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(b London, Aug 24, 1864; d at sea, April 21, 1938).

Australian architect of English birth. He was educated in London and worked as draughtsman for a builder, John Hurst. In 1886 he emigrated to Western Australia and established an architectural practice in Perth in 1887. From 1905 he was in partnership with E. H. Dean Smith (1860/1–1906) and W. J. Waldie Forbes. In 1891 Hobbs won a competition for the Weld Club, corner of Esplanade and Barrack Street, Perth, a red-brick, Queen Anne style building with a square tower completed in 1892. Hobbs was particularly adept in the classical style, many variations of which pervade his commercial work. Examples include the grandiose Italian Renaissance Revival Western Australian Bank (1891) and the Baroque Revival Victoria Hall (1896), both in High Street, Fremantle, and the rich Italianate façade of Samson’s Offices (1899), Cliff Street, Fremantle; his buildings were some of the most popularly admired in Perth and Fremantle 50 years after his death. His church and university college buildings employed Gothic and Tudor elements (e.g. Scots Presbyterian Church, ...


Anne Kirker


(b Dunedin, April 28, 1869; d Herrison, May 13, 1947).

New Zealand painter. Widely considered New Zealand’s most significant expatriate artist of the early 20th century, she spent her formative years in Otago. She was encouraged to take up watercolour painting by her father, William Mathew Hodgkins (1833–98), who was himself adept at landscape watercolours in the English manner. In 1893 she attended classes given in Dunedin by Girolamo Nerli, who inspired her to embark on figure subjects and use a bolder technique. By 1896 she received local recognition for her portraits and intimate genre themes. To realize an ambition to travel abroad, she took up art teaching and left for London in 1901. Outside the restricting confines of colonial society, Hodgkins acquired an appetite for sketching excursions in Europe (Italy, France, the Netherlands), and she also sought picturesque motifs in Morocco. One of her Moroccan figure paintings, showing a robust technique similar to that of Frank Brangwyn, was accepted by the Royal Academy exhibition in ...


Ian J. Lochhead

(b Lahore, April 17, 1876; d Auckland, Feb 3, 1960).

New Zealand architect. He was educated in England before emigrating to New Zealand in 1885. He was articled to the Dunedin architect J. L. Salmond (1868–1950) in 1896. From 1901 to 1904 he worked in England, first for A. Beresford Pite, then for the Housing Division of the London County Council and briefly for E. P. Warren (1856–1937) and Temple Moore. On his return to New Zealand, Hooper’s knowledge and experience of recent English architecture was immediately put to use in the series of houses inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement, which he built in Dunedin between 1906 and 1923. His best works, for example 26 Heriot Row (1911–13), Dunedin, and 319 York Place (1916), Dunedin, were strongly influenced by the work of C. F. A. Voysey, although they are more compact in form and employ a wider range of exterior finishes. Hooper’s designs helped to redirect New Zealand domestic architecture away from the prevalent highly decorated, late Victorian style towards a local variant of the English Domestic Revival. In ...


Roger Billcliffe

(b Bacchus Marsh, Victoria, Australia, July 11, 1864; d Kirkcudbright, Dumfries & Galloway, June 30, 1933).

Scottish painter. His parents left Australia shortly after his birth and returned to their home town of Kirkcudbright, where Hornel spent most of his life. After studying painting at the Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh (1880–83) he attended the Antwerp Academy. In 1885 he returned to Scotland and met the painter George Henry, a friend of James Guthrie and a member of the Glasgow Boys.

Henry joined Hornel in Kirkcudbright for the summer of 1886, and Hornel adopted the square-brush technique and naturalist manner of Henry and the Glasgow school. Gradually both painters abandoned the tonal painting of earlier years for a more full-bodied palette of strong, clear colour. The wide field of view of their naturalist paintings gave way to more restricted compositions, their experiments culminating in two pictures painted jointly, The Druids (1890) and the Star in the East (1891; both Glasgow, A.G. & Mus.). Their subject-matter increasingly relied on the theme of young girls in a woodland setting, often accompanied by farm animals. These were not the realist subjects of Guthrie and the Glasgow school, however, but were more concerned with the intertwining symbolism of subject, colour, rhythm and pattern, as in ...


Roger Blackley

(b England, c. 1835; d Mosman, Sydney, Feb 21, 1913).

New Zealand painter of English birth, active also in Australia. He arrived in Auckland in 1860, worked as a school art teacher and travelled widely in search of landscape subjects for his watercolours. Apparently self-taught, he developed quickly from producing rather crude works in the early 1860s to such ambitious exhibition watercolours in the 1870s as View of Auckland (1873; Auckland, C.A.G.). Hoyte earned a precarious living from his art, making sketching tours and sending works to exhibitions in Sydney and Melbourne. In 1876 he moved to Dunedin, and from there to Sydney in 1879. His practice of making replicas of his more celebrated works continued in Australia, where he churned out views of such tourist spots as Milford Sound, NZ. These later works exhibit a dramatic loss of quality, and despite being the first president of the Art Society of New South Wales, Hoyte made little impact on Australian art....


Peter Reynolds

(b Saint John, NB, Oct 1838; d Sydney, NSW, Dec 27, 1904).

Australian architect of Canadian birth. The son of a carpenter, he trained in Boston, MA, under Edward Clarke Cabot (1818–91). When the American Civil War broke out in 1861 he travelled to India, but on arriving in Sydney in 1863 he decided to stay to work with Edmund Blacket. By 1865 he was Blacket’s chief assistant, but he left in May 1869 for a brief partnership with John Hilly (1810–83), establishing his own practice later that year. For the next 30 years his mastery of a complex and asymmetrical free-Gothic style, combined with an outstanding skill in the use of timber and brickwork, was demonstrated in many significant buildings, for example the cathedrals at Armidale (1871) and Grafton (1880) and churches at Denman (1871), Branxton (1873) and Dapto (1882). The stone-vaulted chapel of the Sacred Heart (...


(b Sydney, Nov 17, 1831; d Rome, April 14, 1867).

Australian painter, active also in Italy. Rev. M. Goethe taught her German and Latin, the portraitist J. A. Wilson probably taught her painting and she supported herself through her portrait painting. Ironside was impressed by the radical Dr. J. D. Lang and she was influenced by the writings of Friedrich Schlegel, who inspired the Nazarenes and Pre-Raphaelites, known to her through the Stenhouse literary circle in Sydney. She probably saw Marshall Claxton’s religious paintings at Sydney College and met the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor, Thomas Woolner.

Her political interests inspired her embroidered design for a banner for the volunteer Army of NSW. Her early work was mainly copied from English paintings, for example The Twin Sisters (1850; Canberra, N.G.) after Hayter. At the Australian Museum Exhibition (1854), a precursor to the Exposition Universelle, Paris (1855), she exhibited ‘Pencil Drawings and Sketches’ (lost), Madonna and Child (1850...


Rory Spence

(b Sydney, Aug 2, 1864; d Wentworth Falls, NSW, Jan 19, 1927).

Australian architect. He studied architecture at the University of London, was articled to Charles Bell (1846–99) in London and joined the RIBA there. He returned to Australia in 1891 after travelling through Europe, Egypt and India, where he became interested in flat-roofed buildings designed for hot climates. His early houses of the 1890s are in an inventive English free-style manner, with added verandahs and sunshading devices. In the early 1900s he designed a number of hospitals, including the Women’s Hospital (1905), Paddington, Sydney, and some warehouses in the Romanesque Revival style of H. H. Richardson. He remained best known, however, for his domestic work. Jones was an early proponent of a rationalist architecture adapted to the Australian climate. By 1905 he was advocating new forms using concrete and steel, reflecting modern technology and breaking free from traditional architecture. In 1906 he published plans of an ideal house, with cubic, stripped classical forms, verandahs and ‘sleep-outs’ in the form of outdoor rooms, and with an axially arranged, open-plan living and dining area. Its most surprising element was a flat roof with a pergola, to be used as a garden. He continued these unconventional themes in three Sydney houses built in ...


David P. Millar


(b Monaro Uplands, NSW, April 3, 1858; d Sydney, May 26, 1928).

Australian photographer. He worked as an operator in a carte-de-visite business in Sydney. When popularity for this photographic form of portraiture collapsed in the 1870s, he turned to a new and eventually lucrative business: scenic views of rural and urban Australia. Coinciding with the invention of the collodion dry plate process, which gave him more freedom of movement, he used the recently expanded railway system to reach places of photographic interest. By the 1890s his work dominated the photographic view business in Sydney; he had become more of a businessman than a photographer, employing several touring operators to meet his commitments.

The severe depression of the 1890s forced many photographers to close their businesses, and the demand for views dwindled alarmingly. Kerry, sensing that the growing postcard trade could become the basis for commercial advancement, began to produce photographic postcards. By 1910 Kerry & Co emerged as Australia’s largest publishers of postcards. Using presses in Germany to print his huge orders, and operating out of a large, four-storey building in Sydney, he had the income to indulge other interests such as horse racing, skiing and fishing. Kerry’s photographs, and those of his assistants, were avowedly commercial in subject-matter; they showed, through a misty-eyed nationalism, the heroic toil of settlers breaking in the land and the optimistic growth of Australia’s principal cities. Kerry and his company confirmed a young nation’s perception about itself, with images that have become visual icons of Victorian colonial Australia....


Michael Dunn

(b London, Sept 17, 1819; d Auckland, Sept 5, 1903).

English painter and photographer, active also in New Zealand. By profession he was an Anglican minister and school-teacher. An accomplished watercolour painter, he had studied under Aaron Penley (1807–70) at Southampton in 1835–6. His interests in architectural sketching were furthered when he was at Cambridge by his membership of the Camden Society in 1842. In 1855 he emigrated to New Zealand, settling in Auckland. Kinder is noted for his quiet but lyrical topographical views of the New Zealand landscape and settlements between 1855 and 1890, for example the watercolour On Mercury Island (1857; Auckland, A.G.) and Te Kohukohu (1858; Auckland, A. G.). He made historic photographic and painted records of Anglican missions to the Maori and of sites of battles during the Land Wars of the 1860s. He was a founder-member of the Auckland Society of Artists. There is a major collection of his work in the Auckland Art Gallery....


Donald Langmead


(b Bandon, Co. Cork, Aug 1807; d at sea nr Ceylon [now Sri Lanka], Nov 26, 1880).

Australian architect of Irish birth. He trained as a civil engineer under John Rofe & Sons, Birmingham (1829–33). In London he was appointed Deputy Surveyor of the colony of South Australia (1835–8) and was involved in the planning of Adelaide, its capital, helping Surveyor-General Colonel William Light (1786–1839) choose the site for the city and lay it out. Kingston was self-taught as an architect. His earliest buildings in Adelaide, Government House (1838–9), the Gaol (1840–42) and the Public Offices (1839; destr. 1857), were competent but conservative, clumsily detailed, stylistically traditionalist and wholly eclectic. They were, however, important in imposing permanence on the colony. Kingston’s practice declined after 1846, when he turned to mining and politics. In 40 years he developed no distinctive personal style. Nine out of c. seventy buildings survive, including Ayers House, Adelaide (1858–75)....


(b Hamburg, Aug 27, 1845; d Melbourne, Aug 30, 1928).

Australian architect of German birth. He emigrated with his parents to Melbourne in 1855. He served articles with F. M. White and by 1870 was in practice in his own right. He obtained some commissions as a major figure in Melbourne’s German community, and some of his work shows German influence, possibly from the plates of Hugo Licht’s Die Architektur Deutschlands (1879–82). He was also influenced by Greek sources, and his work is characterized by the use of the key pattern, masks, acroteria and foliated scrolls and consoles. In 1873 Koch was appointed Architect to the City of Melbourne, designing various market buildings. He was also responsible for industrial buildings, hotels, private houses and the German Club. His most important municipal building was Record Chambers (1888), the façade of which incorporates a prominently placed term, quite atypical of local design. His manse for the East Melbourne Lutheran Church shows the influence of Viollet-le-Duc in its foliated string courses. His major work was the extension and remodelling in ...


(b St Petersburg, Sept 13, 1873; d Cobbity, NSW, May 29, 1930).

Australian painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He lived for a period in Europe and emigrated to Australia in 1887. He trained under Julian Rossi Ashton, gaining early recognition for his draughtsmanship. In 1901 he studied in Paris at the Académie Colarossi under Auguste Delécluse (b 1855). He was strongly influenced by the work of Diego Velázquez and Edouard Manet. The work of Sandro Botticelli later inspired him to paint in a high key and with an enhanced realism, as in Important People (1914; Sydney, A.G. NSW). He lived in England from 1902 to 1921, and thereafter in Australia.

At first Lambert earned his living through illustrations for magazines and books. In early paintings such as Across the Black Soil Plains (1899; Sydney, A.G. NSW), he expressed a nationalist sentiment through the depiction of Australian pioneers. His principal work was in portraiture, in both pencil and oil, in which he demonstrated a sensitive appreciation of character and bravura style. He also painted large, highly stylized paintings of family and friends, such as ...


Christopher Johnstone

From the formal establishment of New Zealand with the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 until the 1960s, landscape was the predominant genre of painting in New Zealand. Several interrelated artistic, social, and practical reasons led to this and to the differing approaches to landscape representation during the period. They range from the country being ‘a land absolutely teeming with artistic subjects of the most varied kind… [offering] the special features of every country which is remarkable for its scenery’ (Hodgkins, 1880) to a belief that the mild climate made painting out of doors possible ‘without much discomfort all the year round’ (Killick, 1917).

The first professional artist to spend time in and paint New Zealand, in 1827–8, was Earl family, §3, but the artists who followed him in the 1840s were mostly amateurs—sailors, surveyors, and administrators, and later soldiers. Their objectives were largely governed by colonizing imperatives: documenting the country to promote it to potential settlers back ‘home’ who wanted to see non-threatening potential destinations. Watercolour was the primary medium. William Fox (...


J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Newburgh, Fife, Jan 1, 1833; d Pleasant Point, South Canterbury, Dec 3, 1902).

New Zealand architect of Scottish birth. After training in Perth and Edinburgh, he emigrated to the Australian goldfields in 1854. In 1861 he resumed architectural practice in Melbourne. Upon winning the competition (1862) for First Church, Dunedin (built 1867–73), he went to New Zealand, where, apart from a period in Melbourne (c. 1890–1900), he spent the rest of his life. In its general outlines First Church recalls St Paul’s Episcopal Church, Dundee (1853–5), by George Gilbert Scott. The interior, however, with its broad galleried nave spanned by an open timber, hammerbeam roof of disconcerting slenderness, its raked floor, broad, shallow transepts and antechambers in place of a chancel, is unorthodox for a Gothic church.

Lawson’s national origins are readily apparent in his designs: corbie gables and battlements on the Brooklands Farmhouse, North Otago (1867); Scottish Baronial in Seacliff Hospital (1879–83...


Kevin Fahy

(b Sligo, ?1805; d Sydney, Feb 21, 1886).

Australian cabinetmaker of Irish birth. He arrived in Sydney a free settler in 1835 and started his own business in 1841 as a cabinetmaker, upholsterer and undertaker. His billhead, decorated with the royal coat of arms (indicative of vice-regal patronage), describes him as a ‘Designer and Manufacturer of Superior Furniture’. His workshop was one of the most extensive mid-19th-century furniture manufactories in Sydney and attracted both official and private custom. In addition to being a prominent retailer of imported furniture, Lenehan produced a considerable amount of locally made furniture in both indigenous and imported woods. His designs drew heavily on contemporary British furniture pattern books and catalogues. Apart from extant documented work at Government House, Sydney, examples can be found at Old Government House, Parramatta, NSW, identified by his impressed punch mark or one of several trade labels. Furniture from his workshop was exhibited in Sydney in 1854 and 1861...


Judith O’Callaghan

(b Georgenberg, Hungary, 1818; d Castlemaine, Victoria, March 1905).

Australian silversmith and Jeweller. He probably trained as a gold- and silversmith in Vienna. He moved to Paris in the early 1840s and then to London, where, in partnership with Frederick Boocke, he operated between 1851 and 1852 as a jeweller at 86 Newman Street. In 1853 he sailed for Australia, where he attempted to establish a mining enterprise on the goldfields at Castlemaine in Victoria. When this failed, he commenced business in Castlemaine as a watchmaker and jeweller, retiring by the mid-1860s. Only a few pieces are recorded to have been made by him, but the ambitious nature of their design and manufacture and the incorporation of Australian imagery are significant. Two of his most important works are a gold inkstand (c. 1858; untraced), which was exhibited at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London, and the silver standing cup presented to C. A. Saint in 1863 (...


George Tibbits


(b London, 1796; d Sydney, March 9, 1879).

Australian architect of English birth. His early experience was in London as a military surveyor and draughtsman in government service and then in private practice. He arrived in Sydney in March 1840 as an assistant surveyor in the office of the Surveyor-General of New South Wales, Thomas L. Mitchell. Under Mitchell he was appointed town surveyor in Sydney, becoming Colonial Architect of New South Wales in 1835. He is particularly admired for his designs for government buildings in the Greek Revival idiom, of which one is extant, though extended, the Darlinghurst Court House (1837). Another surviving government building is the Maitland Gaol (1847–50), New South Wales. As Colonial Architect he is credited as the chief designer of government buildings, although evidence suggests that capable subordinate clerks of works such as James Rattenbury (fl 1839–45) and Henry Ginn (fl 1846–51) also had that duty for projects remote from Sydney. Other surviving designs attributed to Lewis are the Berrima Court House and the Hartley Court House, both in rural New South Wales. He also supervised the construction of the Tudor Gothic Government House in Sydney (begun ...


Leonard Bell


(b Pilsen, Jan 5, 1839; d Woodville, June 13, 1926).

New Zealand painter of Bohemian birth. A prolific painter of Maori subjects, in particular portraits, he was born in Pilsen, Bohemia, and trained at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. He migrated to New Zealand in 1874. He soon met Auckland businessman, Henry Partridge (1848–1931), who over the next 30 years commissioned from Lindauer numerous portraits of eminent Maori, both living and deceased, as well as large-scale depictions of re-enactments of traditional Maori life and customs. He aimed to create a pictorial history of Maori at a time when it was widely, though mistakenly, believed that Maori were dying out as distinct cultural group.

Lindauer’s portraits of Maori are diverse in their subjects and in how he depicted them. Naturalistic in style, they comprise full-length, half-length, and bust format portraits of figures viewed in frontal, semi-profile, or full profile poses (e.g. Ana Rupene and Child, 1878; Auckland, A.G.). Besides portraits of eminent Maori, he produced many of ordinary Maori people, most of whom wear European dress. Most were probably commissioned by the sitters or their families. In contrast, in Lindauer’s Maori portraits for European patrons, most subjects are shown in traditional and ceremonial Maori costume; markers of exotic difference to European viewers....


Rosemary T. Smith

(Alfred Williams)

(b Creswick, Victoria, Feb 23, 1879; d Sydney, NSW, Nov 21, 1969).

Australian draughtsman, painter and writer. Born into a family that produced fine artists, his early skill in drawing and reading was encouraged by relatives. He received his only formal training in 1897 at the art colony run by Walter Withers at ‘Charterisville’ in Heidelberg. In 1899 he moved to Sydney, married in 1900, and began a lifelong association with the Bulletin. He was best known for exquisite pen drawings whose dark areas were enlivened by minute traces of white. In 1906 he began producing wash drawings; during World War I he designed government posters, and after the war he took up watercolour painting. From 1918 to 1938 he concentrated on etchings, which were printed by his second wife, Rose Soady (b c. 1885), whom he married in 1920. She collected the drawings and proofs for his over two hundred published etchings, which are now in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. In ...