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(b Nuremberg, bapt Oct 6, 1567; d Nuremberg, 1631 or later).

German goldsmith, engraver and medallist. The son of the goldsmith Paul Flindt I (fl 1567; d 1582), he became a master in Nuremberg in 1601, after a lengthy stay in Vienna. A variant of his pf monogram was pvn, for Paul Vlindt Norimbergensis. Apart from a few lead plaques, only one securely attributable piece of his goldsmith work is known, an embossed oval gold-plated silver tray with figural motifs (1606; Moscow, Patriarch’s Pal.). Although he maintained only a small workshop, Flindt exercised a major influence on the development of ornament in the goldsmith work of his time, especially through his serial engravings (over 200 sheets; 1592–1618; see 1985 exh. cat., nos 409–24, 461, 463–6) of all sorts of ornate pieces, garnished with ribbon- and band-ornament and rich figurative centres. These delicately shadowed, plastically modelled sheets, with their Mannerist motifs, created under the influence of Wenzel Jamnitzer, Jost Amman, Hendrick Goltzius and others, were taken by many goldsmiths as ‘classical’ models for their own work. It has been claimed that Flindt invented the embossing technique of copper-engraving, but this had already been practised before him, in Augsburg....

Article

(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...

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Robin A. Branstator and Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

[Fondulo]

Italian family of artists. (1) Giovanni Paulo Fonduli was probably the son of Fondulino de Fonduliis (fl c. 1444–9), a goldsmith and sculptor whose family had long-established ties with the district of Crema. Giovanni’s brother Bartolomeo Fonduli (fl Vicenza, 1471– 1505) also practised as a goldsmith. (2) Agostino Fonduli, son of Giovanni, was an architect as well as a sculptor, working throughout Lombardy and collaborating with Bramante in Milan.

Robin A. Branstator

(fl second half of 15th century).

Sculptor. A contract dated 29 November 1469, written by Fonduli himself, has survived, stipulating the execution of three all’antica terracotta altarpieces for a church to be built in the Castello at Este. From Fonduli’s handwriting and Venetian dialect, it can be deduced that he had had some education and that he had probably worked outside of Crema, in Padua. In a later contract of 3 March 1484...

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Maria Teresa Fiorio

(b Milan, 1540; d Milan, 1587).

Italian medallist, hardstone-engraver and sculptor. During the first half of his career, before 1570, he concentrated on making medals and on rock crystal engraving. From 1570 he turned increasingly to sculpture, especially that (from 1574) for the decoration of S Maria presso S Celso in Milan.

He came from a family of Swiss origin, from Ticino, and was active mainly in Milan. According to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, his great friend, Fontana in his early career was active mainly making medals and engraving on rock crystal and hardstones (pietre dure). Based on references in Lomazzo, portrait medals of Ferdinando Francesco D’Avalos and Lomazzo (both Milan, Castello Sforzesco) have been attributed to Fontana. The latter, which dates from 1560–61, shows Lomazzo presented to Prudence and Fortune on the reverse. The medal dedicated to Avalos, who was Governor of Milan from 1560, is more elaborate and of higher quality. It has been suggested (Rossi) that it reflects Bernardino Campi’s painted portrait (untraced) of Avalos done in ...

Article

José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Alcalá de Henares, c. 1500; d Alcalá de Henares, 1579–80).

Spanish silversmith. He was the son of the silversmith Juan Faraz, who worked for the Colegio Mayor de S Ildefonso in Alcalá de Henares. Francisco was apprenticed to his father and continued to work for him until the death of the latter. He made use of Renaissance-style baluster structures in his pieces, although the grotesque ornamentation on other pieces is close to Mannerism. Several of his silver objects are preserved, for example parts of the cross of Miraflores de la Sierra (1549; London, V&A), with a stand fashioned by Antonio Fernández Cantero in 1715; the cross of El Casar de Talamanca (before 1546; Madrid, Mus. N. A. Dec.); the processional crosses of Mondéjar (1545) and Buitrago (1546); the macollas of El Casar (before 1546; Jaén Cathedral) and Pastrana (1552); the receptacle for unconsecrated hosts (c. 1554; Madrid, C. Y. Col.); a chalice (...

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Donald Myers

[Romano]

(b Monte Rotondo, nr Rome, 1520; d Florence, Sept 19, 1584).

Italian medallist, goldsmith and sculptor. The son of Pietro di Francesco, he was brought to Florence at a young age by Benvenuto Cellini, who described in his Vita how he found Galeotti in Rome in 1528. Galeotti accompanied Cellini to Ferrara and Paris in 1540 and worked in his Paris workshop with Ascanio de’ Mari (d 1566) in the Château du Petit-Nesle in 1548–9. He settled in Florence around 1552 and entered into the service of the Mint. He became a Florentine citizen in 1560. A payment to him from Cellini is recorded in January 1552, for chasing done on Cellini’s Perseus. A sonnet of 1555 by the historian and critic Benedetto Varchi (I Sonetti, Venice, 1555, i, 252) describes Galeotti as an equal rival of Domenico Poggini, another medallist also employed by the Mint. Briefly in 1575, Galeotti appears to have been an assistant engraver at the Papal Mint in Rome, taking the place of ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...

Article

Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500; bur Nuremberg, April 22, 1574).

German medallist. On the occasion of being granted the citizenship of Nuremberg in 1523 he was described as a wood-carver. It seems likely that Nuremberg’s adoption in 1525 of the Reformed faith obliged Gebel to look for other work, since none now came from the Church. The first medal definitely attributable to him is also one of his most famous: that of Albrecht Dürer (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), struck in 1527. It shows the painter with short hair and was to become for future ages the definitive portrait of him in old age. In 1528, after Dürer’s death, this medal was reissued with an altered reverse. In 1529 and 1530 Gebel travelled to the imperial diets in Speyer and Worms to obtain commissions for portrait medals.

Gebel did not belong to any guild but was among those practising the ‘freie Künste’: the fact that in 1534 he was singled out by name in Nuremberg city ordinances concerning medallists who were free craftsmen suggests that he was regarded as the most important Nuremberg medallist of his day, an assumption supported by his works, which include a silver medal of ...

Article

(b Faenza, 1519; d Rome, Oct 29, 1609).

Italian goldsmith. He was the son of Pietro Gentili, a goldsmith. He moved to Rome in 1549–50, and by 1552 he had entered the goldsmiths’ guild as a master craftsman. He was first elected consul of the goldsmiths’ guild in 1563 and, after 1584, was assayer for the Papal Mint. His fame enabled him to move in high circles. Records indicate that he executed various works in gold for the Medici, ranging from vase and lamps to keys and bedwarmers. His workshop executed important commissions for the Farnese family, among which survive his acknowledged masterpiece created for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, a cross and two monumental candlesticks (1570–82; Rome, St Peter’s); for which Gentili received 13,000 scudi. These pieces, which contain rock-crystal tondi by Giovanni Bernardi and inlay works of lapis lazuli, were donated by the Cardinal to St Peter’s. In this ensemble, one of the most important of late 16th-century Italian silver, Gentili combines technical expertise with a mastery of the plastic modelling of putti, nudes and caryatids, inspired by the work of Michelangelo. These figures appear in the miniature architectural structures that form the stems of the candlesticks. Gentili signed the pieces, yet authorities have often attributed them to Benvenuto Cellin or Michelangelo, among others. In the late 17th century the silversmith ...

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Véronique Meyer

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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

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William D. Wixom

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Gordon Campbell

(fl 1518–66).

Sicilian goldsmith. His early work is Gothic, notably a magnificent processional monstrance with Gothic spires (1536–8; Enna, Mus. Alessi) and a reliquary of S Agata (1532; Palermo Cathedral). From the 1540s he adopted a Renaissance style, as exemplified by a crozier (Palermo, Gal. Reg. Sicilia) and a reliquary of S Cristina (Palermo Cathedral)....

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Jane Campbell Hutchison

(b ?Nuremberg; fl 1508–18).

Austrian bronze-founder. He is first heard of in 1508, when he was summoned to Innsbruck from Nuremberg to make brass firearms for the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Godl was a superb technician and was soon pressed into service as one of the bronze-founders for the cenotaph of Emperor Maximilian I in the Hofkirche it was he who cast Leonhard Magt’s 23 statues (bronze, 1514–18) of the Habsburg family saints. His consummate skill in translating Magt’s highly individualized figures from wax to bronze earned him in 1518 the task of casting one of the over life-size figures of the members of Maximilian’s family that were designed to stand as a guard of honour around the cenotaph. Godl’s figure, Duke Albert IV Habsburg, had first been prepared by Hans Leinberger as a wooden model (1514) from Albrecht Dürer’s original drawing (Liverpool, Walker A.G.). When Maximilian saw the completed figure, he dismissed Gilg Sesselschreiber, the court painter who had been directing the project, and gave the job to Godl, with orders to cast the remainder of the figures. These dark bronze statues were the first over life-size statues to be cast in German lands. They were cast in sections—arms, legs, heads and so on—by the lost-wax process, using models first carved in wood. Many of the highly complicated ornamental details of costume, jewellery and armour were also cast separately and polished by a goldsmith after being assembled....

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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

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Antonia Boström

Italian family of sculptors and bronze-casters from Vicenza, active there and elsewhere in the Veneto c. 1507–c. 1570. Lorenzo Grandi and his son the stone-cutter Gian Matteo Grandi (d 1545) both probably helped to train Lorenzo’s younger son, Vincenzo (di Lorenzo) Grandi (b Vicenza, before 1500; d Padua, before 2 Aug 1578). Vincenzo would later work with Gian Matteo’s son, Gian [Giovanni] Girolamo Grandi (b ?Vicenza, 1508; d Padua, 23 March 1560). By 1507 Vincenzo was in Padua, where he is recorded working on architectural ornament for a house belonging to Francesco dei Candi. In 1521, together with Gian Matteo, he completed the architectural elements of the monument to Bishop Antonio Trombetta (Padua, Il Santo), its bronze bust being executed by Andrea Riccio. The double cornucopia-like console supporting the niches of the monument is strongly reminiscent of the ornament used in the Lombardo family’s architecture. In ...

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Gordon Campbell

[Caparra]

(fl c. 1500).

Italian ironsmith, was praised by Vasari as the best of ironsmiths; his nickname, Caparra (‘payment in advance’), presumably refers to his financial arrangements. His finest work is mounted on the exterior of the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence and includes a lantern shaped like a temple and flag-pole holders decorated with fabulous creatures....

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Hermann Maué

(b Strasbourg, 1490–1500; d after 1546).

German wood-carver and medallist. He may have been the son of the sculptor Nikolaus Hagenauer. By his own account, he left Strasbourg soon after 1520 and worked in a number of cities, including Speyer, Mainz, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Nuremberg and Salzburg, but no works from this period have been found. Between 1525 and 1527, while living in Munich and Landshut, he executed some 20 medals portraying Duke William IV of Bavaria, Duke Ludwig X (examples in Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) and Pfalzgraf Philipp, Bishop of Freising (example in Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.) and members of the Munich court and bourgeoisie. He next moved to Augsburg, where in 1531 the guilds complained to the City Council that he was working as a wood-carver and conterfetter (portrait sculptor) without being one of their members. Hagenauer replied that in other cities his work was recognized as free art and not subject to compulsory guild restrictions.

Hagenauer left Augsburg in ...

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Peter Strieder

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