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Torbjörn Fulton

[Guillaume; Villem]

(b Mechelen, c. 1520; d Stockholm, April 16, 1592).

Flemish sculptor and architect, active in Sweden. He is first recorded at the court of Gustav I Vasa (reg 1523–60) in 1557–8. Boy executed a gilded wood relief portrait of the King (Mariefred, Gripsholm Slott, Stat. Porträttsaml.), as well as his tomb (1562–83; Uppsala Cathedral;). The latter, in red and white alabaster, is the earliest large-scale example of such a work in the Renaissance style in Sweden and is influenced by Dutch examples, with recumbent figures of the King and his two queens and an obelisk at each corner.

Boy’s work as an architect included alterations to the Royal Palace, Stockholm, from 1577 to 1592 (destr. 1697) and the castle at Svartsjö, near Stockholm (1570–90; destr. 1687; replaced 1730s). At Stockholm, the medieval building was given columned arcading, decorative gables and richly decorated roofs for the towers. Svartsjö was reshaped into a three-storey building with a Renaissance cupola; the circular courtyard in front of the castle was surrounded by curved arcades of two storeys, and the castle was completed by seven symmetrically grouped towers with elegant roofs. The whole building was a blend of traditional Scandinavian and Renaissance architecture. The churches of St Klara and St Jakob in Stockholm, inspired by Gothic architecture, were also the work of Boy; he may also have been involved in the redesigning of Uppsala Castle (1580s) for ...


Maria Teresa Fiorio

(fl Milan, 1560; d May 22, 1570).

Italian sculptor. He was first documented at Milan Cathedral on 3 August 1560, when he was commissioned to prepare ornamental work for the old organ and to finish it in collaboration with Martino da Vimercate (fl 1559–82). In 1565 Brambilla was commissioned to carve the eastern doorway of Milan Cathedral’s transept; the doorway was not finished, but some reliefs from it survive in the chapel of the Madonna dell’Albero. On 7 August 1566 Brambilla was paid for the pedestal (in situ) for a statue of Pope Pius IV by Angelo Siciliano in the cathedral; it is a highly ornate work that demonstrates his love of vigorous plasticity and exuberant decorative sense. These qualities impressed even Giorgio Vasari on his visit to Milan in 1566: he described this work as being ‘pierced with holes all over with a group of putti and stupendous foliage’ and wrote that its creator was ‘a very studious young man’. Such a description, referring to an artist who would be dead in four years, raises doubts about Vasari’s judgement and poses the problem of whether the pedestal should not instead be attributed to ...


Maria Teresa Fiorio

(fl Milan, from 1570; d Milan, 1599).

Italian sculptor. From documentary evidence chronicling his activity at Milan Cathedral from 1570 to 1599, it is possible to reconstruct his career, identify a phase (1572–86) of close collaboration with Pellegrino Tibaldi and conclude that Brambilla assumed the role of first sculptor of the cathedral. However, there is a possibility that he was the same person as Francesco Brambilla. From 1570 Francesco Brambilla (ii) participated in the programme of remodelling the interior of the cathedral instigated by Carlo Borromeo II, Archbishop of Milan. Collaborating with Tibaldi, who provided the designs, Brambilla prepared terracotta models for the wooden choir (in situ) of scenes from the Life of St Ambrose (one model, Milan, Mus. Duomo), for the statues (in situ) for the minor altars and for the marble enclosure (in situ) around the choir. In 1584 he delivered clay models for the reliquary bust of ...


Darius Sikorski

(b Urbino, c. 1524–5; d Urbino, Sept 20, 1575).

Italian stuccoist and sculptor. He enjoyed extensive patronage from the court of Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, for whom he modelled fireplaces and entire ceilings representing allegories of princely prerogative and aristocratic supremacy. This practice, unusual in Italy (where stucco was generally a decorative adjunct to fresco), may be partly explained by the fact that Guidobaldo did not retain a permanent court painter.

Between 1538 and 1541 Brandani was apprenticed in Urbino to Giovanni Maria di Casteldurante, a maiolica artist, but his earliest known work (c. 1551) is the luxuriant and overcrowded stucco ceiling, modelled with five relief scenes from the Life of St Peter, in the chapel of the Palazzo Corte Rossa, Fossombrone, near Urbino, for Cardinal Giulio della Rovere (1533–78). In 1552–3 Brandani made contributions to the stucco decoration at the Villa Giulia, Rome, modelling friezes, small roundels and grotesques in the rooms left and right of the entrance....


Carola Wenzel

(b Utrecht, c. 1550; d Nyköping, 1594).

Dutch architect and sculptor, active in Germany. He worked from 1563 to 1574 for Johann Albrecht I, Herzog von Mecklenburg, and from 1569 to 1571 built a house (now the Stadtgeschichtliches Museum) in Wismar for Bürgermeister Schabbelt; its Dutch structural and ornamental forms were a strong influence on subsequent architecture in Mecklenburg. His fountain in Wismar market-place, comprising a 12-sided pavilion with ornamental herm-pilasters, was completed in 1602 by his pupils. From 1574 Brandin executed various works for Ulrich III, Herzog von Mecklenburg–Güstrow, including the Schloss at Güstrow, where, having been appointed court builder in 1583, he erected the north wing following a fire; the work was completed by his pupil Claus Midow (d 1602). In Güstrow Cathedral, in accordance with Ulrich’s plan to convert the building into a court church where the ducal tombs would be housed in the choir, Brandin started work in 1575 on the memorial to Borwin II, the cathedral’s founder. An austere classical aedicula with Dutch Renaissance ornament frames the Mecklenburg family tree, with an over life-size recumbent figure of the reigning duke in armour at its base. Brandin’s wall-tomb of the Herzogin Dorothea, Ulrich III’s sister, a recumbent figure in white marble, dates from the same year. Brandin’s greatest work was the ...


Steven Bule, Wolfgang Wolters, Giovanna Cassese and Filippo Pedrocco

Italian family of sculptors and architects. They were active in the 15th century and the early 16th. One of the most important and extensive family dynasties in Italian Renaissance sculpture, the Bregni came from the village of Righeggia, near Osteno on Lake Lugano. Active primarily in northern Italy (Lombardy, Emilia, and the Veneto), a few Bregni also worked in central Italy. Several Bregno artists are documented, although the precise familial relationship between most of them is still unclear. The most important artists in the family were (1) Antonio Bregno I and his brother Paolo Bregno (fl Venice, c. 1425–c. 1460), (2) Andrea Bregno, (3) Giovanni Battista Bregno and (4) Lorenzo Bregno. Associated with Andrea Bregno were two of his brothers: Ambrogio Bregno (d before 1504) and Girolamo Bregno (d after 1504); a son Marcantonio Bregno; one Antonio Bregno II; and Domenico Bregno [il Brieno]. The last three assisted with various architectural projects during the 1470s and 1480s, although their roles are not specified. Other Bregni briefly mentioned in documents, and about whom little is known, include ...


Janice Shell

(b Milan, c. 1460; d ?Milan, after April 1514).

Italian sculptor. The first notice of his activity dates from 1477, when he and his brother-in-law Francesco Cazzaniga were employed as sculptors on the monument to Giovanni Borromeo and Vitaliano Borromeo (Isola Bella, Palazzo Borromeo, chapel), which was executed for S Francesco Grande, Milan. By 1482 he had begun employment for the Fabbrica del Duomo (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral and in 1483 was paid for carving a figure of St Apollonia (untraced). Although he was a master figure sculptor at the cathedral until the middle of 1485, the other work he did there remains unknown. During 1483–4 it is likely that he assisted Francesco and Tommaso Cazzaniga in the execution of the tomb of Cristoforo and Giacomo Antonio della Torre (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie). In 1484 he and the Cazzaniga brothers began work on the tomb of Pietro Francesco Visconti di Saliceto destined for the Milanese church of S Maria del Carmine (destr.; reliefs in Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.; Kansas City, MO, Nelson-Atkins Mus. A.; and Washington, DC, N.G.A.; architectural elements in Paris, Louvre). This project was completed by Briosco and ...


Timothy Schroder

(b Damblain, Lorraine, c. 1550; d ?Montbéliard, c. 1612).

French metalworker and medallist. He was born of Huguenot parents and moved in 1579 to Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), then in Germany, to escape religious persecution. In 1585 he was appointed Graveur de son Excellence to Duke Frederick I of Württemburg-Mömpelgard (d 1608) and specialized in cutting dies for coins and medals. It is also likely that he worked as a Bildschnitzer or Formschneider, making models for goldsmiths’ work, although there is no firm evidence for this. He is best known for his fine pewter vessels decorated in relief with densely packed Mannerist ornament (e.g. ewer, c. 1600; Paris, Louvre). Because of the softness of the metal these would not have been suitable for practical use and were intended as a cheap, decorative substitute for fine plate. The Temperantia dish (so-called from its ornament, c. 1585; Dresden, Mus. Ksthandwerk) and accompanying ewer are in the same style as goldsmiths’ work of the Fontainebleau school. It has been suggested that the sharply defined surface of Briot’s vessels indicates that the ornament may have been struck by steel dies, although whether the vessels were formed from assembled struck components or cast and then struck is not clear. His vessels were widely imitated, especially by the Nuremberg pewterer Caspar Enderlein and in ceramics by Bernard Palissy....


Carl Van de Velde and Elisabeth Gurock

[Paledaen; Palidamus; Paludanus]

Flemish family of artists. The painter Jan van den Broeck (d 1551 or after) of Mechelen had three sons who became artists. All three moved to Antwerp, where (1) Willem van den Broeck was active as a sculptor, as was his son Raphael van den Broeck (fl 1585–99). Willem’s two brothers (2) Crispin van den Broeck and (3) Hendrik van den Broeck were probably both trained as painters by their father and then, according to Guicciardini, by Frans Floris in Antwerp. Hendrik’s career was subsequently spent entirely in Italy, while Crispin, except for a short visit to Middelburg in 1564, remained in Antwerp, where he also designed and made prints. He taught engraving to his daughter Barbara van den Broeck (b c. 1558–60), who was also active as an engraver in Antwerp.

L. Guicciardini: Descrittione di… tutti i Paesi Bassi (1567), p. 99

Elisabeth Gurock...


Horst Appuhn

(b Walsrode, Lower Saxony, 1480–90).

German wood-carver. His place of origin is mentioned in a contract of 1523. From the style of his work it can be deduced that his apprenticeship in Lower Saxony was followed by travels in the Lower Rhine area (Xanten and Kalkar) and in the Netherlands (Utrecht and ’s Hertogenbosch). Important models were provided by Albrecht Dürer’s Small Woodcut Passion series (1510–11) and the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch. Between 1514 and 1523 Brüggemann worked in Schleswig-Holstein, where he produced a tabernacle (1520) for the former Marienkirche in Husum: the surviving fragments depict an angel with a lute (Berlin, Skulpgal.) and the Virgin (Copenhagen, Kon. Saml.). He also produced a huge altarpiece (1521), originally in the monastery church of the Augustinian Canons at Bordesholm but moved in 1666 to Schleswig Cathedral. Brüggemann is credited with these works in chronicles. Other works attributed to him are the figure of ...


Richard J. Goy


Italian family of architects and sculptors. The lives and careers of Bartolomeo Buon (b Bergamo, c. 1450; d Venice, ?1509) and Pietro Buon (d Venice, 15 March 1529) are closely linked, with many details remaining conjectural; it is almost certain, however, that Pietro was Bartolomeo’s son. Much of the work traditionally ascribed to Bartolomeo, notably at the Scuola Grande di S Rocco, Venice, has been reattributed by modern scholars to Pietro. The Buons were strongly influenced by Mauro Codussi, to whom they may have been related, and Pietro may have been the latter’s pupil. The Buons’ style is also linked to the decorative tradition of Pietro Lombardo, which is characterized by refined low-relief decoration and the use of rare marbles set within stone panelling. Their nickname of ‘i Bergamaschi’ reflects their Lombard origins and serves to distinguish them from the earlier, Venetian Buon family (see...


Robin A. Branstator


(d Copenhagen, 1553).

Danish sculptor and architect. His sculptural work shows a precocious awareness of early Renaissance art, suggesting that he trained in the workshop of Claus Berg in Odense. He first served Christian II, King of Denmark (reg 1512–23), as architect and sculptor and had settled in Copenhagen by 1523. His tombstone sculptures equal or surpass his architectural successes. The first in his series of gravestone reliefs was of Elisabeth of Habsburg (c. 1523; Copenhagen, Nmus.), Christian II’s queen, a pendant to an earlier representation of King John (1503; Copenhagen, Nmus.), sculpted by Adam van Düren. The limestone high relief had a conventional Gothic framework but hinted at Bussaert’s mature work in the more naturalistic folds of Elisabeth’s gown. After Christian II fled to the Netherlands in 1523, Bussaert elected to remain in Copenhagen in the employ of the newly crowned Frederick I (reg 1523–34). Frederick rewarded Bussaert well, naming him master builder in ...


Riccardo Lattuada

(b Naples, c. 1515; d after March 22, 1570).

Italian sculptor. The son of a supplier of marble, he was one of the most important Neapolitan artists of the 16th century. His earliest work was probably executed in the workshop of Giovanni Marigliano, where he made the acquaintance of Auria, d’ family §(1), with whom he later formed a partnership and frequently collaborated. The marble statues of the Risen Christ, St Nicholas of Bari, St Francis and the two Angels on the tomb of Sigismondo Sanseverino di Saponara (Naples, SS Severino e Sossio) probably belong to this early period, as do many of the bas-reliefs depicting Episodes in the Conquest of the Kingdom of Naples on the base of the tomb of the Viceroy of Naples, Don Pedro de Toledo (Naples, S Giacomo degli Spagnoli). The relief depicting the Conversion of St Paul (1539; Naples, S Maria delle Grazie a Caponapoli) is documented as by Giovan Domenico d’Auria but sometimes attributed to Caccavello....


Anthea Brook

(b Rome, Oct 24, 1556; bur Florence, March 17, 1613).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was the pupil and assistant of Giovanni Antonio Dosio and probably moved with his master from Rome in November 1575 to Florence, where he spent the rest of his life. From Dosio he learnt the techniques of marble-carving, stucco and antique restoration and the principles of architecture, benefiting from Dosio’s intense interest in Greek and Roman antiquity. He is recorded as spending much of his early career engaged in the restoration of antique statuary for the Medici (an archival notice of August 1578 also connects him with the Giambologna workshop in this respect), although he also produced significant original work during this time. He had his own workshop by the early 1590s, and his predominance as a sculptor in marble in Florence was assured when his principal rival in this medium, Pietro Francavilla, began to transfer his activities to Paris in 1601 (where he settled in ...


B. K. Grindstaff

(di Bernardino)

(b Recanati, Dec 18, 1536; d Loreto, Sept 9, 1593).

Italian sculptor and bronze-caster. Of noble birth, he showed a precocious drawing talent and at a young age was apprenticed to the sculptors Girolamo Lombardo and Aurelio Lombardo in Recanati. He became a favoured student of Girolamo, learning to work bronze, silver, gold and terracotta. In 1574 he settled in Loreto, where he remained until his death. The foundry he owned with his brothers was renowned for the quality of its bronze-casting. Most of his early works were executed under his teachers’ commissions, including a bronze baptismal font (destr.) for Penna Cathedral, Naples, and a fountain decoration (destr.) for the Doge’s Palace, Venice. The bronze statue of Gregory XIII for Ascoli Piceno (destr. 1798; drawing, Ascoli Piceno, Mus. Dioc.), which Calcagni completed after Aurelio’s death, established his reputation.

Calcagni’s first independent work, a stucco Virgin and Child, was executed in 1574 for the Cavaliere Agostino Filago. This led to similar commissions from the religious community, such as figures of ...


Donald Garstang

(fl c. 1574–?1603).

Italian sculptor and military engineer. He moved to Palermo from Florence in 1574, to assemble and enlarge (with the collaboration of Michelangelo Naccherino) the fountain executed in the 1550s by his father, Francesco Camilliani (d 1586), a pupil of Baccio Bandinelli, for the Florentine villa of Pietro di Toledo. This had been sold to the city of Palermo by Pietro’s son Luigi di Toledo, to be erected in the newly built Piazza Pretoria in front of the Palazzo Senatorio. It was much praised by Vasari and represented the introduction of Mannerist sculpture to Palermo. Many documents relate to Camilliani, although only a few works survive. In 1586 he was appointed viceregal architect and custodian of coastal fortifications, in which role he played an important part in the defence of Sicily. In 1585 he was responsible for the construction of the military quarter at Milazzo. His busy studio supplied fountains, statues, funerary monuments and silver objects to churches and noble patrons. His statue of ...


Bruce Boucher


(b Verona, 1549; d Venice, c. 1625).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the most important sculptors working in Venice and the surrounding region in the late 16th century and the early 17th. Although his older rival Alessandro Vittoria was a more versatile artist, Campagna’s talents centred on a remarkable gift for religious statuary. In this he was unrivalled in Venice and scarcely equalled elsewhere in Italy. Among his most impressive achievements are the high altars for the Venetian churches of Il Redentore and S Giorgio Maggiore. His brother Giuseppe Campagna (d 1626) was also a sculptor and assisted him.

Campagna was the son of a furrier and trained under Danese Cattaneo, probably when he was engaged on the Fregoso monument in S Anastasia, Verona (1562–5). Campagna was described as the ‘garzone et lavorante’ of Cattaneo in 1571 when the latter was nominated to appraise the value of Jacopo Sansovino’s bronze sacristy door for S Marco in Venice. In ...


Marco Collareta

[Foppa, Cristoforo]

(b Mondonico, nr Pavia, c. 1452; d between Dec 6, 1526 and April 1, 1527).

Italian goldsmith, coin- and gem-engraver, jeweller, medallist and dealer. Son of the goldsmith Gian Maffeo Foppa, from 1480 he served at the Milanese court with his father, eventually becoming personal goldsmith and jeweller to Ludovico Sforza (il Moro), Duke of Milan. In 1487 Caradosso was in Florence, where his appraisal of an antique cornelian was highly esteemed. He worked in Hungary in the service of King Matthias Corvinus, probably in August 1489; a later visit to the court was cut short by the King’s death (1490). Between 1492 and 1497 Caradosso travelled to various Italian towns to buy jewels and other precious objects for Ludovico il Moro. He visited Rome, Viterbo and Florence early in 1496, when the Medici family’s possessions were sold off after the expulsion of Piero de’ Medici (1471–1503) from Florence.

After the fall of Ludovico il Moro in 1500, Caradosso remained for some years in Lombardy. In ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...


M. Newcome

Italian family of artists. Taddeo Carlone (1543–1615) and his brother Giuseppe Carlone were, like their father Giovanni Carlone, sculptors. Born in Rovio (Lombardy), they moved to Genoa c. 1560. Another member of the family was Pietro Carlone, who with his son Francesco Carlone was a bronze-caster. Taddeo’s sons (1) Giovanni Carlone and (2) Giovanni Battista Carlone became painters, probably working together in Genoa and Milan and perhaps in Rome and Florence before 1630. The Carlone brothers’ sculptural heritage and their education in Rome and Florence differed from that of their Genoese contemporaries who had studied under Giovanni Battista Paggi, and together with Domenico Fiasella they stimulated a revival of fresco decoration in Genoa. Frescoes painted in the 1620s by the Carlone brothers and Fiasella and by Lazzaro Tavarone, Andrea Ansaldo and Bernardo Castello are close in composition, colour, figures and subject-matter. (2) Giovanni Battista Carlone’s studio produced a vast quantity of brilliantly coloured frescoes, which were highly proficient and popular; these are best seen on the nave vaults of the large Genoese churches, S Ambrogio and S Siro. He relied on family members, and among his 24 children were ...