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(b Amiens, 1837; d Amiens, June 10, 1889).

French architect. After a stint in Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc’s short-lived atelier, where his time overlapped with that of Anatole de Baudot and Maurice Ouradou (1822–84), he divided his time between the restoration work at Notre-Dame and Viollet-le-Duc’s practice, where he was one of several trusted pupils charged with the growing number of commissions for restorations, or new designs for Gothic Revival châteaux in the style of the restoration under way at Pierrefonds for Napoleon III. The restoration of the Château de Roquetaillade, near Mazères, Gironde (begun 1864), quickly became Duthoit’s own, as did that at Chamousset, Rhône (begun by Viollet-le-Duc 1861, completed 1880), and the work at the new château for the explorer Antoine d’Abbadie at Bidassoa, near Hendaye, Basses-Pyrénées (1864–70).

In 1861, on Viollet-le-Duc’s recommendation, Duthoit went on an archaeological mission to Cyprus, Sicily and Syria as a draughtsman for Melchior de Vogue’s great ...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Płock, May 5, 1844; d Warsaw, Feb 4, 1927).

Polish architect. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Warsaw (1852–9) and then at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1866–71. He collaborated with Edward Cichocki (1833–99) on the church of SS Peter and Paul (1883–6; destr. 1944; rebuilt 1946–58), Wspólna Street, Warsaw, and then joined Edward August Karol Lilpop (1844–1911) on the design of the Scheibler family mausoleum in the Evangelist cemetery in Łódź, after which he worked independently.

In the many imposing Warsaw churches he designed, Dziekoński drew on a wide range of past architectural styles: he remodelled St Alexander (1886–94; destr. 1944; rebuilt 1949 to a different design) in Trzech Krzyży Square in a Neo-classical style and designed St Florianus (1888–1901; partly destr. 1944; rebuilt 1947–72) in the Praga district in a style based on Polish Gothic architecture. After 1900 he concentrated on Polish Gothic and Renaissance architecture for his inspiration, in line with the contemporary search for a national Polish style derived from such sources. His church of St Saviour (...


Roderick O’Donnell



Catherine H. Cruft

(b Ancrum, Roxburghshire [now Borders], Aug 1760; d Edinburgh, June 16, 1823).

Scottish architect. He was a successful Edinburgh architect with no formal education. He trained as a joiner and may have worked as a contractor for the building of Castle Mona (1801–6), Isle of Man, designed by George Steuart (c. 1730–1806) for the 4th Duke of Atholl, who later became Elliot’s patron. From 1794 to 1799 he exhibited architectural drawings at the Royal Academy. In 1800 he set up in joint practice with his brother James Elliot (1770–1810), running offices in London and Edinburgh. Elliot cannot be considered an architectural innovator. His usual style for country houses was castellated and derived directly from Roger Morris’s conception at Inveraray Castle (from 1745), Argyll, for the 3rd Duke of Argyll and from the Adam castle style. Loudoun Castle (1804–11; gutted 1941), Strathclyde, for the Marquess of Hastings, is an exercise in post-Adam castellated design, while Taymouth Castle (...


Peter Bloch

(b Niederscheidweiler, nr Wittlich, 1835; d Cologne, 1874).

German sculptor. Early in his career he worked in Cologne with the neo-Gothic sculptor Christoph Stephan (1797–1864). Alexander Schnütgen, the Domkapitular of Cologne Cathedral, recommended him to August Ottmar von Essenwein, who from 1868 had been restoring St Maria im Kapitol in Cologne. For this church Elscheid sculpted the life-size Pietà (c. 1870) for the south transept (now in the crypt) and the over-life-size wooden Triumphant Crucifixion group (c. 1870; Bonn-Poppelsdorf, St Sebastian), the latter inspired by the late Romanesque group depicting the same subject in the chapel of Schloss Wechselburg. A Vesperbild in the Katholische Pfarrkirche Mariae Himmelfahrt in Mönchengladbach and one in Kempen (Städt. Kramer-Mus.) are so similar stylistically that they can be attributed to Elscheid. A Heart of Jesus (c. 1870) in the narthex of St Maria im Kapitol may also be by Elscheid. In addition to these commissions, he carved small hard-wood statues in the High Gothic style that was prevalent in Cologne. They were rendered with such skill that in later years they were assumed to be either authentic Gothic works or fakes. It is uncertain, however, whether he intentionally intended these sculptures to deceive the viewer. The controversy over their origins has resulted in a renewed interest in them and has led to the rediscovery of several that were previously little-known. Such works (all ...


Betzy Dinesen

(b Whetstone, London, Dec 3, 1843; d Shanklin, Isle of Wight, Dec 26, 1924).

English architect. He trained first under William Habershon (1818–92) and Alfred Pite (1832–1911) and then under William Burges. He went to India in 1864 with Burges’s drawings for a new building for the School of Art in Bombay, but in the event they were too expensive to use. His own family connections secured him work in India, where he designed the Crawford Markets (1865–71), Bombay. His church (1870–73) at Girgaum, near Bombay, is in a French Gothic style. His other work in India in this period includes Allahabad Cathedral (1871–1929), in a Gothic Revival style, and Muir College (1872–8), also in Allahabad, combining Gothic and Saracenic elements. On his return to England he won the first competition (later abandoned) for Liverpool Cathedral in 1886 and designed the church of SS Mary and James (1887), Brighton, the Clarence Wing (...


(b Karlsruhe, Nov 2, 1831; d Nuremberg, Oct 13, 1892).

German architect and art historian. He was an important exponent of historicism. After studying architecture and art history up to 1851 (graduated 1855) at the Polytechnikum (now Technische Universität), Karlsruhe, he visited Berlin in 1852/3 and travelled in Europe, gaining knowledge that would later be valuable in his work on the conservation of monuments. His first post (1857) was as architect to the Austrian Staatseisenbahn-Gesellschaft. At about that time he designed churches, public buildings and houses, especially in Banat (Hungary; now Romania), and produced plans (1860–61) for the urban development of Franzdorf. In the early 1860s he also produced ornamentation in the Romanesque style for churches, including those at Leiden (Hungary), Berchtoldsdorf, near Vienna, S Antonio, Padua, and Trento Cathedral. In 1864 he became a city architect at Graz and in 1865 Professor of Architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Graz. His publications on architectural history and the conservation of monuments, as well as his practical and theoretical work on problems in the arts and crafts, led to his appointment (...


Thomas Cocke

(b Cambridge, bapt Aug 25, 1722; d Cambridge, Sept 14, 1784).

English architect. He was an enthusiastic antiquary as well as a reliable architect; he built in both the classical style of the mid-18th century and the Gothic. He was educated at the grammar school in the shadow of King’s College Chapel; at 18 years old he was already drawing ancient Cambridge buildings, including the castle and Barnwell ‘leper chapel’. On leaving school he joined the family business, which undertook general building work and joinery; when his father died in 1749 Essex took sole control. He received a more academic architectural training from James Burrough (1691–1764), the Caius College don and the city’s leading amateur architect, and soon he became Burrough’s chief assistant and collaborator. In 1753 he married the daughter of a Cambridge bookseller, and in 1756 he was commissioned to build an eleven-bay range along the river front of Queens’ College. Only the south-west pavilion (the present Essex building) was constructed, but it established his reputation as a designer of convenient and well-lit college rooms. During the same period Essex reconstructed the decayed Jacobean ranges of Neville’s Court in Trinity College. He retained the existing structure but modernized it by making the attic into a proper second floor and removing strapwork ornament. His major classical work (his last in association with Burrough) was the new chapel and domed ante-chapel for Clare College in ...


Peter Howell

(b Christchurch, Hants, April 1, 1810; d London, Aug 22, 1880).

English architect. As a boy he made drawings of Christchurch Priory and Wimborne Minster. By 1826 he was a pupil of A. C. Pugin, for whom he measured and drew medieval buildings in England and Normandy, and with whose son, A. W. N. Pugin, he became friendly. In 1832 or 1833 Ferrey entered the office of William Wilkins, where he worked on the drawings for the National Gallery, London. From 1834 to 1836 he was in partnership in Bloomsbury with Thomas Larkins Walker (d 1860). He was commissioned by Sir George Gervis, Baronet, to lay out his estate at Bournemouth (1834–6) with a hotel (now Royal Bath Hotel) and villas (mostly destr. 1900–20). He soon developed an extensive practice, in which he showed an eclectic and versatile approach to style.

In 1841 Ferrey became Honorary Architect to the Diocese of Bath and Wells. He restored many old churches in that diocese and elsewhere (including Wells Cathedral in ...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

(b Vienna, July 7, 1828; d Vienna, July 14, 1883).

Austrian architect. He was a member of the second generation of historicist architects in Vienna, who continued and developed the pioneering work of such architects as Karl Rösner, Eduard Van der Nüll and August von Siccardsburg. These three, who represented the Romantic period of early historicism in Austria, were Ferstel’s teachers from 1848 to 1850 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, and Van der Nüll & Siccardsburg in particular were important early influences. After leaving the academy, Ferstel joined the architectural firm of his uncle Friedrich Stache (1814–95), whom he assisted until 1853 in building castles and country houses for the high nobility in Bohemia. Domestic architecture continued to play an important part in his work. Before long, however, he was winning major architectural competitions, such as the international competition (1855) for the Votivkirche (1856–79) in Vienna.

Built to commemorate the rescue of Emperor Francis Joseph (...


Elizabeth Ashman Rowe

Illuminated 14th-century deluxe Icelandic manuscript (420×290 mm, 202 fols; Reykjavík, Árni Magnússon Institute, GKS 1005 fol.) of King Sverrir’s Saga. It was compiled by the priests Jón Þórðarson and Magnús Þórhallsson for Jón Hákonarson (1350–before 1416), a wealthy landowner in northern Iceland who collected sagas of the kings of Norway. A note on folio 4r dates Jón Þórðarson’s contribution to 1387, and Magnús Þórhallsson’s annals at the end of the manuscript indicate the book was completed in 1394 or 1395. Magnús illuminated the whole manuscript and was the scribe of King Sverrir’s Saga (composed in part by Abbot Karl Jónsson of Þingeyrar, Iceland, c. 1185). The saga contains eight initials decorated in a style combining Gothic curved and draped human figures with Romanesque grotesques and acanthus motifs. Five initials depict Sverrir (with crown, orb and weapons), his opponent Sigurðr, and their soldiers. One initial is foliate, and two depict hybrid monsters. The taunting grotesque (fol. 156...


Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1845; d Barcelona, 1924).

Spanish Catalan architect, restorer and teacher. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura in Madrid and then continued his preparation in Barcelona under Elías Rogent before becoming a professor in the city’s newly created Escuela de Arquitectura (1871), teaching art history and design. With Rogent he specialized in the restoration of such great architectural ensembles as Tarragona Cathedral (1883), frequently using brick and generally adopting a historicist approach influenced by the rationalist theories of Viollet-le-Duc. Other noteworthy achievements include the reinforcement of the cupola of the basilica del Pilar in Saragossa and the construction of the cimborio of Barcelona Cathedral, in a perfect neo-Gothic style. Font i Carreras also built numerous mansions for the aristocracy and wealthy bourgeoisie of Catalonia and was responsible for the Palace of Fine Arts in the Exposició Universal (1888) in Barcelona. In the course of his successful career he also became an associate member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid, and in Barcelona was elected to membership of the Academia de S Jorge and the Academia de Ciencias y Artes; he was also President of the Asociacíon de Arquitectos de Cataluña and of the Comisión Provincial de Monumentos....


(b 1802; d 1855).

French silversmith and jeweller. The pieces that he exhibited at the Paris Industrial Exhibitions of 1839 and 1844 made him the most celebrated silversmith in France. He worked in a variety of styles, notably Renaissance Revival, but also produced distinguished Gothic Revival and Rococo-style pieces. His most famous creation is the toilette of the Duchess of Parma (...


Christopher A. Thomas

(b Bath, March 8, 1823; d Ottawa, Sept 28, 1898).

Canadian architect of English birth. He was trained in Bath under James Wilson (1816–1900), who specialized in the design of Nonconformist churches, usually in the Gothic style, and schools. Fuller’s earliest-known independent commission was the rebuilding (1845–8) of the Anglican cathedral in Antigua, which had been destroyed in an earthquake. He produced an elaborate design for a cruciform building with an Italianate stone exterior, an earthquake-proof interior timber frame, and a richly panelled classical interior. However, because it failed to conform to the prevailing Gothic Revival style, it was criticized by the progressive English architectural press.

Back in England by 1847, Fuller formed a partnership with William Bruce Gingell (1819–1900), also a pupil of Wilson’s, who is known chiefly for his later designs in Bristol in a massive Byzantine style. Fuller & Gingell, who had offices at Bath and possibly Bristol, followed Wilson in their preference for commissions of a public and institutional character, usually rendered in the fashionable Italianate style. By this time, however, Fuller was keenly interested in the Gothic Revival and is said to have assisted ...


Barry Bergdoll

(b Cologne, June 15, 1790; d Paris, Dec 31, 1853).

French architect, writer and archaeologist of German birth. In 1810 he left Cologne with his lifelong friend J. I. Hittorff for Paris, enrolling at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1811 under the tutelage of the ardent Neo-classicists Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and François Debret. But from the beginning Gau was exposed to a wider field of historical sources, first as assistant site architect under Debret on the restoration of the abbey church of Saint-Denis (1813–15) and then from 1815 in Nazarene circles in Rome, where he met the archaeologist and philologist Barthold Nieburh (1776–1831), who arranged a scholarship for him from the Prussian government and a trip through the eastern Mediterranean. In Egypt Gau undertook an arduous trip down the Nile to visit and record the monuments of Nubia, which he published as the lavish folio Antiquités de la Nubie. He noted assiduously every trace of colour on the remains, just as he was to do in ...


Marie-Therese Thibierge

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1816; d Valmondois, Val-d’Oise, Aug 25, 1892).

French goldsmith, sculptor and museum curator. He studied in Paris, first at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin and from 1831 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he was a pupil of David d’Angers and James Pradier. He worked principally as a goldsmith until 1848 but then devoted himself to the study of medieval sculpture. Throughout his career he collaborated on the restoration of many important Gothic buildings in France, notably with Emile Boeswillwald on Laon Cathedral, with Victor-Marie-Charles Ruprich-Robert on Bayeux Cathedral and with Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc on the Sainte-Chapelle and Notre-Dame in Paris. At the Sainte-Chapelle he was responsible for the 12 stone statues of the Apostles at the base of the spire (in situ); from 1848 to 1864 he ran the sculpture studio at Notre-Dame, where among many other works in an elegant neo-Gothic style he executed 12 copper statues of the Apostles for the base of the spire (...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....


(b Dunblane, Perthshire [now in Central], June 11, 1776; d Edinburgh, March 21, 1855).

Scottish architect. Gillespie added his wife’s surname of Graham to his own on his father-in-law’s death in 1825. In 1800 he was appointed to supervise work on the islands of Skye and North Uist, including schools, churches, piers, inns and a proposed new town at Kyleakin, for Alexander, 2nd Baron MacDonald. His first major commission was for the County Buildings, Cupar, Fife (1810; altered 1835–40). The austere Neo-classicism of this design was repeated at Gray’s Hospital, Elgin, Morayshire (now Highland) (1815), where a Tuscan portico and compound dome terminate the western axis of the town. Blythswood House, Renfrewshire (1818; destr. c. 1929), a Greek Revival mansion on the banks of the River Clyde, had an Ionic tetrastyle portico over a semi-basement. Gillespie Graham’s largest commission was an extension of the Edinburgh New Town, built in the 1820s on land owned by the 10th Earl of Moray. The main elements of the plan, which combined ideas from Bath and John Nash in London, were a crescent (Randolph Crescent), then an ellipse (Ainslie Place) and finally, in Moray Place, a circus 187 metres in diameter, where the classical proportions are enhanced by Doric columns instead of the pilasters used elsewhere. Gillespie Graham laid out the town of ...


(b Bristol, May 26, 1833; d London, Oct 6, 1886).

English architect, designer and writer. He had an early interest in archaeology, which was fostered by fragments of medieval carving in his parents’ garden. From the age of 15 he began sketching buildings all over the West Country. In 1851 he contributed illustrations to The Antiquities of Bristol and Neighbourhood, by which time he was apprenticed to William Armstrong of Bristol. Armstrong, perhaps recognizing Godwin’s aptitude, entrusted him with much of his architectural work. This brought Godwin early responsibility but little formal training, a lack that he felt dogged his professional life. In 1854 he established an independent practice, and in an attempt to further his career, in 1856 he joined his brother, an engineer, in Londonderry, Ireland. During his visit he studied castles and abbeys throughout Ireland. He also designed three small Roman Catholic churches in a severe Gothic style at St Johnstown (1857–61), Newtown Cunningham (...


Katrin Kogman-Appel

Richly illuminated manuscript of the Passover liturgy together with a series of liturgical poems to be read during the Passover week (London, BL, Add. MS. 27210), possibly made in Barcelona, c. 1320. This text was to be recited during the seder ceremony at the eve of the Passover holiday. Like most medieval Haggadot (see Haggadah), the Golden Haggadah has no colophon, and its scribe and patrons are unknown. It contains both marginal decorations and a series of full-page miniatures preceding the text and displaying a fully fledged cycle of biblical illustrations following the books of Genesis and Exodus from the Creation of Man to the Crossing of the Red Sea. Stylistically both types of decoration are indebted to early 14th-century Catalan Gothic art.

Similarly, the imagery of the biblical picture cycle also draws on Christian Old Testament iconography and reflects a familiarity with Christian art. The artists and patrons of the Golden Haggadah adopted Christian pictorial sources in a complex process of adaptation and modification, translating the Christian models into a Jewish visual language meaningful in its messages to the Jewish readership. Avoiding themes and iconographic features of a particular Christological concern, the imagery also reflects a close affinity with the traditions of late antique Bible interpretation (Midrash). This points to a specific circle of scholars active in Iberia during the 13th and early 14th centuries as being responsible for the imagery of the cycle. The use of traditional midrashic Bible exegesis is typical for Sephardic Rabbis of anti-rationalist standing, who opposed earlier philosophical trends and followed, rather, scholarly trends common among the Tosafists of northern France. It has also been observed that some images adopt a more specific anti-Christian stance and address polemical issues....