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Douglas Lewis

(b Paris, March 21, 1837; d Paris, Sept 29, 1914).

French connoisseur and collector. In 1862–4 he served as secretary to his uncle, who was working on the construction of the Suez Canal, and in Cairo made notable acquisitions of Islamic art, which he later donated to the Louvre, Paris. On 29 November 1872 he purchased from the painter Charles Timbal (1821–80) 155 important early Renaissance sculptures, reliefs, small bronzes and paintings, collected by Timbal over the previous 20 years in Florence. To this nucleus Dreyfus occasionally made additions, in particular of bronzes: two sculptures that his heirs gave to the Louvre, the marble bust of Diotisalvi Neroni (c. 1465) by Mino da Fiesole and the bronze group of St Jerome with the Lion (1490s) by Bartolomeo Bellano, epitomize the principal strengths of his collection. Dreyfus’s reputation, however, rests on his achievement as a connoisseur and collector of Renaissance medals and plaquettes. Although barely two dozen bronze reliefs, and only a dozen medals, had been included in the purchase from Timbal, Dreyfus left two incomparable collections: one of almost 700 medals (one of the richest ...

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(b Edinburgh, Oct 11, 1829; d Montreal, Feb 2, 1910).

Canadian businessman and collector. In 1854 he arrived in Montreal from Scotland and began his career as manager of John Redpath & Sons Sugar Refinery. He founded and became president of the Canada Sugar Refining Co. in 1879. In 1888 he was appointed senator by the Canadian government, and in 1905 he became president of the Bank of Montreal. His collection, which consisted of approximately 200 European paintings and works on paper, was displayed in his opulent Montreal home (now demolished). He began collecting in the 1870s, and his early acquisitions—mostly by academic painters then in vogue—were recorded in Edward Strahan’s landmark 1879 publication The Art Treasures of America (e.g. Gabriel Max’s The Raising of Jairus’s Daughter, 1878; Montreal, Mus. F.A.). Many acquisitions were made in the 1880s and 1890s, comprising paintings by both Old Master and contemporary French, British, and Dutch artists. He shared the prevailing tastes of Scottish, American, and other Canadian collectors for paintings by ...

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Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Tuan-fang; zi Wuqiao; hao Taozhai] [Tuan-fang; zi Wuqiao; hao Taozhai]

(b Fengrun, Hebei Province, 20 April 1861; d Zizhou [modern Zizhong], Sichuan Province, 27 Nov 1911). Chinese collector and high official. His Chinese ancestors, named Tao, moved to Manchuria in the Ming period (1368–1644), intermarried with the indigenous Manchu, accepted the clan name Tohoro and became part of the Manchu Plain White Banner, one of the four original military and administrative units of Manchuria. Duanfang’s family returned to China after the Manchu conquest of China and the establishment of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). He received his juren degree in 1882 and served in many high posts, including terms as governor and acting governor-general of various provinces. He was interested in education and modernization and was a patron to promising young men. He was killed by his own men in the 1911 uprising while attempting to return to Wuchang, Sichuan, to take up his post as acting governor-general....

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(b Saintes, Jan 19, 1838; d Paris, Jan 16, 1927).

French writer and collector. He was an heir to the cognac house Duret et De Brie, which gave him the financial freedom to pursue his interest in art. Although he saw Pre-Raphaelite works while staying in London (1855–6), he did not become truly interested in art until 1862, when he saw paintings by Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot that his cousin Etienne Baudry had collected. He also visited the International Exhibition in London in 1862, which he reviewed in L’Indépendant de Saintes. In the elections in Saintes in 1863 he made the first of several unsuccessful forays into politics. After this he travelled abroad on behalf of the cognac house, visiting the USA, Egypt, India, China and Japan and collecting various art works.

In 1865 Duret met Manet in Madrid and in his first book Les Peintres français en 1867 (1867) wrote rather critically of his style, calling it ‘too rapid and too hasty’. Nonetheless they became friends, and he soon came to admire Manet’s work. Duret founded the Republican newspaper ...

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(b Hull, Oct 14, 1869; d London, May 25, 1939).

English dealer and patron. His father, Sir Joseph Joel Duveen (1843–1909), a Dutch–Jewish immigrant, was a dealer in Delft ceramics who, with his brother Henry Duveen, built a major international art-dealing firm, Duveen Brothers. Duveen left college at 17 to train in and eventually take over his father’s company. His personality was charming but shrewd, avuncular yet forceful. With great confidence and an often flamboyant business style, he was supremely successful—through society contacts and spectacular saleroom bidding—in obtaining exceptional paintings and sculpture, particularly of the Italian Renaissance. He also dealt notably in 18th-century French and English works and the paintings of Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the younger, Rembrandt and Frans Hals. With the aim of suppressing rivals, from 1906 he paid exceptionally high prices for the collections of Oscar Hainauer, Rodolphe Kann and Maurice Kann, R. H. Benson and Gustave Dreyfus.

Duveen channelled major works from an economically pressed European seller’s market to an avid buyer’s market in America that he created among established American millionaires and the newly rich. His principal clients included ...

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A. Deirdre Robson

(b Flint, MI, Nov 5, 1859; d Chicago, IL, July 21, 1920).

American critic, collector and lawyer. He wrote books on legal and economic issues in the 1900s. He first became interested in art, notably that of James Abbott McNeil Whistler and François-Auguste-René Rodin through the World’s Fair of Chicago in 1893. He began to lecture on art and aesthetics and published his first art book Delight, the Soul of Art (Philadelphia, 1904). In 1912 he became interested in 20th-century art. It was, however, the Armory Show (1913) that inspired him to become a serious collector of avant-garde art; he acquired 25 works from the exhibition. Subsequently he travelled to London and Germany, where he met Vasily Kandinsky and other artists and added c. 100 works to his collection.

In 1914 Eddy published Cubists and Post-Impressionism (Chicago). Based on information elicited from the artists themselves, this book is significant as one of the first attempts to explain modern art in the USA, but in its emphasis upon such painters as Kandinsky (it included the first discussion in English of this painter’s ideas) it betrays Eddy’s enthusiasm for colouristic abstraction. Eddy continued to collect, although the emphasis lay upon American modernism. On his death the collection was dispersed and 23 works went to the ...

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(b Darmstadt, Nov 25, 1868; reg 1892–1918; d Langen, Oct 9, 1937).

German ruler and patron. He was a grandson of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, who supervised much of his education, and consequently he developed strong anglophile leanings. He was a liberal and politically enlightened ruler, interested in the natural and social sciences but above all in the arts, particularly architecture. He introduced English interior design to Germany by inviting M. H. Baillie Scott and C. R. Ashbee to decorate rooms at the Neue Palais, Darmstadt (1897; destr.). In 1899 he founded an artists’ colony on the Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt (see Darmstadt §2). Together with the influential publisher Alexander Koch, Ernest-Ludwig envisaged a correlation of the colony and Hessian industry to raise design standards. The seven members of the colony included Peter Behrens and Joseph Maria Olbrich. The exhibitions of the colony made Darmstadt an internationally acclaimed centre for Art Nouveau art and architecture. Ernest-Ludwig also instigated numerous artistic, musical and theatrical organizations, such as a dance school founded by the American dancer Isadora Duncan (...

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Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Drottningholm Castle, Aug 1, 1865; d Waldemarsudde, Stockholm, Aug 17, 1947).

Swedish painter and collector. The youngest son of King Oscar II of Sweden, he showed an aptitude for art while still at school. At 21 he decided to become an artist, a decision considered startling for a member of the royal family. In 1887 he became a pupil of Léon Bonnat in Paris. Apart from summer holidays in Sweden he remained in Paris until 1889, also studying under Henri Gervex, Alfred Roll and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, who was an important model for him. Subsequently he worked mainly in Sweden, although he travelled widely, visiting Italy on several occasions. He was primarily a landscape painter.

During his years in Paris Prince Eugen was influenced by French plein-air Realism, producing such pastels as Pont Royal (1887; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). His Realist phase of the 1880s came to an end with the highly detailed Spring (1891; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). In the 1890s, under the influence of Symbolism, he adopted the National Romantic style that characterized his most famous works (e.g. ...

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Beginning with the Great Exhibition in London in 1851, world’s fairs (often called universal expositions, international exhibitions, or world expos) became mainstays of the modern world. By 1900, dozens of cities around the globe ranging from Paris to Philadelphia to Calcutta (now Kolkata) played host to these spectacles. By 1945 a worldwide audience of about one billion people had attended these events, underscoring their popularity and potential to influence mass audiences on a global scale. World’s fairs put new technologies and consumer products on display, they introduced new forms of entertainment, and they reflected the empire-building ambitions of many nations. World’s fairs can be understood from many perspectives, but fundamental is the recognition that these complex festivals of modernity were, at the core, built environments and cultural landscapes of dazzling complexity that served as laboratories for architects, designers, and urban planners (see also Exhibition architecture).

The first bona fide world’s fair held in the USA took place in Philadelphia in ...

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Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Turin, June 29, 1861; d Châtenay-Malabry, Feb 29, 1944).

French art critic, dealer and collector. After completing his education, he moved to Paris in 1881. A clerk in the War Ministry, he made a name for himself by writing for the numerous literary magazines of the period. In 1884 he was co-founder of the Revue Indépendante, and he swiftly became one of the dominant personalities in Symbolist circles, befriending a number of writers (he was a regular visitor to Mallarmé’s Tuesday gatherings) and artists, notably Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. A period of prodigious activity followed: he collaborated on magazines such as the Revue Wagnérienne, Le Symboliste and L’Art Moderne from Brussels, and he edited works by Arthur Rimbaud (1886, 1887), Jules Laforgue (1890) and Lautréamont (1890). As an art critic, by 1886 he was championing the work of his Neo-Impressionist friends, whose anarchist political views he shared. In 1892 he became editor of ...

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(b Baden, nr Vienna, May 16, 1843; d Vienna, Feb 22, 1927).

Austrian collector. During the late 19th century he assembled an extensive collection of approximately 6000 works of art, primarily from the medieval and Renaissance periods, most of which were in an excellent state of preservation. His collection was considered to be one of the most comprehensive in Austria before World War II. As well as simple but skilfully crafted objects for domestic and ecclesiastical use, there were pieces of higher quality, including metalwork, ivories, tapestries and ecclesiastical objects. The collection was particularly noted for its fine chairs. The paintings represented the major European schools, with the greatest concentration on the period from the 15th century to the early 16th. The most significant painting was Hieronymus Bosch’s Vagabond (c. 1510; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen;. After Figdor’s death in 1927, his niece and heiress Margarete Becker-Walz was forbidden by a newly enacted Austrian law to export and sell the collection, except in its entirety. She eventually sold its entire contents to the art dealer ...

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Lillian B. Miller

(b Nassau, May 20, 1846; d Brookline, MA, Sept 22, 1926).

American engineer, patron and collector. He was educated in Providence, RI, in Paris and at the Phillips Academy in Andover, MA. He studied engineering and in 1873 became superintendent of the western division of the Boston waterworks, where he was instrumental in bringing about the sanitation of the water supply.

FitzGerald had studied sculpture in Paris as a young boy, and his love of art manifested itself in the creation of a collection of contemporary works by American, Dutch, Norwegian, Spanish, and in particular, French artists. He was an early friend of Claude Monet and owned numerous works by him, including Mme Monet and Child (1875), Fishing Boats at Etretat, Hills of Vétheuil on the Seine (1880) and Sunset on the Seine: Winter Effect (1880). Other Impressionist artists whose works appeared in his collection included Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley. FitzGerald was an admirer and friend of the American painter ...

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