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Antoinette Le Normand-Romain


(b Paris, Oct 19, 1804; d Paris, May 26, 1865).

French sculptor. Son of a sculptor of the same name (1729–1816) and a pupil of F.-J. Bosio, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1818 and won the Prix de Rome in 1823. Among his works executed at the Académie de France in Rome is Orestes Mad (marble, c. 1825; Avignon, Mus. Calvet), a colossal head modelled after the Antique that is at the same time a self-portrait, and Mercury Inventing the Lyre (marble; destr.), an elegant statue much praised at the 1831 Salon. Journeys from Rome to Naples resulted in Neapolitan Fisherboy Dancing the Tarantella (bronze, exh. Salon 1833; Paris, Louvre), which was executed on his return to Paris and was one of the earliest Neapolitan genre subjects in French 19th-century art. In this work Duret reconciled classical form with modern subject-matter and the freedom of modelling allowed by working in bronze. Its popularity led to reduced-scale bronze editions by the founder ...


Marisa J. Pascucci

Terms applied to painters who had studied at either of the two academies in Germany where numerous American artists sought painting instruction. In the mid-19th century some of America’s most esteemed artists studied at the German art academies in Düsseldorf and Munich. By the end of the 19th century hundreds of American artists in search of the latest artistic styles and techniques were working and training at both academies.

The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Kunstakademie (now the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf) between the 1830s and the 1860s. During this time the Kunstakademie was held in high esteem throughout Europe and the USA. Rather bohemian in direction, days were filled with classes in drawing and color and also history and anatomy, with nights devoted to socializing centered around reading and discussion. Directed by the painter Schadow family §(3) and artists following the ...


Tone Skedsmo

(b Drammen, May 5, 1877; d Kristiania [now Oslo], Feb 2, 1899).

Norwegian painter and illustrator. His artistic education began at the age of nine, when he enrolled at the school of art of Knud Bergslien (1827–1908) in Kristiania, where he was a pupil from 1886 to 1889. Even from this early period his painted studies and drawings, for instance of his sister Signe and brother Carl (both 1887; Oslo, N.G.), reveal striking maturity. In 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and from 1891 to 1892 he studied at the Arts and Crafts School in Kristiania. Egedius discovered his strongest impetus and greatest inspiration, however, on his first visit to Telemark in south-west Norway in summer 1892. The artist Torleif Stadskleiv (1865–1946), whom he met there and who became his closest friend, endeared the region to Egedius with stories of its traditions and people. In 1894 Egedius studied for a short period under Harriet Backer, and he made his début at the Kristiania Autumn Exhibition in ...


Susan B. Taylor

French landscape garden near Senlis, at the edge of the forest of Chantilly, Oise. Laid out by its owner, Louis-René Marquis de Girardin, between 1766 and 1776, it became one of the most influential examples of the Picturesque garden in 18th-century France. In contrast to the flat terrain of many French parks, Ermenonville (approx. 850 ha) was varied and had an abundant water supply. Girardin made a large lake to the south of his modernized château; this flowed into two cascades, becoming a meandering stream north of the château. The lake and stream together defined the central north–south axis. The park itself he divided into four areas, in order to maintain the distinctly varied character of Ermenonville’s topography: the farm, east of the château, was essentially a ferme ornée, whereas the Désert, to the west, was a rocky landscape of sandhills, pine trees and boulders. The fine views to the north and south of the château, improved by the lake and stream, encouraged Girardin to exploit his domain—recomposing the landscape so as to resemble the scenery to be found in the works of celebrated landscape painters. Consequently, southerly views from the château—an area that included an ‘Arcadian’ field framed by the woods surrounding the lake, cascade and grotto—suggested paintings by Claude Lorrain; those to the north, a flat, marshy area containing a rustic mill, canal and windmill, evoked in the spectator’s imagination ‘northern, meditative’ landscapes. This latter area also included the Tower of Gabrielle (destr.), a Gothick tower dedicated to the mistress of Henry IV. Elsewhere, the views recalled the types of scenery associated with paintings by Hubert Robert, Salvator Rosa and Jacob van Ruisdael....


(b Seville, March 8, 1806; d Madrid, April 9, 1857).

Spanish painter. He was trained at the Real Escuela de Tres Nobles Artes in Seville, and he started his artistic career at the age of 21 in an environment of mediocre standards, where he stood out for his great ability in drawing. After working for ten years in Seville, Esquivel went, in 1831, to Madrid, establishing himself rapidly in a privileged position among the painters who worked at the Court. He soon acquired a great reputation as a portrait painter, although he also created lavish religious compositions and colourful scenes of local life. After his triumph in Madrid, Esquivel returned to Seville in 1838 ready to profit from the brilliant reputation he had acquired. In the following year, however, progressive blindness dramatically curtailed his development, and brought him to such despair that he twice tried to commit suicide. These circumstances moved the artistic circles of Madrid and Seville to organize collections of money to provide enough for the artist to live on, and also to cover the cost of treatment, which happily allowed his sight to be restored in ...


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Paris, March 20, 1808; d Chaville, Seine-et-Oise, July 14, 1888).

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, 1868–71).

Etex failed three times to win the Prix de Rome, but in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1830 his Republican sympathies gained him a government scholarship that enabled him to spend two years in Rome. There he sculpted the intensely tragic group Cain and his Children Cursed by God, the plaster version of which (Paris, Hôp. Salpêtrière) was one of the great successes of the 1833 Paris Salon. During this period Etex asserted the Republican views that were to earn him the distrust of many of his fellow artists and of the establishment but also gain him the support of the influential critic and politician Adolphe Thiers. He behaved in Romantic fashion as a misunderstood artist, but nevertheless displayed a remarkable tenacity in forwarding his pet projects, including, for instance, schemes for sculptures representing ...


Richard Green

(b York, March 10, 1787; d York, Nov 13, 1849).

English painter. Born into a Methodist family, he was the seventh child of a miller and baker in Feasegate, York, and in 1798 he was apprenticed as a printer to Robert Peck, publisher of the Hull Packet. Financial support from his uncle, a banker, allowed him to go to London in 1805, where he entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1806. For a year, in 1807–8, he was a pupil of Thomas Lawrence, who greatly influenced him. Following the death of his uncle in 1809 he became financially secure. From 1811 he exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the British Institution and in 1816 worked in the studio of Jean-Baptiste Regnault in Paris.

At the Royal Academy in 1820 Etty exhibited his first substantial figure composition, the Coral Finders: Venus and her Youthful Satellites Arriving at the Isle of Paphos (London, priv. col., see Farr, pl. 12). He visited France, Italy and the Low Countries and, in ...


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Stora Tuna, Dalarna, Nov 29, 1774; d Stockholm, Jan 9, 1861).

Swedish painter. He began his artistic training in Stockholm as a pupil of the theatre painters J. G. Brusell and E. Limnell (1764–1861). He also studied under the French landscape painter Louis Belanger (1736–1816). In 1805 he was awarded a scholarship to go to Italy, but he preferred to use it to travel within Sweden, as this corresponded more with his interest in painting his native landscape in a National Romantic style. Fahlcrantz settled permanently in Sweden, never travelling outside the Nordic countries. In 1819 he became a professor at the Royal Academy of Arts in Stockholm and in the 1820s Karl XIV commissioned a series of major works from him. Oscar I followed suit, as did numerous other buyers inside and outside Sweden. In this way, Fahlcrantz’s paintings were distributed as far as Denmark, Bavaria, Russia and America.

Fahlcrantz’s lyrical Romantic style of landscape painting is characterized by a warm, often very dark range of colours, dominated by brown and violet. This was succeeded by violet and blue in a lighter range, together with an often rose-coloured tone, which continued into the 1820s. His compositions often included water and are greatly simplified in the details. From the 1820s his works also included numerous views of castles and mansions, such as ...


Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Florence, 1799; d Florence, ?1886).

French sculptor. Daughter of a Breton banker, she studied drawing with the painters Louis Hersent and Claude Guillot (fl 1841–66). In her Salon début in 1827, her dramatic historical relief of Queen Christina and Monaldeschi (plaster; Louviers, Mus. Mun.) indicated a debt to her painter friends Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer. Passionately loyal to the elder Bourbons, she played a part in the Vendée uprising of 1830 and joined the forces supporting the Duchesse de Berry in 1832. These activities earned her imprisonment first and then proscription. She fled to Brussels but in 1834 settled in Florence, where she and her studio became an attraction for cultured tourists because of the romantic medieval manner she affected. In her magnum opus, a marble monument to Dante Alighieri (1830–36; fragments survive, priv. col.), she enshrined the adulterous lovers Paolo and Francesca in a polychrome Gothic tabernacle adorned with symbolic figures and inscriptions. A similar plethora of decorative elements surrounds the ascending soul of the deceased in the marble monument to ...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

(b Vienna, July 7, 1828; d Vienna, July 14, 1883).

Austrian architect. He was a member of the second generation of historicist architects in Vienna, who continued and developed the pioneering work of such architects as Karl Rösner, Eduard Van der Nüll and August von Siccardsburg. These three, who represented the Romantic period of early historicism in Austria, were Ferstel’s teachers from 1848 to 1850 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, and Van der Nüll & Siccardsburg in particular were important early influences. After leaving the academy, Ferstel joined the architectural firm of his uncle Friedrich Stache (1814–95), whom he assisted until 1853 in building castles and country houses for the high nobility in Bohemia. Domestic architecture continued to play an important part in his work. Before long, however, he was winning major architectural competitions, such as the international competition (1855) for the Votivkirche (1856–79) in Vienna.

Built to commemorate the rescue of Emperor Francis Joseph (...


Torsten Gunnarsson


(b Stockholm, Dec 22, 1868; d Arvika, July 7, 1948).

Swedish painter, printmaker and designer. He trained at the Royal Academy of Arts in Stockholm in 1891–2. Subsequently he studied with Bruno Liljefors and Carl Larsson, assisting them with such decorative schemes as Larsson’s fresco at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm (1896). In 1897 he moved to the Arvika district of Värmland, where he worked together with his wife, Maja (1873–1961), as painter, craftsman and cabinetmaker, and gathered around him a circle of artists who became known as the Racken group. He first achieved public recognition at the Stockholm Artists Union exhibition in 1898 with some of his snow landscapes, which were an immediate popular success and were often reproduced. He had his first one-man exhibition in Stockholm in 1908, and his paintings were well received when exhibited in Berlin in 1914 and in London in 1927.

Fjaestad’s speciality was the winter landscape. The approach he adopted in such early works as ...


(b Wolfurt, nr Bregenz, June 11, 1800; d Bregenz, May 19, 1881).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, under Franc Kavčič and Anton Petter (1781–1858). In 1827, after a short period in Munich, he moved to Bregenz with his friend, the painter Liberat Hundertpfund (1806–78). In 1829 he and Hundertpfund moved to Innsbruck, where Flatz painted numerous portraits. In 1833 he went to Rome, where he remained for five years. His stay there and his meeting with Friedrich Overbeck were of great importance for his artistic development, as were the paintings of Fra Angelico and Raphael. He began to paint solely religious subjects in the manner of the Nazarenes. Paintings of the Virgin and Child are especially reminiscent of Overbeck; although rendered with great feeling and charm, they tend to be somewhat saccharine (e.g. Virgin and Child, 1858; Neuss, Clemens-Sels-Mus.). He briefly visited Innsbruck again but returned to Rome in 1840 with his pupil ...


Jens Christian Jensen

(b Greifswald, Sept 5, 1774; d Dresden, May 7, 1840).

German painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. Along with Phillip Otto Runge, he was the leading artist of the German Romantic movement, notable especially for his symbolic and atmospheric treatment of landscape (see fig.).

After receiving a general education with a private tutor, Friedrich studied drawing and etching from 1790 to 1794 with Johann Gottfried Quistorp (1755–1835), drawing teacher at the university in Greifswald. From 1794 until 1798 he studied at the Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen, where his most important teachers were Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard, Jens Juel, Christian August Lorentzen (1749–1828), and Johannes Wiedewelt (1759–1802). The influence of Danish painting, especially that of Juel and Abildgaard, was strong and is evident even in his later years; Juel’s landscapes were notable for their clarity of composition and Abildgaard encouraged Friedrich’s enthusiasm for the mythology and history of the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples. Friedrich swiftly developed a confident and disciplined manner, as seen in the pen-and-wash drawing ...


(b Kratzau, N. Bohemia, Feb 9, 1800; d Vienna, March 13, 1876).

Bohemian painter, printmaker and teacher. Until he was 18 he was trained by his father, Wenzel Führich, a painter and mason. In 1819, at the academy exhibition in Prague, he made his début with two history paintings. Their success enabled him to study in Prague. Dürer was the first powerful influence on his style; on a visit to Vienna in 1822, medieval and Renaissance art made a similar impression. His illustrations for Ludwig Tieck’s Leben und Tod der heiligen Genoveva (1824–5) attracted the interest of Prince Metternich, who helped him obtain a scholarship to study in Italy. On his arrival in Rome in 1827, Führich made contact with Friedrich Overbeck and other German artists there. He met Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) and was commissioned to complete the Tasso room (1827–9) in the Casino Massimo. In Rome he was impressed by Italian Renaissance works, particularly Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican. On the return journey to Vienna, he admired Fra Angelico’s paintings and the frescoes in the Camposanto in Pisa. After a period in Prague, Führich obtained a teaching post in Vienna in ...


Dominique Vautier

(b Tournai, May 10, 1810; d Brussels, Nov 20, 1887).

Belgian painter and draughtsman. Although he came from an impoverished background, he entered the Académie of Tournai in 1823, where he worked first under Cornelis Cels and then under Philippe Auguste Hennequin, a pupil of Jacques-Louis David. Hennequin instilled in him the principles of Neo-classical drawing and had a profound influence on his choice of subject-matter. Gallait’s first Classical subject, the Death of Epaminondas (Tournai, Mus. B.-A.), and his many early drawings show this influence clearly. Gallait’s first success was with Caesar’s Tribute (Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.) exhibited in 1832 at the Salon of Ghent. On the advice of Hennequin, Gallait went to Antwerp to continue his training under Mathieu Van Brée. Here he discovered the Baroque colour of Peter Paul Rubens and the nascent Romanticism of Gustaf Wappers. During this period he produced a Christ Healing the Blind Man, which was bought by the cathedral of Tournai (in situ...


Sixten Ringbom

(Valdemar) [Gallén, Axel until 1904]

(b Pori [Swed. Björneborg], Finland, April 26, 1865; d Stockholm, March 7, 1931).

Finnish painter, graphic artist and designer. He learnt the elements of drawing and painting in Helsinki at the School of the Finnish Arts Society and the studio of the painter Adolf von Becker (1831–1909).

His first significant painting, The Boy and the Crow (1884; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), shows his ambition to keep abreast of developments in Naturalism, a style introduced to him through the works of young Finnish and Scandinavian painters in Paris. In the autumn of 1884 he arrived in Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian and the studio of Fernand Cormon. In 1885 he completed his oil painting Old Woman with a Cat (Turku, A. Mus.), a veristic study of poverty and deprivation. Gallén’s single-figure compositions of this period followed a formula exploited by Jean-François Millet, Jules Breton and Jules Bastien-Lepage. In these seemingly static images, the life story of the protagonist was suggested through significant attributes, physiognomic elaboration and background details....


(b Paris, Aug 24, 1759; d Paris, Nov 15, 1849).

French painter. Although he was given a sound Classical education to prepare for the magistrature, he found a painter’s career more alluring. Despite his late start, he had an impeccable record of success in competition with the pupils of Jacques-Louis David, whose influence he mostly resisted. Trained by Louis-Jacques Durameau, Gabriel-François Doyen and Joseph-Marie Vien, he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition in 1787 with Death of Sedecius (Le Mans, Mus. Tessé) and first place in 1788 with a strenuously rhetorical Death of Tatius (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Although his stay in Italy was abruptly ended by the Roman crisis of 1793, he completed before his return to Paris the course work and other pictures, including an academic study of St Jerome (Troyes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.) and several Classical subjects.

While in Italy, Garnier began work on his masterpiece, the Family of Priam, for which he completed a painted sketch (Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) in ...


Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...


Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Paris, 1796; d Paris, Dec 11, 1844).

French sculptor. Like Antoine-Louis Barye, Gechter was a pupil of François-Joseph Bosio and Baron Gros. His first Salon exhibits in 1824 had heroic Classical and mythological subjects. After 1830 he followed the example of Barye in turning to small-scale sculpture, usually including animals, but without Barye’s zoological bias. After being shown at the Salon in 1833, his Combat of Charles Martel and Abderame, King of the Saracens (Meaux, Mus. Bossuet) was commissioned in bronze by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Although occasionally—as in The Engagement (Egyptian Expedition, 1798) (exh. Salon, 1834; untraced)—Gechter treated recent history, his predilection was for elaborately costumed battle or hunting scenes from the medieval or Renaissance period. Usually such pieces, with their frozen groupings, their emphasis on costume and their intricacy, belong to the genre known as Troubadour. Exceptionally Gechter could strike a more emotive note in his statuettes, as in Death of Tancred...


Paul Spencer-Longhurst

(b Rome, May 4, 1770; d Paris, Jan 11, 1837).

French painter and illustrator.

He spent most of his childhood in Rome. His talent as an artist revealed itself early and during this period he acquired a love of Italian painting and music, which he never lost. In 1782 his family returned to Paris, where, through the connections of his father’s employer Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, Minister of the King’s Household, Gérard was admitted to the Pension du Roi, a small teaching establishment for young artists which had been founded by the Marquis de Marigny. After 18 months he entered the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou, where he remained for two years, before transferring to that of the painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet. He became a pupil of David in 1786 and quickly found special favour with his master.

In 1789 Gérard competed for the Prix de Rome and his entry, Joseph Revealing himself to his Brethren (Angers, Mus. B.-A.), was placed second; the winner was Girodet. He did not submit in ...