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Hannelore Hägele

(b Geisslingen, Feb 7, 1742; d Durlach, 1811).

German medallist and engraver. In 1768 he began his career in Augsburg, where he exhibited medals of the municipal curators Langenmantel and Amman and of Paul von Stetten. He later went to Karlsruhe, where he became court medallist and die-engraver; he also worked in Durlach. Stylistically, his medals, often initialled j.m.b., closely resemble those of Franz Andreas Schega and Johann Karl Hedlinger. Portrait medals of Charles V, Duke of Württemberg and Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden were Bückle’s best works. He also executed the commemorative medal of Count Demetrius Galitzin (1793) and a silver medal (1773; Domanig, no. 771) depicting a hunting scene, awarded as a prize by the School of Forestry and Hunting Science. His pupil J. H. Boltschhauser became a medal engraver to the Mannheim court.

H. Bolzenthal: Skizzen zur Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen-Arbeit (1429–1840) (Berlin, 1840) K. Domanig: Die deutsche Medaille in kunst- und kulturhistorischer Hinsicht...


Christina Frehner-Bühler

(b Langnau, Nov 30, 1713; d Zurich, March 31, 1793).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He spent an unproductive period of training with the engraver Melchior Füssli (1677–1736) and from 1729 served a three-year apprenticeship with the painter Johann Simmler (1693–1748). Bullinger travelled in northern Italy and from 1733 to 1735 was a pupil of Giambattista Tiepolo in Venice. He returned to Zurich in 1735, then from 1736 to 1737 travelled on foot through Solothurn, Neuenburg and Berne, painting landscapes and portraits. In 1738 he went to Düsseldorf, then began three years of study in Amsterdam. In 1742 he settled in Zurich, where he painted interiors and began etching. In 1756 he published a collection of landscapes after Johann Franz Ermels (1641–93), the landscape painter Felix Meyer (1653–1713) and his own drawings, and in 1770 a similar collection of 100 Schweizer Prospekten. Bullinger’s work became known in Paris through the engraver and collector Jean-Georges Wille. Bullinger’s landscapes, unlike those of his Swiss contemporaries, were based on German Baroque models; they were studio pieces of fantastical composition, which did not aim to reflect observed reality. The compositions are clearly divided into foreground, middle ground and background and are assembled from props—rocks, trees, clouds, figure and animal groups—like stage sets. In ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...


David Alexander

(b Dublin, 1749; d London, Dec 31, 1815).

Irish engraver, active in England. He first trained, according to Carey, in the Dublin Society’s Schools under Robert West, moving c. 1770 to London, where he studied mezzotint-engraving under John Dixon. Most of Burke’s mezzotints were engraved after Angelica Kauffman for William Wynne Ryland, although other examples included a mezzotint in 1773 of the racehorse Eclipse after George Stubbs for the publisher Robert Sayer. Burke presumably learnt stipple-engraving from Ryland, and in 1775 he gave up mezzotint for this newer technique, engraving many fine plates for Ryland after Kauffman, who according to an obituary of Burke in New Monthly Magazine had ‘always preferred him to engrave her designs’. Francesco Bartolozzi is said to have praised proofs of these prints in terms of the ‘mellowness, delicacy, power and richness of their effect’ (Carey). Burke’s Lady Rushout (O’Donoghue, ii) after Kauffman, published by William Dickinson in 1784, is one of his finest prints. ...


P. Knolle

(bapt Amsterdam, Nov 19, 1724; d Amsterdam, April 7, 1801).

Dutch draughtsman, painter and printmaker. He was the son of a wig-maker. Up to the age of 19 he worked for a solicitor. Both his employer’s son and the poet and collector Sybrand Feitama encouraged him to take lessons with Cornelis Pronk and at the Amsterdam Drawing Academy. He studied, among other things, Jacob de Wit’s work and, after further training with Cornelis Troost, established himself as an independent artist in 1745, enrolling in Amsterdam’s Guild of St Luke in 1750. Initially he made pastel portraits and painted theatre scenery, from 1755 to 1760 living in Mijdrecht. During the 1770s he began to work on book illustration, the field in which he became famous. He illustrated Martinus Stuart’s Romeinse geschiedenissen (‘Roman histories’; 17 vols, Amsterdam, 1793–1810), J. Kok’s Vaderlandsch woordenboek (‘Dictionary of the national language’; 35 vols, Amsterdam, 1785–96) and the work of numerous other Dutch writers. His drawings were engraved by ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...


[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...


Alice Binion and Lin Barton

[Canal, Giovanni Antonio ]

(b Venice, Oct 17, 1697; d Venice, April 10, 1768).

Italian painter, etcher, and draughtsman. He was the most distinguished Italian view painter of the 18th century. Apart from ten years spent in England he lived in Venice, and his fame rests above all on his views (vedute) of that city; some of these are purely topographical, others include festivals or ceremonial events. He also painted imaginary views (capriccios), although the demarcation between the real and the invented is never quite clearcut: his imaginary views often include realistically depicted elements, though in unexpected surroundings, and in a sense even his Venetian vedute are imaginary. He never merely re-created reality. He was highly successful with the English, helped in this by the British connoisseur Consul Smith, Joseph, whose own large collection of Canaletto’s works was sold to King George III in 1762. The British Royal Collection has the largest group of his paintings and drawings.

His father, Bernardo Canal (...


David Alexander


(b Brussels, May 15, 1772; d London, April 16, 1813).

Flemish engraver and print publisher, active in London. The son of Antoine Alexandre Joseph Cardon (1739–1822), a painter and engraver in Brussels, he was persuaded by the troubled times to go to London in 1792. He entered the Royal Academy Schools on 3 November 1792 and was engaged by Paul Colnaghi to engrave, under the direction of Luigi Schiavonetti, three of the Cries of London after Francis Wheatley in 1794–6. Cardon was an enterprising man, soon establishing himself as an independent publisher. He took advantage of the peace of 1801, in that year engraving and publishing in Paris and London Joseph Boze’s painting of The First Consul and General Berthier at the Battle of Marengo (untraced) jointly with the painter. He was known to Joseph Farington, who noted some of his activities, such as his purchase of two paintings by Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg for engraving (4 March 1805...


Hélène Guicharnaud

(b Paris, Feb 25, 1734; d Paris, March 1, 1796).

French painter, engraver and illustrator. He was the son of the painter Claude-François Caresme (b 1709) and studied with his cousin Charles-Antoine Coypel. In 1753 he was a pupil at the Académie Royale, where in 1761 he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition with Judith and Holofernes (untraced). Following his acceptance by the Académie in 1766, he was able to exhibit regularly at the Salon until his expulsion in 1778. In 1768 he received a commission for a Presentation of the Virgin, one of a group of three paintings destined for Bayonne Cathedral, where it still remains. The following year Caresme showed an oil sketch for the picture at the Salon. Shortly after this he was one of a number of painters selected to work at the Petit Trianon, Versailles, where he was commissioned to produce two overdoors for the antechamber: Myrrha Changed into Myrrh...


(b Udine, Jan 20, 1663; d Venice, Feb 12, 1730).

Italian painter, engraver and architect. ‘The first of any note who painted views of Venice’ was how he was described in 1789 by John Strange (sale catalogue, London, 10 Dec), the British Resident in Venice from 1773. Although Carlevaris was more than simply a view painter, much of his work was certainly in the genre later made popular by Canaletto and Francesco Guardi (see also Veduta). Carlevaris’s artistic inclinations were probably inherited from his father, a painter and designer who died when his son was very young. In 1679 Carlevaris moved to Venice and was discovered by the Zenobio family, whose palace was near where he lived. He is said to have made a trip to Rome, from which he returned to Venice in 1698, and while there must have become aware of view paintings and capricci by artists such as Gaspar van Wittel (Vanvitelli). On his return he established himself by painting similar works (e.g. ...


Véronique Meyer

(b Lyon, May 28, 1699; d Paris, April 14, 1771).

French printmaker, print publisher and print-seller. Early in his life his family removed to Paris. His father, Jean-François Cars (1661–1730), an engraver and publisher, was his first teacher. He next studied painting under Joseph Christophe (1662–1748) and François Lemoyne and then completed his studies in engraving under Nicolas-Henry Tardieu. In 1729 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale and on 31 December 1733 was received (reçu), on presentation of the engraved portraits of Michel Anguier after Gabriel Revel and of Sébastien Bourdon after Hyacinthe Rigaud. From 1750 he gradually abandoned engraving in favour of print-selling, particularly those of his father’s collection. In 1757 he was appointed a Conseiller. His work included nearly 190 prints; he engraved portraits, historical and mythological subjects after Lemoyne, such as Hercules and Omphale and the Bath of Iris, and genre subjects after Watteau, such as Figures de différents caractères...


Joshua Drapkin

(b Azay-le-Ferron, Indre, June 3, 1756; d Versailles, Nov 1, 1827).

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the Ruins of the Baths of Titus Seen from the Colosseum (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1782 a group of amateurs, under the patronage of Emperor Joseph II, commissioned from him a series of views of the Istrian and Dalmatian coast; these were eventually published in J. Lavallée’s Voyage pittoresque et historique de l’Istrie et de la Dalmatie. After a brief spell in France, Cassas followed Marie-Gabriel, Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, to his new ambassadorial post in Constantinople in 1784. He subsequently visited Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and Asia Minor, recording his impressions of Alexandria, Cairo, Smyrna, the Temple of Diana (Artemis) at Ephesos and the Palmyra and Baalbek ruins. Many of the 250 drawings dating from this trip were of hitherto unrecorded sights. With Choiseul’s assistance Cassas published these works in the ...


Amy Meyers

(b Castle Hedingham, Essex, March 24, 1682; d London, Dec 23, 1749).

English naturalist, painter and graphic artist active in the American colonies. His scientific expeditions to the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean (1712–19 and 1722–6) resulted in the first fully illustrated survey of the flora and fauna of the British Colonies in the Americas. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1731–47) contains 220 hand-coloured etchings. Catesby received lessons in etching from Joseph Goupy and executed most of the plates after his own drawings in graphite, gouache and watercolour. He also produced several plates after drawings by John White, Georg Dionysius Ehret, Everhard Kick and Claude Aubriet.

Catesby moved against the 18th-century trend in the natural sciences to portray Creation as a neatly ordered hierarchy of clearly definable parts. His pictures helped to promote a revolutionary view of the cosmos as a complex system of interdependent elements and forces. Instead of depicting organisms in the conventional manner as isolated specimens against an empty page, he produced tight compositional arrangements in which animals and plants from similar environments reflect one another’s forms. Catesby’s radical images of an integrated cosmos influenced eminent English and American naturalists, including George Edwards (...


Dario Succi

(b Venice, c. 1715; d Venice, c. 1800).

Italian engraver. From c. 1730 he was active in his workshop in S Giacomo dell’Orio, Venice. Trained in the school of Gianantonio Faldoni, he was also influenced by the refined technique of parallel engraved lines of varying thicknesses used by Marco Alvise Pitteri, which he combined with traditional crosshatching. As a reproductive engraver, he was never able to overcome the limitations of a rigid and rather facile manner. His technical ability is best expressed in his engravings after drawn portraits by Giovanni Battista Piazzetta: Joannis Baptistae Piazzetta icones ad vivum expressae, published by Pasquali in 1743 on behalf of Consul Joseph Smith, who possessed the originals (Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Lib.; see Vivian). There were 15 plates preceded by a Self-portrait of Piazzetta.

Cattini engraved various other portraits, including that of Paolo Sarpi (1552–1623; after Tiberio Tinelli), Francesco Zuccarelli (after Giuseppe Nogari), Giambattista Tiepolo and Pietro Longhi (both after ...


Danielle Rice

[Tubières de Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, Anne-Claude-Philippe de]

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1692; d Paris, Sept 5, 1765).

French amateur engraver, antiquarian, patron and writer. Born into an old aristocratic family, he enjoyed all of the privileges of his class, including a large private income, free time, access to artists and collectors, and mobility. He entered the army and distinguished himself in battle at an early age. In 1714 he spent a year in Italy, where he developed a lifelong passion for the arts, especially for antiquities. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, Caylus resigned his military post and shortly thereafter undertook a hazardous journey to Turkey. In pursuit of ancient sites rarely seen by European eyes at this time, he negotiated with the local bandit chieftain for safe passage to the ruins of Ephesos and Colophon.

In 1719 Caylus settled in Paris, where he remained with the exception of a brief trip to Holland and England in 1722. He began frequenting the weekly gatherings held by Pierre Crozat, a wealthy financier and collector. Crozat’s circle included many important artists as well as connoisseurs and aestheticians who met to study his extensive collection of Old Master paintings and drawings and to debate theories of art. In this lively company, Caylus developed his eye and learnt etching and engraving from the artist ...


Stephen Deuchar

(b ?London, 1770; d London, Aug 15, 1849).

English painter and lithographer. He was the son of a Dutch émigré engraver, Jan Chalon (1749–95). After studying at the Royal Academy Schools, London, the younger Chalon began to specialize in sporting and animal painting and was appointed Animal Painter to Frederica, Duchess of York, in 1795; he later fulfilled the same modest function for both Prince Regent—later King George IV (reg 1820–30)—and King William IV (reg 1830–37). Such influential patronage partly ensured his employment by several other socially prominent sporting enthusiasts; he was nonetheless unable to make his mark in the London art world and, despite exhibiting extensively at the Royal Academy, failed to become ARA. He worked during a period of marked reaction against the grave and measured style of George Stubbs, yet constantly sought to emulate him. At their best, Chalon’s paintings compare favourably with Stubbs’s less careful works; at its worst, his art is a grim pastiche of a range of undistinguished late 18th-century sporting pictures. Chalon drew lithographs for ...