dated Coronation of the Virgin (1439; Siena, Pin. N.), the last showing an interesting iconographical development with the figures of Christ and the Virgin seated as if in a tomb. He was typical of many of the prolific artists of the early 15th century catering for the Florentine art market in producing compositions based on those of the better-known masters of his day. His style is close to that of Bicci di Lorenzo and Lorenzo Monaco, although his drapery is slightly more agitated and he does not carry through Monaco’s sophisticated treatment of space. His quite strongly modelled figures are often set against flat, decorated backgrounds that negate their plasticity. However, the strongly illusionistic frescoes of a ...


Hans Georg Gmelin

(fl c. Hamburg, 1424–36).

German painter. ‘Mester Francke(nn)’ was named in an entry (1541) in the memorial book of Hamburg’s England Traders’ Association, quoting a lost contract of 1424 commissioning a Passion altarpiece (remnants, Hamburg, Ksthalle), then still located in the Johanniskirche, probably having been set up in the south chapel soon after it came into the Association’s possession in 1436. It is thought that ‘Mester Francke’ was the ‘fratre Francone Zutphanico’ or ‘fratre Francone’ named in Anabaptistici furoris monasterium evertentis historica narratio (1573), in which Hermann von Kerssenbroich (1517–85) reported that pictures by that artist in Hamburg Cathedral had been profaned by Anabaptists. Die Ordnung der Wiedertäufer in Münster, based on a 1534 report by Hermann Ramert, mentioned the pictures of Brother ‘Frantz von Sudfeld’: Graf Otto von Hoya, Bishop of Münster (reg 1409–20), had unusually close ties with the Dominicans in Zutphen. It may thus be inferred that ‘mester Francke’, ‘fratre Francone Zutphanico’ and ‘Franz von Sudfeld’ were the same person. He may also have been the ‘black’ (i.e. Dominican) monk in Hamburg who painted the altar shrine that Hans Kinkelow, a joiner and carver from Reval [Tallinn], was commissioned in ...


Margaret M. Manion

(fl c. 1460–80).

French illuminator. He was one of the leading artists of the school that dominated book illumination in Paris during the second half of the 15th century. His only documented work—and thus the basis for the reconstruction of his oeuvre—is a two-volume French translation of St Augustine’s City of God (c. 1469–73; Paris, Bib. N., MSS fr. 18–19) bearing the arms of Charles de Gaucourt, Governor of Amiens and appointed Lieutenant General of Paris in 1472. Robert Gaguin, a noted scholar and general of the order of the Trinitarians, wrote to de Gaucourt in August 1473:

We gave to the excellent painter Franciscus the outlines of the pictures and the schemes of images which you ordered to be painted for the books of the City of God, and he has finished the work as he began it with the most perfect craftsmanship. Indeed, he is such an accomplished artist that Apelles would rightly have taken second place to him....


Frans Baudouin

(b Antwerp, Jan 10, 1610; d Antwerp, June 21, 1666).

Flemish painter, illuminator and printmaker. He is one of the rediscovered minor masters of the 17th-century Flemish school. He was educated in the humanities at the Jesuit college in Antwerp, but it is not known with whom he studied painting. In 1631–2 he was enrolled as a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp.

Until the 1960s Fruytiers was known only as the author of a few excellent miniature portraits in watercolour and gouache on paper or vellum. One of the earliest, Family on a Terrace (1638; sold, London, Sotheby’s, 25 Feb 1959, lot 15), includes a painter at work, which may be a self-portrait. The best-known miniature, Four Children of Rubens and Hélène Fourment with Two Servants (1638; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.), is probably the portrait of the children mentioned in the inventory of Rubens’s estate in 1641, on which the costs of the frame and glass were still owing....


Nigel J. Morgan

(fl c. 1460; d after 1501).

German illuminator. He spent most of his career in Regensburg, and his workshop comprised the only group of painters of significance operating there at that time. The influences from which he formulated his style were from Nuremberg (Michael Wolgemut), Vienna (Martinus ‘opifex’ of the Austrian court school, who worked for a time in Regensburg) and the Netherlands. His hand is found in 14 manuscripts (c. 1465–1500), including illustrated copies of the Old Testament, missals and an astronomical manuscript. His style is characterized by somewhat bland facial expressions and calm figure compositions with little sense of movement. He used vibrant coloured contrasts and set the scenes and figures in verdant landscapes with hills and mountains. Rich decorative borders incorporate flowers, fruit and foliage ingeniously adapted as framing devices for the miniatures.

Among Furtmeyr’s main works are two illustrated copies of the Old Testament (c. 1465–70; Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Cgm 8010a; Augsburg, Ubib. 1.3.2°.III and IV), made for members of the family of ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).

German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...


Annamaria Negro Spina

(b Florence, 1618; d after 1661).

Italian painter and engraver. He was a pupil of Francesco Furini (Bartsch). His most important work is a series of engravings for Leonardo Agostini’s book Le gemme antiche figurate (Rome, 1657–9). He also produced several collections of engravings of low reliefs and friezes by Polidoro da Caravaggio, published by Vincenzo Belly in Opere di Polidoro da Caravaggio (Rome, 1658). His engraving after Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi’s Triumph of Piety dates from the same year. He was an accomplished draughtsman and his attractive, light and sketchy engraving style is close to that of Stefano della Bella. He completed and signed the Sixth Death (see Vesme and Massar, no. 92), one of the latter’s uncompleted plates for the series the Dance of Death. There is only one known painting by Galestruzzi, a Magdalene owned by the Accademia di S Luca in Rome; the artist was a member of the Accademia from ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Paris, 1480; d Paris, 1561).

French typefounder. Garamond worked as a typefounder for several Parisian printers and designed the roman typeface now known as typi regii and the Greek type (now known as grecs du roi) used by Robert Estienne in an edition of Eusebius (1544) commissioned by Valois, House of family §(14)...


P. Scarpellini

[Pietro di Antonio Dei]

(b Florence, 1448; d Florence, Dec 1502).

Italian painter, illuminator and architect. The son of a goldsmith, he was enrolled in the Florentine goldsmiths’ guild at the age of five. Later he must have frequented the workshops of Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo and, particularly, that of Andrea Verrocchio, where the major artists of his generation, such as Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Leonardo da Vinci, Lorenzo di Credi, Perugino and Signorelli, used to meet. He probably also had contacts with artists in Arezzo, especially Piero della Francesca, and in Urbino, where Piero, Melozzo da Forlí, Donato Bramante, Justus of Ghent and Pedro Berruguete worked. Early links with Urbino are also suggested by his friendship, noted by Vasari, with Gentile de’ Becchi of Urbino (later Bishop of Arezzo) and by a miniature of the Martyrdom of St Agatha, definitely by his hand, in gradual D of Urbino Cathedral (Cathedral archv). In 1468 he took holy orders, probably in the Camaldolese monastery of S Maria degli Angeli, Florence, which his brother Nicolò had already entered. In ...


Jane S. Peters

[Mattis Matheus]

(b Nördlingen, c. 1500; d Lauingen, 1569/70).

German painter, miniature painter, and woodcut and tapestry designer. He was probably the son of Matthias, a Nördlingen shoemaker known as Geiger (d 1521), and probably served an apprenticeship in Nördlingen with Hans Schäufelein. By 1525 he was established as an artist in Lauingen, then part of the Duchy of Neuburg, where he appears annually in the tax register until 1568. From 1531 to 1567 he served as the city’s weighmaster. He was married to Anna Reiser, perhaps the daughter of the Lauingen painter Matthes Reiser (d c. 1519), and they had two sons, Hans (fl 1564/5), a goldsmith in Lauingen, and Ambrosius (fl 1568).

Gerung’s major patron was Otto Henry, later Elector Palatine of the Rhine. Between 1530 and 1532 Gerung illuminated the spaces left empty for New Testament scenes in Otto Henry’s large unfinished 15th-century Bible (divided between Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib. and Heidelberg, Kurpfälz. Mus.). He modelled the Bible’s Apocalypse miniatures on Dürer’s woodcut series from ...


Federica Toniolo

(fl 1445–89).

Italian illuminator. The son of a tailor, Giovanni, he is documented continuously in Ferrara from 1445 to 1477. With Taddeo Crivelli, he was the favourite illuminator of Borso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, and one of the most important Ferrarese personalities in Renaissance book decoration. He was also active in Urbino, where in 1480 he is recorded working for Federigo II da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino. Many documented works by Giraldi remain untraced.

Giraldi’s early style is known from signed miniatures in the copy of Aulus Gellius’s Noctes Atticae (Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, Cod. Scotti) made in Bologna in 1448. Late Gothic stylistic elements persist in the frontispiece miniature, characterized by the hooked folds of the drapery and the expressiveness of the faces. The bright light and chromatic range are Giraldi’s additions and are close to Florentine techniques, especially those of Domenico Veneziano. Scholarship is divided as to whether the spatial construction, which is realistic but perspectivally inaccurate, reveals the influence of Paolo Uccello or Piero della Francesca....


Gordon Campbell

Small devotional book with a lavish binding, typically decorated with gold, enamel and jewels. The books were worn hanging from the belt, for which the 16th-century English word is ‘girdle’. The British Museum has a girdle-book attributed to Hans van Antwerpen (1540–45). The girdle-book of Princess Augusta of Denmark (...