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J. Gray Sweeney

(b Springfield Township, NJ, Aug 21, 1796; d Maplewood, NJ, Sept 17, 1886).

American painter and engraver. Durand has long been considered a key figure of the Hudson River school of American landscape painting. Durand was born into a working-class family, the eighth of eleven children, in Maplewood, NJ (then called Jefferson Village), and died in his father’s house at age 90. His father was a watchmaker and silversmith, and in 1812 Durand was apprenticed to the engraver Peter Rushton Maverick. Durand achieved his first success by engraving John Trumbull’s Declaration of Independence (1823), and he engraved Ariadne (1835) after John Vanderlyn’s painting (1812). He also was commissioned to engrave banknotes. In 1825 he played an important role in organizing the New York Drawing Association, which eventually became the National Academy of Design. He remained active in the Academy’s affairs throughout his career. Durand first began painting in the 1830s, producing portraits of leading historical and literary figures. In ...


Carolyn Kinder Carr

[Decker, Francis]

(b Covington, KY, Oct 9, 1848; d Cincinnati, OH, Jan 3, 1919).

American painter, sculptor, etcher, and teacher. The eldest son of German immigrants Bernard and Katherine Decker, Duveneck assumed his stepfather’s name after his father’s death and his mother’s remarriage in 1850. He received his early art training in Cincinnati as an apprentice to Johann Schmitt (1825–98) and Wilhelm Lamprecht (1838–1922), decorators of Benedictine churches and monasteries. In 1870 he went to Munich to study at the Königliche Akademie, where he was taught by Wilhelm Diez (1839–1907), among others. The school stressed the study of Old Master painters such as Velázquez and Hals and emphasized bravura brushwork. Duveneck was an adept pupil. His realistic portraits of the 1870s, such as Professor Ludwig von Löfftz (c. 1873; Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.), show the sitter placed against a dark background, the face and hands bathed in an intense light and modelled with thick, broad, fleshy brushstrokes....


Margaret Moore Booker

(b Cincinnati, OH, Jan 31, 1875; d Sellersville, PA, Sept 4, 1955).

American printmaker and illustrator. Among the pioneer generation of women printmakers in America, she was known for her humorous satires of the American scene. Raised in New Orleans, she moved to San Francisco where she studied art at the Hopkins Institute (c. 1896–7) and joined the Sketch Club (a professional organization that offered exhibition and collaboration opportunities for women).

By 1903 she had settled in Greenwich Village. Three years later she married the painter and etcher Eugene Higgins (1874–1958), and set aside her career. When the marriage ended 11 years later, she became a secretary of the Whitney Studio Club (where she attended evening sketch sessions), shed her married name and traveled abroad. During a trip to Paris in 1926–7, she discovered the medium that suited her artistic temperament: lithography, and studied the technique with Edouard Dûchatel (fl 1880s–1930s) in Paris.

After returning to New York, in ...


Mark W. Sullivan

(b Long Beach, CA, Nov 4, 1944).

American painter and printmaker. Eddy studied at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu (BFA, 1967, MFA, 1969) and came to prominence in the early 1970s as an exponent of Photorealism, producing airbrushed paintings based on photographs of automobiles (e.g. Untitled, 1971; Aachen, Neue Gal.), the displays in shop windows or still-lifes, as in New Shoes for H (1973; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). He treated similar subjects in screenprints and in colour lithographs such as Red Mercedes (1972; see 1973 exh. cat., p. 35). Rather than basing a painting or print on a single photograph, as was the case with other photorealists, Eddy would work from as many as 40 photographs to ensure a consistently sharp focus for his often spatially complex images.

From the 1980s Eddy’s focus shifted away from photorealism towards metaphysics, with images placed in porteic relationships to one another; describing his art as ‘echoing ecosystems’....


Malcolm Gee

(b Brühl, nr Cologne, April 2, 1891; d Paris, April 1, 1976).

German painter, printmaker, and sculptor, naturalized American in 1948 and French in 1958. He was a major contributor to the theory and practice of Surrealism (see Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924). His work challenged and disrupted what he considered to be repressive aspects of European culture, in particular Christian doctrine, conventional morality, and the aesthetic codes of Western academic art. Until the mid-1920s he was little known outside a small circle of artists and writers in Cologne and Paris, but he became increasingly successful from c. 1928 onwards. After 1945 he was respected and honoured as a surviving representative of a ‘heroic’ generation of avant-garde artists.


Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...


Cynthia Haveson Veloric

(Pablo Ramón )

(b San Juan, 1933).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, and jazz percussionist of Puerto Rican birth. Ferrer was born into a financially stable household where ‘there were problems which had to do with family turmoil of a psychological kind’ (interview with C. H. Veloric, 1990). His strict upbringing merged with an awareness of leftist politics gained from exiles from the Spanish Civil War who lived at his grandmother’s house. Fleeing Catholic school, he attended Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, where he learnt to play the drums. At Syracuse University he rejected formal classes, preferring the company of musicians and artists. He became the leader of a Latin band while simultaneously painting on his own. His frustrations and inclinations were supported by his half-brother, the actor José Ferrer (1912–92).

In 1952 he entered the University of Puerto Rico where he took painting classes with the exiled Spanish painter and writer Eugenio Granell (...


Sandra Paikowsky

(b ?London, c. 1769; d Kingston, Jamaica, Aug 9, 1819).

English painter and engraver, active in North America. He studied drawing at the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1790. His three documented British mezzotint portraits after others’ originals include that of John Lewis (c. 1793; London, Richmond Pub. Lib.). In 1794 he moved to the USA as part of the influx of British artists. Field spent 14 years working as a successful miniaturist in Baltimore, MD, Philadelphia, PA, Washington, DC, and Boston, MA. He was patronized by, among others, George and Martha Washington and several signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Field’s works combined the painterly Georgian manner with the pragmatic, linear style of traditional American portraiture.

In 1808 he left the USA for Halifax, NS, a city then enjoying great affluence as a British military base. While known only as a miniaturist in America, Field produced more than 50 major oil portraits, such as Bishop Charles Inglis (...


Marco Livingstone

(b New York, March 9, 1948).

American painter, draughtsman and printmaker. After completing his BFA at the California Institute of Arts in Valencia, CA, in 1972, he taught from 1974 to 1978 at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design in Halifax, NS. In 1978 he returned to New York and began to produce paintings in a naturalistic style of uncomfortably intimate scenes of middle-class suburban existence and burgeoning sexuality, as in Master Bedroom (1983; Los Angeles, CA, Mus. Contemp. A.), in which a nearly naked girl in hair-curlers kneels on a double bed with her arms around a large dog. By depicting the figures larger than life, he placed the viewer in the role of a child, exaggerating the psychological force of the situations by presenting them as if retrieved from memory. The historical lineage proposed by critics for the bravura technique of these works includes the paintings of Manet, Balthus and Edward Hopper, but the clear reliance on photography suggests a debt to the Photorealism of the 1960s. Perhaps to counter the misapprehension of his pictures as Neo-Expressionist, in the mid-1980s Fischl exaggerated their formal quality by fragmenting the image on to a series of separate panels overlapping at different angles, as in ...


Sharon Matt Atkins

(b Boston, MA, May 18, 1938).

American painter and printmaker. Fish was born into a family of artists; her grandfather, Clark Voorhees (1871–1933), was an American Tonalist painter, her uncle, Clark Voorhees (same name as grandfather) a sculptor, her father, Peter Stuyvesant Fish, an art history professor and her mother, Florence Whistler Fish, a sculptor and potter. She studied at Smith College in Northampton, MA, where she received a BA in 1960. She spent the summer of 1961 at the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine. She earned a BFA and an MFA from Yale University School of Art and Architecture in 1963, the latter of which was one of the first to be awarded to a woman. At Yale she trained with Alex Katz and Philip Pearlstein, and her fellow classmates included Chuck Close, Nancy Graves, Richard Serra and Brice Marden. She had her first solo exhibitions in 1968 at the Art Gallery of Fairleigh Dickinson University in Madison, NJ, and at the artist co-operative, Our Gallery, in New York....


Marco Livingstone

(b New York, May 6, 1947; d London, Sept 19, 1994).

American painter, draughtsman and printmaker. She spent her childhood in Florida and California, and after training at the Chinouard Art School in Los Angeles remained in the city to work as assistant to Ken Tyler at the Gemini print workshop. In 1971 she moved to London, where she was reintroduced by David Hockney to a fellow American painter, R.B. Kitaj, whom she had met while still working at Gemini and whom she married in December 1983 after having lived with him for more than a decade. It was with her encouragement that Kitaj began to use pastels and embarked on a course of life drawing that decisively changed the course of his art.

Fisher’s small realist paintings, mostly concentrating on figure studies and intimate scenes painted or drawn directly from life, were indebted to 19th-century models, especially Impressionism. In their vigorous brushwork and high-keyed, emotive colour they also revealed affinities with the work of late 20th-century American realists such as Fairfield Porter. The sensuality and overt eroticism of her nudes gave an edge to pictures that might otherwise have seemed merely pretty. One of her larger canvases, ...


W. Jackson Rushing III

(b Sacramento, CA, Jan 5, 1946; d Santa Fe, NM, Dec 28, 2006).

Native American painter, printmaker and sculptor of Maidu, Hawaiian and Portuguese ancestry. Raised in Northern California, Fonseca studied at Sacramento City College and at California State University at Sacramento with Wintu artist Frank LaPena (b 1937). A leading figure in the national network of contemporary native artists that formed in the early to mid-1970s, Fonseca received the Best of Show Award in the Indian Art Now exhibition at the Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian, Sante Fe, NM, in 1979. Many honors followed, including the Allan Houser Memorial Award and an Eiteljorg Museum Fellowship for Native American Fine Art, both in 2005. Inspired by mythology, pictography and modernism, he explored oral history, media imagery and popular culture through figuration and abstraction.

Fonseca’s earliest imagery transformed indigenous designs and material culture. His Maidu Creation Story (1977) was the first of several treatments (1991, 2006) of subject matter based on the teachings of his uncle, Henry Azbill. The quiet, folkish elegance and pristine primitivism of his drawings for the anthology ...


(b Sainte-Rose, nr Quebec, March 14, 1888; d Abitibi, Quebec, March 2, 1970).

Canadian painter and etcher. From 1904 to 1908 he studied at the Ecole du Plateau in Montreal under the Canadian painter Ludger Larose and he also attended evening classes run by Larose and the Canadian painter Edmond Dyonnet (1859–1954) at the Monument National. He later studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and also in New York and Boston, working under Edmund C. Tarbell, Edward J. Finley Timmons (b 1882), John H. Vanderpoel and John White Alexander. Returning to Canada in 1914 he produced works influenced by the Barbizon school, such as Line of the Côte Croche at Sainte-Rose (c. 1915; Rouyn, Mr and Mrs J. P. Bonneville priv. col., see 1964 exh. cat., pl. 2).

From about 1920 to 1935, Fortin concentrated on landscapes and townscapes. Together with Adrien Hébert and others he was a member of the radical Montreal group of artists and writers, ...


David Tatham

(bapt Dorchester, MA, Dec 10, 1648; d Dorchester, Sept 9, 1681).

American printer and printmaker. He was the son of early settlers in Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard College in 1667; he then taught in Dorchester (now South Boston) and about 1670 began making the earliest pictorial woodcuts in English-speaking North America. In 1675 he became the first letterpress printer in Boston and the second in New England. Foster’s woodcut Richard Mather (c. 1670; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) is among the earliest of American portraits and perhaps the first in any medium by an artist born in English-speaking America. His Map of New-England, ‘White Hills’ version (1677; Boston, MA Hist. Soc.), which he adapted from a manuscript source (untraced), was the first map to be cut, printed and published north of Mexico. Despite their primitive quality, Foster’s prints are strongly designed and show a keen awareness of Baroque style in the graphic arts. In addition to his work as a printer and printmaker, Foster took an interest in medicine, music, astronomy, meteorology, mathematics and possibly painting....


Anna Moszynska

(b San Mateo, CA, June 25, 1923; d Santa Monica, CA, Nov 4, 1994).

American painter and printmaker. Following an accident leading to spinal tuberculosis while serving in the US Army Air Corps, he started to paint for distraction in 1944, studying privately under David Park in 1947. He subsequently relinquished his earlier medical studies in favour of painting, completing his BA (1949) and MA (1950) at the University of California at Berkeley. During this period he experimented with different styles of painting, notably Surrealism and the Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and particularly Clyfford Still. His own style emerged in 1949–50; in Opposites (1950; Tokyo, Idemitsu Mus. A.), for example, dripping, corpuscular shapes painted in fluid red circulate freely around the canvas, indicating what was to become a perennial concern with ‘ceaseless instability’. With its sensitivity to sensuous colour and light, Francis’s work was already showing very different concerns from the expressive iconography and energy of many of the Abstract Expressionists....


Anna Moszynska

(b San Mateo, CA, June 25, 1923; d Santa Monica, CA, Nov 4, 1994).

American painter and printmaker. Following an accident leading to spinal tuberculosis while serving in the US Army Air Corps, Francis started to paint for distraction in 1944, studying privately under David Park in 1947. He subsequently relinquished his earlier medical studies in favor of painting, completing his BA (1949) and MA (1950) at the University of California at Berkeley. During this period he experimented with different styles of painting, notably Surrealism and the Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and particularly Clyfford Still. His own style emerged in 1949–50; in Opposites (1950; Tokyo, Idemitsu Mus. A.), for example, dripping, corpuscular shapes painted in fluid red circulate freely around the canvas, indicating what was to become a perennial concern with “ceaseless instability.” With its sensitivity to sensuous color and light, Francis’s work was already showing very different concerns from the expressive iconography and energy of many of the Abstract Expressionists....


Christopher Brookeman

(b New York, Dec 12, 1928; d Darien, CT, Dec 27, 2011).

American painter and printmaker. Frankenthaler studied with Rufino Tamayo while at Dalton School, New York, with Paul Feeley (1910–66) at Bennington College, VT (1946–9), and privately with Wallace Harrison in 1949 and Hans Hofmann in 1950. In that year she met Clement Greenberg, David Smith, Jackson Pollock, Lee Krasner, Willem de Kooning and others. Like several of the exponents of Abstract Expressionism she was concerned with the forms and energies latent in nature. In the mythology of technical breakthrough that was part of the culture of the New York School, her work Mountains and Sea (1952; artist’s col.) has an established place. Extending Pollock’s method of painting on unprimed canvases on the floor, she allowed thinner pigments to soak directly into the canvas. This created a closer relationship between image and surface, the weave of the raw canvas being visible within the painted image. At the same time the visibility of the canvas beneath the painted surface negated the sense of illusion and depth. It was a device that called attention to both the material and the nature of the medium. The technique also generated a new range of liquid-like atmospheric effects reminiscent of the watercolours of John Marin. Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland, the leading figures of a group sometimes known as the ...


Alexandra Pel


(b Montreal, Nov 8, 1881; d Montreal, Jan 5, 1942).

Canadian painter, printmaker and illustrator. His mother fostered his early talent for drawing and painting, and despite his father’s wishes that he enter business he studied drawing and painting under William Brymner at the Art Association of Montreal (1897–1900). Through the patronage of the Montreal businessman and collector James Morgan, he was able to travel to Europe, studying from 1903 to 1905 at the Académie Julian, Paris, under Jean-Paul Laurens. Gagnon returned to Canada in 1909, settling in Baie-Saint-Paul (near Montreal), which became his preferred sketching area. His affection for French-Canadian life is evident in his anecdotal series of depictions of habitant life, a theme to which he returned throughout his career (e.g. Horse Racing in Winter, Quebec, c. 1927; Toronto, A.G. Ont.). He became an associate of the Royal Canadian Academy in 1910 and a full member in 1922. From 1911 to 1914 he moved between Canada, France and Norway, always working up sketches he had done in Quebec. He ground his own paints, and from ...


(b Montreal, 1934; d Sept 8, 2000).

Canadian painter and printmaker. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal in 1954 and was expelled in 1956 for insubordination. In 1957 he had his first one-man show of paintings and prints at the Galerie l’Echange in Montreal. That year he began studying printmaking under Albert Dumouchel, again at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal, where he remained until 1960. In 1959 he won the graphics award at the Salon de la Jeune Peinture in Montreal and until 1964 he devoted himself entirely to printmaking. In 1962 he travelled around Europe and visited Paris, where he was greatly impressed by a concert of Anton Webern’s music. This provided the stimulus for the series of three relief prints with rectilinear forms, In Homage to Webern (1963; see 1979 exh. cat., pls 1–3), in which Gaucher believed he reached his artistic maturity.

Gaucher resumed painting in 1964, having thoroughly absorbed the work of Rothko, Morris Louis, Barnett Newman and other contemporary American artists. Until ...


Margaret Lynne Ausfeld

(b Montgomery, AL, June 28, 1869; d New York, NY, Jan 29, 1944).

American painter, printmaker, and teacher. In the New York art world of the 1920s and 1930s, Goldthwaite was recognized as an important painter and printmaker of subjects relating to the American South. Although she routinely returned to visit her native state of Alabama, between 1914 and 1944 her primary residence was New York City where her painted portraits, still lifes, and Southern landscapes, as well as limited edition etchings and lithographs, were exhibited in commercial galleries and museums. She received her first formal art training at the National Academy of Design between 1903 and 1906 from instructors including Francis Coates Jones (1857–1932) for painting and Charles Frederick Mielatz (1864–1919) for etching. She also received instruction from the Munich-trained painter, Walter Shirlaw. She traveled to Paris in 1906 where she helped to create an informal atelier, the Académie Moderne. With this group she worked largely independent of the academy system, but occasionally she worked under the supervision French academic painter Charles Guérin. Her gestural and spontaneous style of painting and drawing was strongly influenced by her years in Paris, specifically through her exposure to the milieu of Gertrude Stein, and works of Post-Impressionist painters such as Paul Cézanne and Henri Matisse....