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( Colomann )

(b Penzing, nr Vienna, July 13, 1841; d Vienna, April 11, 1918).

Austrian architect, urban planner, designer, teacher and writer. He was one of the most important architects of the 19th and 20th centuries—in 1911 Adolf Loos called him ‘the greatest architect in the world’—and a key figure in the development of 20th-century European architecture. His work, spread over more than half a century, embodies the transition from mid-19th-century historicism to the earliest expressions of 20th-century Modernism. Wagner was an influential teacher and theorist, and in addition to his executed work he designed and published more than 100 ambitious schemes, the last volume of his Einige Skizzen being published posthumously in 1922; this long series of often fantastic but always highly pragmatic and carefully thought out projects included urban plans, museums, academies, parliament buildings and public monuments.

After studying at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna from 1857 to 1860 and spending a short period at the Bauakademie in Berlin, where he became familiar with the work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Wagner studied from ...

Article

Richard Apperly

(b London, Oct 12, 1882; d Sydney, Sept 20, 1973).

English architect and teacher, active in Australia . He was apprenticed in 1900 to C. E. Kempe, a stained-glass designer, and later that year to the architect J. S. Gibson. Wilkinson studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, from 1902 to 1906, winning the Academy’s Silver and Gold Medals and subsequently travelling in England, France, Italy and Spain. He joined the staff of the School of Architecture, University College, London, serving as an assistant professor from 1910 to 1918. He held a commission from 1914 to 1918 in the London University Officer Training Corps, and in 1918 he was appointed as Australia’s first Professor of Architecture, at the University of Sydney. Dean of the Faculty of Architecture there from 1920 to 1947, he was a witty, erudite and influential teacher, discouraging ‘fads’ and stressing the importance of correct orientation for buildings and rooms. He designed various buildings on the university campus, the Physics Building (...

Article

Ulrike Gaisbauer

(b Vienna, April 23, 1907; d Vienna, Aug 28, 1975).

Austrian sculptor and architect . While training in an engraving and die-stamping workshop in Vienna (1921–4), he took evening classes in life-drawing at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Vienna, before in 1926 joining Anton Hanak’s sculpture class where he met the metal sculptor Marian Fleck (d 1951), whom he married in 1929; in 1928 they both left the school after disagreements with the teacher. During his career as a die-stamper and engraver, Wotruba studied in 1927 with Professor Eugen Gustav Steinhof (b 1880) and carried out his first experiments in stone in 1928–9, including Male Torso (limestone; priv. col.). In 1930 he travelled to Düsseldorf and Essen, where he examined the works of Wilhelm Lehmbruck and Aristide Maillol and became a friend of Josef Hoffmann.

In 1933, with a group of unemployed people, Wotruba made the monument Man, Condemn War (see Breicha, 1967, p. 65), which was installed in the cemetery in Donawitz but later destroyed by the Nazis. At this time he was in contact with Hans Tietze, Herbert Boeckl and others. During the February disturbances in ...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

( Grigor’yevich )

(b Moscow, 1686/8; d St Petersburg, Sept 28, 1743).

Russian architect, teacher and theorist . He was a pupil of Domenico Trezzini (from 1710) and then his assistant at the Ministry of Municipal Affairs in St Petersburg. He supervised the completion (1719–22), to plans by Niccolò Michetti, of the Yekaterinental Palace at Reval, where he also carried out the elaborate decoration of the White Hall and laid out the park. His Hall for Glorious Ceremonials (1725; destr.), designed to house relics of Russia’s victories in the Northern War, combined Neo-classical and Baroque features. Working in the German–Dutch style of Baltic Baroque, Zemtsov designed the church of SS Simeon and Anna (1730–34) on Mokhovaya Street and the cathedral of Prince Vladimir (1741–7; built by Pietro Trezzini, b 1710; now on Dobrolyubov Prospect). These all played an important role in the townscape of the city. While echoing the traditional Russian pattern of a church linked to a refectory and with a belfry surmounting the west entrance, Zemtsov proposed for the interiors an unusually spacious basilica with a long nave, aisles and a transept. In his design for the cathedral of the Trinity (...