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Martin Postle

(b Fenny Compton, Warwicks, Aug 25, 1745; d Cheltenham, Feb 1, 1824).

English writer, collector and clergyman. The son of a clergyman, Bate-Dudley (he added ‘Dudley’ to his name in 1784 in order to inherit a legacy) succeeded his father as rector of the parish of North Farmbridge, Essex; by his mid-twenties, however, he preferred to spend his time in London, where his ebullient behaviour earned him the nickname of ‘the fighting parson’. In 1772 he became editor of the Morning Post; six years later he left to found the rival Morning Herald. The following year he was imprisoned for 12 months for libelling Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond.

Bate-Dudley was a close friend of the actors David Garrick and Sarah Siddons as well as a leading supporter of Thomas Gainsborough. He mounted spirited defences in his newspapers of Gainsborough’s art, often at the expense of Joshua Reynolds, the Royal Academy’s president, whose pretensions towards high art Bate-Dudley felt militated against the interests of his own favourite. ...



Patrick M. de Winter

French family of magistrates, antiquaries and collectors. Louis-Bénigne Baudot (1765–1844) kept a journal recording artistic depredations during the French Revolution (1789–95); he salvaged paintings and sculptures withdrawn from religious institutions after their secularization. His memorials (Dijon, Bib. Mun.) have been invaluable to Monget and later historians. Louis-Bénigne also amassed a vast and eclectic art collection, which he left to his sons Félix Baudot (1796–1880) and Claude-Louis-Henri Baudot (1799–1880). The former disposed of much of his share in 1852 through public sale and donation: for example, he bequeathed elements of the tombs of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) to the Hôtel-Dieu in Beaune. Claude-Louis-Henri was president of the Société Archéologique de la Côte-d’Or and a founder (1862) and president of the Commission des Antiquités de la Côte-d’Or. From 1832 he explored the Merovingian site at Charnay, near Chalon-sur-Saône, and published his findings in ...


Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny



Gérard Hubert

(b Paris, Sept 3, 1781; d Munich, Feb 21, 1824).

Prince, soldier, patron and collector. He was the son by her first marriage of the Empress Josephine, but, following his adoption by his stepfather Napoleon, he became, in 1805, a prince of France, viceroy of Italy and commander-in-chief of the French army in Italy. Like his mother and his sister Hortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland (1806–10) through her marriage to Bonaparte family, §1, 6, he was a considerable patron of the arts. The Hôtel de Beauharnais, his mansion in the Rue de Lille, Paris, which was decorated in 1805 by Laurent-Edme Bataille (1758–1819), is an outstanding example of the Empire style. In Milan, Beauharnais was one of the founders of the Conservatorio di Musica (1807) and of the Pinacoteca di Brera (1809), for which he obtained, among other works, Giovanni Bellini’s Pietà. Also in Milan, he commissioned Andrea Appiani to paint frescoes (...


David Blayney Brown


(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...


David Rodgers

(b London, Sept 29, 1760; d Bath, May 2, 1844).

English patron, collector and writer. He was the only son of Alderman William Beckford, MP (1709–70). Orphaned at the age of nine, he inherited a fabulous fortune derived from his family’s Jamaican plantations. He was a precocious child, brought up in a puritanical atmosphere only relieved, after 1775, by the appointment of Alexander Cozens as his drawing-master. An ardent Orientalist, Beckford studied Arabic from 1778 until his departure in June 1780 on the Grand Tour.

In 1781 Beckford returned to England, where he celebrated his majority with a spectacular party; he followed this with scandalous Christmas festivities in a setting devised by the theatrical painter Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg and embarked on a princely career of collecting and patronage by commissioning silver from John Schofield and the partnership of Daniel Smith and Robert Sharp. In early 1782 he wrote his celebrated Gothic Orientalist romance, Vathek (pubd 1786). His descriptions in it of tombs and ruins have been thought to reflect his familiarity with the fantastic landscapes of Piranesi’s etchings, such as the ...


(b Mexico, 1863; d Biarritz, Jan 13, 1953).

Spanish collector. His family was of Basque origin, though he was born in Mexico. After making his fortune in Mexico, he spent the last 40 years of his life in Biarritz, and at his villa Zurbiak he built up a substantial art collection. He had been educated partly in Paris, thereafter retaining a love for France; in 1902 he made a donation to the Cabinet des Médailles of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. His collection of paintings was built up slowly, and he often consulted with museum curators before purchasing works. His tastes were eclectic, covering many periods of art, and determined more than anything by the quality of a work. Often he bought paintings on behalf of the nation so as to prevent them being lost to foreign countries, as was the case with Antoine-Jean Gros’s Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole (1796; Paris, Louvre). His collection was distributed throughout his villa, but for the most distinguished works, those destined for the Louvre, he had a special gallery built. He was a foreign associate of the Académie des Beaux-Arts and a member of the Conseil des Musées Nationaux. After his death 21 important paintings were donated to the ...


Janet Southorn


(b Hamburg, Dec 7, 1865; d London, Dec 7, 1930).

British industrialist, collector and philanthropist of German birth. He became a financier in Britain in 1888. He succeeded to the considerable fortune of his brother Alfred Beit (1853–1906), who had been an industrialist in South Africa, where he had been instrumental in the reorganization of the Kimberley diamond mines. Otto became notable for his philanthropic and educational activities, both in South Africa (foundation of Groote Schuur University, Cape Town) and in Britain (benefactions to the newly-founded Imperial College, London). His services were recognized by the award of a knighthood in 1920 and a baronetcy in 1924.

The Beit collections were begun c. 1888 by Alfred Beit. A small part was dispersed by the terms of his will; it included Lady Cockburn and her Three Eldest Sons by Joshua Reynolds, bequeathed to the National Gallery, London. The rest of the collections were inherited by Otto, who proceeded to enlarge them: both he and his brother benefited from the advice and help of the German art historian ...


(b Bucharest, Feb 20, 1828; d Paris, Jan 26, 1894).

Romanian patron and collector, active in France. He was the youngest son of a wealthy Romanian family. In 1851 he travelled to Paris, where he settled. At the sale of Delacroix’s studio in 1864, he bought Delacroix’s copy of Rubens’s Nymph Embracing a Satyr (untraced). In January 1874 he purchased his first painting by Monet, the Seine at Argenteuil (untraced), in a sale by the collector Ernest Hoschedé (1838–91), in which many Impressionists were represented. Bellio became a friend and patron of the Impressionists and often assisted the financially troubled artists by liberally purchasing their paintings, paying in advance; he was one of the first to admire the work of Alfred Sisley and of Berthe Morisot. Bellio’s close friendship with Monet began in 1876, and in 1878 he was almost the only financial support of the artist; however, he bought little after 1881, when Monet’s prices rose considerably. During the 1880s Bellio bought a number of works from ...


Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b Alexandria, 1873; d Athens, 1954).

Greek patron. A Greek cotton merchant, Benaki was born at a time when the memory of the War of Independence (1821–9) inspired strong feelings of nationalism in Greeks living abroad. Benaki assembled a collection of objects—art, crafts and souvenirs—that expresses the historical continuum of Greece and pride in the Greek cultural heritage. in 1926 he moved permanently to Athens where in 1930 he founded the Benaki Museum, inaugurated the following year when Benaki presented his collections, along with what had been the Benaki family home in Athens and substantial funds for its maintenance, to the Greek government. Benaki had supervised the transformation of the house into a museum, wanting to preserve the intimate atmosphere of a family home; he continued to work towards maintaining and enriching the museum until his death. The Benaki Museum’s collections include examples of the antique and Byzantine art for which Greece is traditionally best known, as well as icons from Cyprus, Muslim art representing the Ottoman Empire, souvenirs from the war of independence and examples of national costume from all over the country. The Islamic material—principally ceramics and textiles from Egypt and the Ottoman Empire along with gold jewellery—was spread over two rooms on the first floor and one on the second....


(b 1850; d April 7, 1929).

British banker, connoisseur and collector. He was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford; in 1887 he married Evelyn Holford, the daughter of the collector Robert Stayner Holford. Earning his fortune as senior partner in the merchant bank Robert Benson and Co., London, he became a trustee of the National Gallery in 1912 and was also a member of the Council of the Royal College of Music. In addition he was a member of the Burlington Fine Arts Club and edited various catalogues for their benefit, notably that of the Holford Collection and an exhibition of the School of Ferrara-Bologna. With his wife, he established an important art collection that was strong in works of the early Italian Renaissance. Among the artists included were Domenico Beccafumi, Giovanni Bellini, Botticelli, Correggio, Piero di Cosimo, Carlo Crivelli, Ghirlandaio, Giorgione, Filippino Lippi, Lotto, Bernardino Luini, Palma il Vecchio, del Sarto, Signorelli, Titian and ...


Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...


Hugo Morley-Fletcher

(d London, Aug 26, 1854).

English politician and collector. He sat in Parliament as a Whig politician between 1818 and 1852 without rising to prominence. He inherited property in the West Indies in 1810, which enabled him to finance his predilection for collecting. In 1854 he became President of the British Archaeological Society. He was a highly discerning collector, and his outstanding collection of medieval and Renaissance art, including glass, maiolica and miniatures was put up for auction at Christie’s, London, in 1855 (5 March–30 April). Unsuccessful attempts were made by Henry Cole, then director of the museum at Marlborough House, London, and Augustus Wollaston Franks, an assistant responsible for the British and medieval collections in the British Museum, to persuade the government to set up funds to secure the entire collection for the nation. The British Museum, however, bought 72 pieces of Italian maiolica and the outstanding Lothair Crystal, and the Museum of Ornamental Art (now the Victoria and Albert Museum), then housed in Marlborough House, acquired 133 pieces (London, V&A). Other items were acquired by European collections....


José Luis Morales y Marín


(b Madrid, Sept 27, 1845; d Madrid, Jan 5, 1912).

Spanish writer, painter and collector. After pursuing a political career and taking a doctorate in civil and canon law, he dedicated himself to writing on art and produced important studies on Diego Velázquez (1898), Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (1901) and other artists. He travelled extensively and enthusiastically in Europe (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, England and elsewhere), studying especially the different national schools of painting. On his travels he also painted landscapes. After working for some time as a copyist in the Museo del Prado, Beruete decided in 1873 to concentrate his efforts on painting and on learning to perfect his craft. He enrolled at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and also studied at the studio of Carlos de Haes. Beruete was among the founders of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, and with its members, and with Carlos de Haes, he made several study trips abroad. In Paris he came to know the painting of the Barbizon school, and in Belgium he assimilated the teaching of the generation of landscape artists who had adopted a form of Realism. The fundamental constants of the Spanish pictorial tradition, however, especially the sketching style typical of Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, became the starting-point for Beruete’s own style, enabling him to record his response to landscape, impressions of light and rural settings. Beruete’s achievement was acknowledged by various national and international awards....


French family of cabinetmakers, antique dealers and collectors. The dynasty was founded by Jean Beurdeley (1772–1853), who, after service in Napoleon’s armies, opened a small antique shop in the Marais district of Paris and in 1830 bought the Pavillon de Hanovre, 28 Boulevard des Italiens, which was the Beurdeley firm’s principal gallery until 1894. His son (Louis-Auguste-) Alfred Beurdeley (1808–82) dealt in antiques and works of art and was also a cabinetmaker specializing in reproductions of 17th- and 18th-century furniture. His clients included Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie. Alfred Beurdeley’s illegitimate son (Emmanuel-) Alfred Beurdeley (b Paris, 11 Aug 1847; d Paris, 20 Nov 1919) took over the gallery and workshops in 1875 and until 1894 concentrated on making luxury furniture, continuing the models sold by his father. He was one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers, winning a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...


(b Paris, Jan 11, 1825; d Labbeville, Jan 8, 1906).

French collector. His collection (dispersed in sales between 1872 and 1906) comprised c. 1000 paintings as well as drawings, sculptures, furniture and objets d’art. Most of the paintings were of the Dutch, Flemish and German schools of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Among the most notable northern works were works by Hugo van der Goes, Hans Memling, Jan van Eyck, Jan Gossart, Hendrick Goltzius and Meindert Hobbema. Paintings included Rembrandt’s Portrait of a Woman (1633) and Landscape with Obelisk (1638; Boston, MA, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.); Rubens’s Good Government Quelling the Demon of Discord (c. 1620–34; priv. col.) and Arion Saved by Dolphins (c. 1620–30; priv. col.); and Salomon van Ruysdael’s Quay View in Amsterdam (New York, Frick). French painting was represented by such works as Antoine Coypel’s Flora and Zephyrus; François-Hubert Drouais’s portrait of Madame de Pompadour (1763–4; London, NG); Jean-Siméon Chardin’s ...


(b Cleve, Dec 28, 1781; d Berlin, 1853).

Prussian civil servant and collector. He served in Bayreuth and Potsdam and in 1810 joined the office of State Chancellor August von Hardenberg in Berlin, where as chairman of the Committee for the Reform of Taxation and Trade, he was influenced by English economic liberalism. He became director of the Technische Deputation für Gewerbe in 1819, and in 1821 he founded the Gewerbeverein and the Gewerbeinstitut for the advanced training of craftsmen, where he could apply his commitment to improving quality and design in the applied and industrial arts. In 1831 he took charge of the Allgemeine Bauschule. In response to the aesthetic shortcomings of mass-produced goods, Beuth and his friend Karl Friedrich Schinkel directed the publication of the Vorbilder für Fabrikanten und Handwerker (1821–37), first issued as single lithographs before being collected into two volumes with a commentary (1830–37). Schinkel provided about 40 original designs, while the remainder derived mostly from antiquity, the Renaissance and the Islamic world. The interest in historic prototypes led to the revival or adaptation of old techniques of metalworking, glassmaking and ceramic production, as well as to the investigation of the degree to which new technology could make well-designed objects more widely available. During a period of rapid industrialization and the expansion of trade, Beuth was instrumental in reorientating the manufacture of the applied arts from traditional craft methods to industrial technology. His important collection of contemporary craft objects later passed to the ...


Peter Bicknell

(b Southwark, London, Dec 21, 1788; d Herne Hill, London, Nov 27, 1861).

English merchant, patron and collector. His successful business as a merchant of refined sperm whale oil enabled him to collect works by painters and sculptors of the modern British school, either commissioning works from them or buying directly from the studio. He did not ‘give a damn’ for the work of Old Masters, as his taste was primarily for landscape paintings. His collection was displayed at his house at Herne Hill, London, where he entertained most of the leading artists of his day. His closest friend was David Roberts, whose daughter Christine married Bicknell’s son. J. M. W. Turner and John Ruskin were also frequent visitors. Bicknell’s collection was dispersed at auction at Christie’s from 25 April to 1 May 1863 and from 7 to 8 May. There were landscapes by Roberts, Clarkson Stanfield, Augustus Wall Callcott and Edwin Landseer as well as ten oils and eighteen watercolours by Turner, including ...


Gabriel P. Weisberg

(b Hamburg, Feb 26, 1838; d Vaucresson, nr Paris, Sept 6, 1905).

French art dealer, critic and patron, of German birth. Often misnamed Samuel, he was a major promoter of Japanese art and Art Nouveau. From a wealthy, entrepreneurial Hamburg family, he trained as an industrial decorator for ceramics under the guidance of his father and independently in Paris during the Second Empire (1852–70). After the Franco-Prussian War (which he spent in Belgium) Bing established a thriving Oriental trading business, primarily of Japanese arts, the success of which permitted the opening of his Oriental crafts shop in Paris in the late 1870s. Following a trip to Japan, he expanded the business in the 1880s, selling both contemporary and ancient Japanese objects, to meet the demand for Oriental merchandise. At the end of the 1880s, as Japonisme developed, Bing founded a monthly periodical, Le Japon artistique (pubd simultaneously in Eng., Fr. and Ger., 1888–91), and organized a series of exhibitions of rare Japanese art, featuring ceramics and ...


(b Château de Vérignon, Var, Jan 10, 1771; d Prague, Nov 17, 1839).

French patron and collector. A leading ultra-conservative political figure, he engaged in restoration of French royal properties. As Ministre de la Maison du Roi (March–June 1815) he tried to initiate the restoration of Versailles. As ambassador to Rome (1816–22) he restored the Spanish Steps and Domenichino’s frescoes (1612–15) in S Luigi dei Francesi. His Trinità dei Monti project involved Charles-François Mazois, Ingres, Pietro Tenerani and pensioners of the French Academy in Rome. He was the patron of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Eugène Delacroix, Horace Vernet and Vincenzo Camuccini as well as of artists of lesser renown such as François-Xavier Fabre, Pietro Tenerani, Auguste-Jean-Baptiste Vinchon (1789–1855), Auguste Forestier (1780–1850) and Louis-Vincent-Léon Pallière (1787–1820). Blacas’s extensive collection of ancient art (London, BM) comprised 950 gems, over 500 Greek vases, terracotta and bronze sculpture, Roman mural paintings, Greek and Roman glass, papyrus inscriptions, jewellery, over 400 Egyptian artefacts, Islamic vessels and over 2,000 Greek and Roman coins. He supported scholarly research that resulted in ...