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Andrea S. Norris

(b Viadana, c. 1454; d after 1508).

Italian medallist, sculptor and goldsmith. He was the son of a notary, Andrea Cavalli. First recorded as a goldsmith in June 1481, he executed the foot of a large tabernacle dedicated to the feast of Corpus Christi for Mantua Cathedral between 1483 and 1485 and a large Crucifix for the chapter house of the cathedral (1490–91); none of this work survives. In 1497 Cavalli probably began working for the Mantuan mint. The commissions from Ludovico Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, date from 1499 and 1501 (Rossi, 1888): a bronze statuette of the Spinario and four silver roundels with Signs of the Zodiac. Cavalli worked as a sculptor and medallist for the Gonzaga family from 1501 to 1505. He witnessed Andrea Mantegna’s will on 1 March 1504 and the granting of Mantegna’s funerary chapel in S Andrea, Mantua, on 11 August.

From March to June 1506 Cavalli is documented at the mint of the Holy Roman Emperor, ...


Stephen K. Scher

(b Padua, May 16, 1500; d Padua, Sept 5, 1570).

Italian medallist and goldsmith. His entire career seems to have been spent in Padua, where he benefited from rich traditions of sculpture, bronze-casting, Classical studies and collecting. His artistic training appears to have been acquired in the workshop of Andrea Riccio, who named Cavino as one of the executors of his will. Cavino worked in both bronze and gold and is documented as the author of a number of such ecclesiastical objects as candlesticks, censers and reliquaries; however, these works no longer exist. His fame derives in part from his having carved the dies for a series of struck pieces that imitated very closely ancient coins, particularly Roman sesterces. Such copies are now often found in cast versions, although many of the original dies are preserved in Paris (Bib. N., Cab. Médailles). Although it is not known whether Cavino’s intention was to deceive, his imitations were so cleverly made that even the modern collector must beware of them. According to Gorini, they were produced between ...


Alessandro Nova

(b Florence, Nov 3, 1500; d Florence, Feb 13, 1571).

Italian goldsmith, medallist, sculptor and writer. He was one of the foremost Italian Mannerist artists of the 16th century, working in Rome for successive popes, in France for Francis I and in Florence for Cosimo I de’ Medici. Among his most famous works are the elaborate gold figural salt made for Francis I (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.; see fig. below) and the bronze statue of Perseus (Florence, Loggia Lanzi). His Vita is among the most compelling autobiographies written by an artist and is generally considered to be an important work of Italian literature.

Cellini came from a middle-class Florentine family. His grandfather Andrea was a mason and his father Giovanni Cellini (1451–1528), who married Elisabetta Granacci in 1480, was a well-educated and expert carpenter who built the scaffolding put up to allow Leonardo da Vinci to paint the Battle of Anghiari (destr.) and who was a member of the committee responsible for choosing the site for Michelangelo’s statue of ...


Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli

Italian family of gem-engravers and medallists. Giuseppe Cerbara (b Rome, 15 July 1770; d Rome, 6 April 1856) was the son of Giovanni Battista Cerbara (b Rome, 1748; d Rome, 1811) and was one of the best-known gem-engravers and medallists working in Rome in the 18th century and the early 19th. His artistic achievements brought him many honours: in 1812 he was elected Fellow of the Accademia di S Luca, in 1815 Fellow of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and in 1825 Fellow of the Royal Academy of Fine Art of Antwerp. In 1831 he was elected to the Congregazione dei Virtuosi del Pantheon and in 1834 to the Accademia Fiorentina di Belle Arti. From 1822 he held the post of Incisore Camerale to the papal mint with Giuseppe Girometti; the artists were responsible for producing a medal on alternate years. Appointed Incisore Particolare dei Sommi Pontefici by ...


Antonia Boström

[il Grechetto; il Greco]

(b Cyprus; fl 1538–64).

Italian medallist and gem-, cameo- and die-engraver. His father was Milanese and his mother Cypriot. At an early age he moved to Rome, where he was introduced by Annibale Caro into pontifical circles dominated by the Farnese family. As a result, he was appointed Incisore e Maestro delle Stampe at the papal mint, where he is documented in 1554 as having worked with Gian Federico Bonzagna, whose dies are difficult to distinguish from Cesati’s. He remained at the mint until 1561 under Paul III and his successors, Julius III, Paul IV and Pius IV.

Cesati continued to receive commissions from other members of the Farnese family. His most famous medals include one of Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma (c. 1546), one of Alessandro Farnese as Cardinal with Apollo Shooting at Python on the reverse (Florence, Bargello) and one of him when he became Paul III, with the reverse, so highly praised by Michelangelo (Vasari, ...


John Williams

Sardonyx cup with gold mounts (h. 184 mm, diam. 173 mm; León, Mus.–Bib. Real Colegiata S Isidoro), given by Urraca (c. 1032–1101), the eldest daughter of Ferdinand I, King of Castile-León (reg 1035–65), and sister of Alfonso VI, King of Castile-León (reg 1072–1109), to S Isidoro, León. At Ferdinand’s death, Urraca and her sister Elvira received dominion over the monasteries of the realm for as long as they remained unwed. A chronicle written a decade or so after Urraca’s death goes out of its way to acknowledge her role as donor: ‘All of her life she [Urraca] followed her desire to adorn sacred altars and the vestments of the clergy with gold, silver, and precious stones’.

The high technical level of her gifts may be measured by the chalice. An inscription in beaded gold letters above the foot, in nomine d[omi]ni vrraca fredina[n]di, marks the chalice as the gift of Urraca. The cup and foot of the chalice are made of sardonyx, in shapes consistent with an antique origin, and are joined together by gold mounts to form a Christian liturgical chalice. The cup was lined with gold and has a gold rim richly adorned with pearls, a crystal, and gems held in oval and rectangular settings. An extraordinary addition to this frieze of gems is a white glass paste masculine head recalling the medieval practice of incorporating antique cameos in Christian metalwork. It clearly is not antique, however, and although its long nose and pointed chin seem foreign to the 11th century, the hair on the figure of Ferdinand I on the silver Arca (reliquary) at S Isidoro (...


Mark Jones

(b Mortagne, Orne, July 12, 1839; d Paris, July 13, 1909).

French medallist and sculptor. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1857; here he studied sculpture under François Jouffroy and medals under Eugène Oudiné. In 1863 he won the Prix de Rome for medal-engraving and worked in Rome from 1864 to 1868. He exhibited regularly at the Salon from 1863, receiving numerous awards. In 1881 his status as the leading French medallist was recognized by his election to the Académie des Beaux-Arts. His appointment as Art Director of the Sèvres Manufactory in 1896 and as a Commander of the Légion d’honneur in 1900 crowned a career that had been immensely successful in transforming the public perception of medallic art.

Chaplain changed public taste by moving away from the established tradition by which medallic portraits and reverse compositions emerged from a completely flat field bounded by a raised circular rim. Instead, using much lighter patinas than had been fashionable earlier in the 19th century, he incorporated the field into the composition, using it not as a neutral background but as the pictorial space in which event or portrait sitter was situated. By combining a rococo approach to the decorative qualities of clothing and drapery with a rigidly classical approach to composition, he evolved a style that was as suited to the commemoration of great state occasions, such as the ...


(b Paris, June 10, 1856; d Neuilly, Hauts-de-Seine, March 3, 1909).

French sculptor, medallist and designer. After studying with the medal engraver Hubert Ponscarmé, he first exhibited at the Salon of 1879. His first significant work, exhibited in 1883, was a bas-relief, Young Woman Suckling her Child; the final version of this, in marble, was later ordered by the State (Aix-en-Provence, Mus. Granet). This work contained most elements of the artist’s aesthetic—the choice of a familiar subject from life, treated in a natural and robust style, in the manner of Aimé-Jules Dalou. From the start Charpentier had a clear mastery of bas-relief, and his best work is in modelled reliefs—medals, small portrait medallions of great warmth and integrity (e.g. Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), mural decorations and works on a monumental scale, such as the frieze of The Bakers, modelled in 1889 and executed in 1897 in enamelled bricks by the firm of Muller (Paris, Square Scipion).

Charpentier exhibited with the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and later the Salon d’Automne, both in Paris, and from ...


Günter Irmscher




Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....


(b c. 1535; d Rome, burJune 1, 1615).

Flemish sculptor active in Italy. According to Baglione he trained with Guglielmo della Porta, under whose supervision he made a number of reliefs in wax and clay, which served as models for goldsmiths in Rome. His ivory carvings were also regularly used for this purpose. Cobaert’s production consists almost exclusively of small relief sculptures, usually made to decorate basins, ewers or platters. In most cases the objects were showpieces; for example an ivory ewer and basin in the Grünes Gewölbe, Dresden, decorated with elegantly designed scenes from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Another similar work is a magnificent ewer (820x770 mm) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, at the centre of which is a relief of the story of Romulus and Remus. Cobaert’s only statue—a marble St Matthew (Rome, Santa Trinità de’ Pellegrini) commissioned in 1587—remained unfinished.

Thieme–Becker G. Baglione: Vite (1642); ed. V. Mariani (1935), pp. 100–01 E. Marchal: La Sculpture et les chefs d’oeuvre de l’orfèvrerie belges...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Nottingham, 1966).

English photographer, sculptor and film maker. He studied at Trent Polytechnic (1985–6), and then at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1986–9), at which time he was included in the exhibition Freeze (London, Surrey Docks, 1988). For his first solo exhibition in 1990 (London, Riverside Studios), he created One Photo, Four Broads and a Stretcher (photograph on wood with broad light, 5.49×2.74 m, 1990; artist’s priv. col., see 1997 exh. cat., p. 44), comprising a colour photographic reproduction of Watteau’s L’Enseigne de Gersaint (1721; Berlin, Schloss Charlottenburg), greatly enlarged and cursorily attached to a wooden frame. By displaying a reproduction in this way, Collishaw highlights issues of representation, raised in the original painting through the juxtaposition of the false idyll of the fête galante, and the actualities of the art market. Much of Collishaw’s subsequent work makes historical and art-historical references that hinge around the broad theme of the interaction between nature and culture. ...


Mark Jones

(b Rochefort-sur-Mer, CharenteMaritime, April 23, 1907).

French sculptor and medallist. He trained in Paris under Robert Wlérick (1882–1944) at the Ecole des Arts Appliqués and also (1932–4) under Henry Dropsy (1885–1969) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1936 he won the Prix Blumenthal and in 1955 succeeded Dropsy as professor of medal engraving. Corbin’s medals include portraits of Léon-Paul Fargue (1948), Marcel Pagnol (1951), Léon Jouhaux (1951) and Colette (1952), as well as thematic pieces, such as Agriculture (1950), Construction (1955) and the Three Monetary Metals (1958). These medals were cast or reduced from models, but in the 1960s Corbin turned towards the revival of direct die cutting in works such as the Twentieth Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man (1968) and the Centenary of the Commune (1971). In ...


(b Paris, Feb 21, 1865; d 1932).

French medallist. He trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Gabriel-Jules Thomas, Henri-Emile Allouard (1844–1929) and Hubert Ponscarme, winning the Prix de Rome for medal engraving in 1893. His Orpheus at the Entrance to the Underworld, struck for the Exposition Universelle of 1900, was immensely popular and is to this day one of the best known of French ...


Andrea S. Norris

(b Rome, c. 1465; d Loreto, May 31, 1512).

Italian sculptor and medallist. He was the son of Isaia da Pisa. Some scholars have followed Vasari in suggesting that he was trained by his father or by Paolo Romano, but Isaia stopped work and Paolo died too early to have had any significant influence on him. It is likely that he studied with Andrea Bregno, who worked in Rome from 1446 to 1506. He may have been in Urbino before 1482, working at the Palazzo Ducale with the Lombard master Ambrogio d’Antonio Barocci. Several doorframes in the palazzo have been attributed to him. He then probably went to the Este court at Ferrara. In 1490 he carved a portrait bust of Beatrice d’Este (Paris, Louvre), the daughter of Ercole I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, for her betrothal to Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. The attribution of this bust derives from a letter of 12 June 1491 from Isabella d’Este, requesting that Ludovico send Gian Cristoforo, who had done Beatrice’s portrait, to Mantua to work for her. The bust is inscribed with the imprese of a sieve surrounded by a diamond ring. The sieve was a symbol of Ludovico, the diamond of Ercole; entwined they suggest marriage and the hope of fertility. This bust is the sculpture most securely attributed to Gian Cristoforo and, with his medals, provides the basis for the assessment of his style....


Philip Attwood

[Crocker, Johann]

(b Dresden, Oct 21, 1670; d London, March 21, 1741).

British medallist of German birth. Trained as a jeweller, he arrived in England in 1691 and learnt the art of die-engraving. He became assistant engraver at the Royal Mint, London, in 1697, the year in which he executed a silver and bronze medal for William III symbolizing the State of Britain after the Peace of Ryswick (see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, pp. 192, 499). Such medals as those commemorating the accession and the coronation (both gold, silver and bronze, 1702; see hfg, ii, pp. 227–8) of Queen Anne, together with the medal celebrating the Battle of Blenheim (silver and bronze, 1704; see hfg, p. 256), ensured that he was given the post of Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint when it became vacant in 1705. For the next 30 years he produced single-handedly most of the British official medals, as well as engraving the dies for the coinage of Queen Anne, George I and the first issue of George II. He also modelled a large cast medallic portrait of ...


Kristen Lippincott

[Baldassare da Reggio]

(b Reggio Emilia, bapt June 20, 1432; d after Jan 29, 1506).

Italian painter and medallist . He was brought up as the adopted son of a certain Giovanni Bonayti, but a document of 1489 records him as the (illegitimate) son of Niccolò III d’Este, Marquis of Ferrara. In most documents, however, he is called ‘Baldassare da Reggio’.

Baldassare is first recorded as a painter in a document of 16 January 1461 from the Visconti Sforza ducal registers in Milan, in which he is given permission to travel for two years. This suggests that he had been working for the Dukes of Milan for some time. In 1466, he was paid two lire for an altarpiece for the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan. In February 1469 he painted portraits of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and his wife, Bona of Savoy, in the ducal castle at Pavia.

In late September 1469, with high recommendations from Galeazzo Maria (in a letter of 5 June 1469...


(b Montepulciano, c. 1425; d Florence, bur Jan 15, 1485).

Italian sculptor and bronze caster. His date of birth is calculated from the catasto (land registry declaration) returns of 1457 and 1480 (that of 1470 erroneously implies that he was born in 1428). In August 1435 he matriculated into the Arte dei Maestri di Pietra e di Legname. In 1445 he collaborated with Antonio Filarete on the bronze doors of St Peter’s, Rome; Filarete stated in his Trattato d’architettura that he trained Pasquino. From 1449 Pasquino was working as Maso di Bartolommeo’s assistant, and on behalf of his master he completed the portal of S Domenico, Urbino, from 1450 to 1454. On 12 June 1453 he was elected choirmaster to the clerics of Florence Cathedral. In 1460 he began working on the bronze screen and gates of the chapel of the Sacro Cingolo in Prato Cathedral, a commission originally given to Maso di Bartolommeo and then to Antonio di ser Cola. Maso was responsible for the overall design, and both he and Antonio di ser Cola executed some of the delicate, openwork screen; Pasquino may have been responsible for the classicizing acanthus-leaf frieze. On ...


Hermann Maué

(b Strasbourg, March 6, 1586; d Hamburg, July 6, 1657).

German goldsmith and medallist. He trained as a goldsmith in France, then settled in Augsburg in 1610 and subsequently in Vienna in 1612, receiving the title of Imperial Court Goldsmith. In 1619 he was back in Augsburg; c. 1621 he entered the service of John-George I, Elector of Saxony, producing several very fine silver repoussé reliefs to his commission. However, Dadler demonstrated his greatest skill in the medals that he first produced after 1623, while in the Elector’s service in Dresden, for example John-George I and Magdalen Sibylla (1630). Around 1632 he returned to Augsburg and then Hamburg, settling in Danzig (now Gdańsk) in 1634. From 1648 he was in Hamburg again, remaining there until his death. Dadler’s medals, often in large format, are characterized by powerful relief, with a strong plastic effect of a kind seldom found in the work of any other German medallist of the 17th century. As well as portrait medals, among which are several of Gustav II Adolf of Sweden, such as ...