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Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Amiens, Dec 16, 1685; d Paris, Jan 10, 1768).

French cabinetmaker and sculptor. He was taught by his father, François Cressent, a sculptor in Amiens, and became a maître-ébéniste on 9 January 1708. He subsequently became a pupil of François Girardon and became a maître sculpteur in the Académie de Saint-Luc, Paris, on 14 August 1714. He obtained the title of Ebéniste du Régent in 1719, which allowed him to trade as a cabinetmaker free from guild restrictions. The richest French patrons, the Portuguese Court and many German princes bought furniture from him. His work is of exceptional quality and epitomizes the Régence and early Louis XV styles, to which he remained faithful throughout his career. The forms of his pieces were perfectly curved and rendered sumptuous by abundant, virtuoso bronze mounts and emphatically serrated agraffe ornaments and mouldings. His lavish mounts to some extent obscured the restrained veneering or geometric marquetry, for which he almost always used rose-wood, purple-wood or satin-wood. Above all, however, he was a sculptor, and he contravened guild restrictions by modelling the bronzes that adorn his furniture himself; these included terminals depicting the ...


(b ?Brussels, 1689; d Paris, Jan 30, 1776).

French cabinetmaker of Flemish origin. He worked independently before becoming a maître-ébéniste on 29 July 1738. He mainly worked for the Garde Meuble de la Couronne, through his colleagues Antoine-Robert Gaudreaus, Gilles Joubert and Jean-François Oeben and through such dealers as Hébert. His extant works, stamped with his mark m criaerd, include luxurious furniture, in general characterized by very turbulent forms and exuberant, fantastic decoration. Chequered marquetry or, more rarely, floral marquetry was used, as well as some varnished panels, either imitating Chinese lacquer or in vernis Martin with European decoration. In particular, he made beautiful commodes, including one (Versailles, Château) for the Dauphin’s Cabinet de Retraite, which is typical of his work, as is the commode (Paris, Louvre) decorated with blue and silvered-bronze birds made for Madame de Mailly.

F. de Salverte: Les Ebénistes du XVIIIème siècle, leurs oeuvres et leurs marques (Paris, 1923, rev. 5/1962)J. Viaux: Bibliographie du meuble (Mobilier civil français)...


(b Soignies [Hainault], nr Brussels, Oct 23, 1695; d Munich, April 14, 1768).

French architect of Flemish origin, active in Bavaria. A discriminating and imaginative artist, he successfully imported the Parisian Rococo, at the height of its popularity, into the Munich area: his glittering adaptations of French ideas far surpass the original models. In the 18th and 19th centuries de Cuvilliés’s work was known chiefly from collections of his ornamental designs, which were made between 1738 and 1768.

At the age of 11, de Cuvilliés entered the service of Maximilian II Emanuel (reg 1679–1726), exiled Elector of Bavaria, as a court dwarf and was educated by him. In 1714 he returned with Maximilian to Munich, where he was taught mathematics and fortification design. In 1715 he was appointed draughtsman to the Bavarian Director General of Building, Graf Ferdinand von der Wahl. Two years later he served as an ensign in the Bavarian army, apparently in the position of a fortifications engineer. During ...


James Yorke

[Mathias; Matthew]

(fl c. 1740–early 1770s).

English engraver, draughtsman and drawing-master. In 1748 his premises faced Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in St Martin’s Lane, London, a favourite meeting-place for adherents of the new Rococo style. His earliest known satirical print, the Cricket Players of Europe, is dated 1741.

In 1751 he issued A New-book of Chinese, Gothic & Modern Chairs, a slight publication on eight leaves. Twelve examples with bizarre backs were described as ‘Hall Chairs’ in a reissue of 1766, but it is more likely they were intended for gardens and summer-houses. A shell-back chair (Stratford-on-Avon, Nash’s House) corresponding to one of the designs was made for the Chinese temple erected at Stratford for the Shakespeare jubilee organized by David Garrick in 1769. Five plates from a second book of chairs (c. 1751), of which no copy survives, were apparently reprinted in Robert Manwaring’s The Chair-maker’s Guide (1766). Described as ‘Parlour Chairs’, they incorporate extravagant C-scroll motifs in the backs....


(b Paris, c. 1715–20; d after 1783).

French cabinetmaker and dealer. He was the most famous member of a family of cabinetmakers; his father, François Faizelot Delorme (1691–1768), and his brothers Jean-Louis Faizelot Delorme and Alexis Faizelot Delorme were all maîtres-ébénistes. Adrien became a maître-ébéniste on 22 June 1748 and was a juror of his guild from 1768 to 1770. He stamped his work delorme. He made and sold luxury furniture in the Louis XV style, decorated with japanning either in imitation of Chinese lacquer (e.g. Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) or with European decoration (e.g. Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). He also carried out sumptuous floral marquetry (e.g. Paris, Petit Pal.). His most distinguished work consisted of small pieces of furniture (e.g. Paris, Louvre; London, V&A; Washington, DC, Hillwood Mus.) embellished with floral marquetry or inlays of scrolls and foliation executed in end-grain wood on a dark-veined, light-wood ground forming a chevron pattern (e.g. Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). His work in the Neo-classical style, however, failed to impress connoisseurs....


Josef Strasser

(b Gimo, Sweden, Oct 29, 1697; d Munich, Oct 3, 1776).

Swedish painter, active in Germany. His father was descended from French émigrés to Sweden, his mother from the Mijtens family of Netherlandish artists. Desmarées was a pupil at the painting school of his uncle, Martin van Mytens II, in Stockholm from 1710. His early portraits, painted while he was still in Sweden, reveal the influence of van Mytens and his French models, Hyacinthe Rigaud and Nicolas de Largillierre. Desmarées left Sweden in 1724 and after a short stay in Amsterdam went to Nuremberg to continue his training with Johann Daniel Preissler at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. A year later he went to Venice to study with Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, whose art made a considerable impression on him. Desmarées returned to Bavaria in 1728 and was summoned to Munich in 1730 for appointment as court painter to Elector Charles. He was initially involved in the furnishing and decoration of the Ahnengalerie at the Residenz in Munich. From ...


[Johann Siegmund]

(b ?Hammerau, nr Salzburg, c. 1685–90; d Warsaw, 1752).

German architect, active in Poland. He arrived in Warsaw at the beginning of the 18th century and in 1712 was registered in the Royal Office of Works there as an architectural assistant with the rank of second lieutenant. Initially he worked under the supervision of Johann Christoph von Naumann (d 1742), and later with Joachim Daniel Jauch, drawing up plans (unrealized) for the reconstruction of several buildings in Warsaw: Vjazdów Castle (c. 1725), the Saski Palace (1725–30) and the Kazimierzowski Palace (1728). In 1726 he worked with Karl Friedrich Pöppelmann (d 1750) on the construction of the Blue Palace (Pałac Błȩkitny). The barracks in Wielopole, of which one pavilion survives, were built to Deybel’s plans in 1731–2. Between 1730 and 1733 the extension of the southern wing of the palace at Wilanów, near Warsaw (then the summer residence of Augustus II, King of Poland), was completed according to his plans. It features a great hall articulated with clusters of fluted pilasters....


Barbara Daentler

(b Wernfels-Theilenhofen, near Spalt, 1690; d Munich, March 24, 1753).

German sculptor. He was the son of a cabinetmaker. In 1712–13 he began his travels as a journeyman from Eichstätt, where he probably trained under the sculptor Christian Handschuher (fl c. 1699–1701). He visited Prague, where he met Matyás Václav Jäckel, and Italy. Around 1720 Dietrich settled near Munich and worked as an independent sculptor in turn for the court sculptor Anton Faistenberger and in the court joinery of Johann Adam Pichler (fl 1717–61). His first independent works that can be exactly dated—and the only signed ones—are two picture retable altars (1726–7) in the church at Schloss Urfarn near Reisach. The altar of the Fathers of the Church (c. 1739) at Diessen is one of the finest examples of Rococo sculpture in South Germany. Other notable works by Dietrich are the decoration of the frame altars and a Crucifix (1732) in the Hofmarkskirche at Schönbrunn; a reliquary altar (...


Sergio Claut

(b Belluno, 1689; d Venice, Aug 17, 1767).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His earliest training was in Belluno with Antonio Lazzarini (1672–1732), the last exponent in the Veneto of Baroque tenebrism. Having moved to Venice, he joined the workshop of Gregorio Lazzarini and later that of Sebastiano Ricci, who was in Venice until 1715 and exerted the strongest influence on his development; presumably Diziani was familiar with Ricci’s many paintings in Belluno before becoming his pupil. Between 1710 and 1720 he painted a group of eight pictures that included the Mary Magdalene for S Stefano, Belluno, and the Entry into Jerusalem for S Teodoro, Venice. His speed of production and technical assurance are demonstrated especially in his preparatory oil sketches, with colour applied in rapid and spirited penlike strokes. He was also working as a scenery painter in many Venetian theatres, an employment that led to commissions first in Munich (1717) and later in Dresden, where he was highly acclaimed. According to Canal, Diziani was invited to Rome by Cardinal ...


Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Paris, c. 1670; d June 25, 1732).

French cabinetmaker. He became a maître-ébéniste in Paris c. 1700 and was one of the first Parisian cabinetmakers to stamp his work. He operated a large-scale business from two workshops, one in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, which he managed himself, and one in the Rue Saint-Honoré, which he placed under the direction of his son-in-law Louis-Simon Painsun (1700–c. 1748), who used the mark l.s.p. Doirat’s period of activity coincided with the evolution of the Louis XV style, and most of his works are a combination of this and other earlier styles. Although some of his furniture (e.g. pier-table, Bamberg, Neue Residenz, Staatsgal.) derives its form from furniture by André Charles Boulle, in general it reflects the influence of Gilles-Marie Oppendord, A. Vassé (1681–1736) and Nicolas Pineau. In particular, Pineau’s influence can be seen in the composition of the central cartouche on some commodes (e.g. of 1725–30...


Carola Wenzel

German family of artists. From the 16th century to the 18th the Drentwett family of Augsburg produced over 30 master gold- and silversmiths who received commissions from monarchs, nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie of all parts of Europe. Members of the family were active in many fields, including cast and repoussé gold- and silverwork, engraving, enamelling and even wax modelling. The founder of the family’s reputation, Balduin Drentwett (1545–1627), worked for a number of courts, notably that of the Margraves of Baden-Baden. The work of his son Elias Drentwett I (c. 1588–1643) includes an exceedingly fine ewer and basin (1619; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.); the ornamentation on the ewer is part cast and part repoussé, and the reliefwork on the oval basin depicts marine motifs.

Philipp Jacob Drentwett I (c. 1583–1652) was one of the first goldsmiths in the 17th century to produce large articles of silver, sending silver tableware, wine-coolers, buffets and ewers to Poland, Sweden and the Viennese imperial court. His son ...


Kimerly Rorschach

(b Geneva, 18 or Aug 19, 1712; d Geneva, Jan 4, 1763).

Swiss painter. He studied art in Geneva, Paris and, according to Waterhouse, in Rome. He also travelled to The Hague, where he received commissions from the House of Orange. By December 1743 he was in England, where he soon obtained royal patronage, as for example with his large group portrait of the Children of Frederick, Prince of Wales (1746; Brit. Royal Col.). In 1746 and 1747 he was producing pictures for Frederick, probably including the full-length portraits of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta, Princess of Wales (both Belfast, Ulster Mus.). In 1750 Du Pan was in Dublin, where he painted several portraits, including those of William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington (known from a mezzotint by Michael Ford (d 1765)) and John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery (ex-Marston House, Somerset). By August 1751 he had returned to Geneva.

Du Pan’s soft, decorative style owes much to the work of François Boucher and other French Rococo painters, and the luminous clarity managed in his handling of heads may have been influenced by the work of his compatriot Jean-Etienne Liotard. Du Pan’s ability to obtain royal and aristocratic patronage in England lay in the vogue for the contemporary French style of portraiture in which he worked....


(b Pontoise, April 8, 1694; d Paris, Oct 23, 1763).

French cabinetmaker. He was an independent workman before becoming a maître-ébéniste on 5 September 1742 and a juror of his guild from 1752 to 1754. He was an exacting and talented cabinetmaker with a cosmopolitan clientele, specializing in luxury items decorated with Japanese lacquer and marquetry (for illustration see Vernis Martin). His pieces were often sober, and this complemented the power, beauty and quality of his vigorous and exuberant bronzes with their opposing Rococo curves in the Louis XV style. His stamped works include a corner-cupboard (c. 1745; Malibu, CA, Getty Mus.) for Count Jan Klemens, based on a design by Nicolas Pineau, a lacquered bureau for Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), and the ‘de Vergennes’ marquetry bureau (both Paris, Louvre), a commode (Genoa, Pal. Reale) for Louis XV’s daughter Louise-Elizabeth (1727–59) and a large lean-to secrétaire with doors and windows (1770; Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). After Dubois’s death, his son ...


Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Nancy, June 26, 1735; d Paris, July 24, 1802).

French painter, pastellist and engraver. He lived in Paris from 1760 and from 1762 kept a list of his works. Among the portraits he completed in his early years were those in pastel of the well-known connoisseurs Pierre-Jean Mariette, the Comte de Caylus and Ange-Laurent de la Live de July (all untraced), which apparently were copies after Maurice-Quentin de La Tour. Ducreux has traditionally been seen as de La Tour’s favourite pupil, while Jean-Baptiste Greuze is supposed to have initiated him into oil painting. From his age, it can be assumed that by the time Ducreux reached Paris he had already acquired a grounding in his art.

In 1769 Ducreux was selected to paint Louis XVI’s future wife, Marie-Antoinette, in Vienna. The official portrait he made (untraced) survives only in the engraving (1771) by Charles Eugène Duponchel (1748–80). Two surviving portraits of the future queen (both priv. col.) are conventional and not very expressive. Ducreux spent two years at the Austrian court. While there he also received a commission to paint the portrait of ...


Kathleen Russo

(b Paris, c. 1670; d Paris, April 9, 1751).

French architect. His first known work was the Hôtel d’Etampes (1704; destr.), Paris. The high, narrow building with a mansard roof, Classical orders ornamenting the avant-corps of both the court and garden façades and irrationally low attached side wings differed in its proportions from his later works, lending some credibility to Jacques-François Blondel’s suggestion that it was actually designed by the Sicilian Duke Fornari. More typical of Dulin was his best-known work, the Hôtel Dunoyer (1708; destr. 1847), Paris, commissioned by an arms dealer. The central section of this balanced and elegant two-storey building was emphasized by the high, pitched roof that crowned the avant-corps, contrasting with the flat, balustraded roof of the rest of the corps de logis. The decorative features of this work included two putti shown as lovers, positioned at each end of the roof, and sculpted busts in the wide window piers of the upper storey. This building, called a ...


[Du Plessis; Duplessy.]

French family of goldsmiths, bronze founders, sculptors and designers, of Italian descent. Due to the similarity in name, there has been some confusion between father and son and the attribution of their work; they are now generally distinguished as Duplessis père and Duplessis fils. Jean-Claude Chambellan Duplessis [Giovanni Claudio Chiamberlano] (b Turin, ?1690–95; d Paris, 1774) practised as a goldsmith in Turin before his marriage in 1720 and probably worked for Victor Amadeus II. He moved with his family to Paris c. 1740, perhaps encouraged there by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier. In 1742 he was commissioned by Louis XV to design and make two large, bronze braziers, presented to the Turkish ambassador Saïd Mahmet Pasha (e.g. in Istanbul, Topkapi Pal. Mus.). From c. 1748 until his death he was employed at the porcelain factories of Vincennes and Sèvres as a designer of porcelain forms and supplier of bronze stands. He also supervised and advised craftsmen. In ...


Helmut Börsch-Supan

(b ?Lodersleben, c. 1710; d Berlin, Feb 21, 1757).

German sculptor. Before he moved to Berlin in 1746, he is thought to have worked in Italy, Leipzig and Dresden; two signed ivory reliefs in the Museum des Kunsthandwerks, Leipzig, were probably produced during his stay in that city. Ebenhech was particularly admired for his mastery of marble technique. Characteristic of his Rococo sculpture is a delicate treatment of surface with a minute attention to details, especially drapery folds, and a tendency towards a fragile decorativeness. His figures are slender, almost lean. Most of his works produced in Prussia are in the park of Schloss Sanssouci, Potsdam. About 1750 he carved 12 over life-size statues of the Apostles (destr.), to drawings by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff, for the St Hedwigskirche in Berlin; originally intended for the lantern, they were actually housed in the window niches. There survive only five reliefs, above the three entrances and two niches of the portico, executed in the 19th century to Ebenhech’s designs. His ‘Corradini’ vase (...


Gordon Campbell

Danish ceramics factory. In 1759 Johann Nicolaus Otte (1714–80) founded a ceramics factory in Criseby (Schleswig, then a Danish possession and now in Germany), and in 1765 moved it to his nearby estate of Eckernførde. The factory attempted to produce wares that would rival the standard of those from German and French porcelain factories; it closed in ...


Hanne Raabyemagle

[Nicolai; Nikolaj]

(b Haraldsted, nr Ringsted, June 4, 1701; d Copenhagen, June 7, 1754).

Danish architect. His wide-ranging activities and his personal version of French and German Rococo made him a major figure in European 18th-century architecture.

He was trained as a garden designer, working in the gardens of Frederiksberg Palace in the early 1720s. In 1723 he went on a study tour with letters of recommendation from Frederick IV, visiting Berlin, where he found employment in the Royal Parks of Charlottenburg and Oranienburg, and reaching Warsaw in 1725. The following year he became assistant to Karl Friedrich Pöppelmann (c.1698–1750), the son of Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann and the personal architectural adviser in Warsaw to Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Under Augustus’s lead, the taste for the opulent, sculptural Baroque typified by the Zwinger in Dresden by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann was developing towards the cooler, more disciplined Baroque classicism practised by the French émigré architects such as Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. From them Eigtved learnt not only stylistic traits but also a fine draughtsmanship that remained characteristic of his work....


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Trapani, March 19, 1760; d Rome, Feb 16, 1821).

Italian painter. His father was a merchant in animal skins, and because of his habit of drawing on the hides Giuseppe was nicknamed ‘guastacuoi’. He had a period of apprenticeship with the sculptor Domenico Nolfo in Trapani and continued his studies in Palermo with the painter Padre Fedele da S Biagio (1717–1801) and later with Gioacchino Martorana. On returning to Trapani, he painted the picture the Virgin of Carmel Liberating the Souls in Purgatory. After a brief stay in Naples he moved to Rome, where, under the protection of Canova, he studied perspective and architectural drawing with the architect Giuseppe Barberi (1749–1809). Errante became moderately prosperous because he also executed miniatures, as well as making copies of—and restoring—Old Master paintings.

The first painting Errante completed in Rome is dated 1784: St Vincenzo, the altarpiece for SS Vincenzo e Anastasio alla Regola, which is characterized by its neat drawing and smooth tonal transitions. In the same period for the ...