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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Sundhauser, 1870; d Paris, 1936).

French stained-glass artist and ébéniste of Alsatian origin. He trained with the Daum brothers and Louis Majorelle in Nancy, where he designed the stained-glass windows in the Chambre de Commerce and made furniture for Majorelle. In 1916 he moved to Paris, where his work includes the stained glass of St Christophe de Javel (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse established in 1885 in Meriden, CT by Philip Handel (1866–1914); in 1900 a second factory was opened in New York City. The company was best-known for its Art Nouveau shades for gas and electric lamps; some shades were leaded and some reverse-painted with plants, animals and landscapes. In ...

Article

(b 1812; d 1867).

English stained-glass maker and metalworker. Based in Birmingham, his company produced metalwork and stained glass for A. W. N. Pugin, whom Hardman first met in 1837. Together with other craftsmen, he exhibited examples of his work for Pugin, including a chalice (London, V&A), at the so-called Medieval Court in the Great Exhibition, London, in 1851. He also collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune, who set up a stained-glass workshop in Bruges in 1845 with Hardman’s assistance.

Bethune, Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François

Cross, §III, 1(ii): Altar and processional: Renaissance and after

England, §IX, 1(v): Gold and silver, 1781–1895

England, §IX, 2(iv): Base metalwork, after 1800

Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §2: Middle period, 1837–44

Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844

Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844

Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844

Pugin: (3) E. W. Pugin

Stained glass, §II, 2(ii): 1800–1880...

Article

Carola Hicks

English firm of stained-glass manufacturers. In 1855 Clement Heaton (b Bradford on Avon, 1824; d 1882), a glass painter, went into partnership with James Butler (b Warwick, 1830; d 1913), a lead glazier, to make stained glass. They initially shared premises in London with the newly established firm of Clayton & Bell, providing the technical expertise for the latter’s designing skills. The firm was known as Heaton, Butler & Bayne from 1862, when Robert Turnill Bayne (b nr Warwick, 1837; d 1915), a Pre-Raphaelite artist, became partner and chief designer. Bayne’s striking and linear designs were carried out in an exceptionally wide range of coloured glass, developed by Heaton as a result of his researches into medieval techniques. Typical windows produced at this time are at St Nicholas (south chancel, 1863), East Dereham, Norfolk, and Peterborough Cathedral (north transept, 1864). By the late 1860s the firm was seen as more advanced in design than Clayton & Bell, whose dependence on the Gothic Revival style made them less fashionable. The distinctive, classicizing style of ...

Article

Lisa Zeiger

(b Watford, Herts, April 21, 1861; d New York, Jan 27, 1940).

English designer and maker of stained glass, metalwork and enamel. In the mid-1870s he was apprenticed to the London firm of Burlison & Grylls, makers of stained glass in the Gothic Revival style. He later joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, the firm of stained-glass manufacturers and painters founded by his father, Clement Heaton (1824–82), whom he succeeded as a partner in 1882. In 1884 he left London for Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he collaborated with Paul Robert on the decoration of the monumental staircase (in situ) of the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, experimenting with cloisonné enamel as an enrichment for the pilasters, mouldings and cornices. On his return to England in 1885 Heaton executed enamel designs for A. H. Mackmurdo and provided designs for metalwork and lamps for the Century Guild of Artists. Following a dispute in 1885, Heaton left Heaton, Butler & Bayne and established Heaton’s Cloisonné Mosaics Ltd, which produced plaques, book covers and lamps. After ...

Article

(b The Hague, April 1, 1876; d Domburg, Aug 3, 1923).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. She was the daughter of the Dutch painter J. E. van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). She studied at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and in 1901 moved to the Gooiland area, north of Utrecht, where she was taught printmaking by Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig. In 1904–5 she lived in Paris, working in the studio of Eugène Carrière. From 1906 she spent her summers at the country house of the collector and patron Marie Tak van Poortvliet (1871–1936), near Domburg, where a studio was set up for her in the garden. From 1908 van Heemskerck painted landscapes in a luministic style (drawings, Rotterdam, Boymans–van Beuningen) under the influence of Jan Toorop and Piet Mondrian, who also spent the summers in Domburg during that time and by whom she was taught. In 1910 and 1911 van Heemskerck exhibited in Domburg with the artists’ colony and in Amsterdam with St Luke, also exhibiting in ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass manufactory. In 1845 the firm of Barnes, Hobbs & Co. was established in Wheeling, WV, by John L. Hobbs (1804–81) and James B. Barnes (d 1849), who had both worked for the New England Glass Co. In 1863 the firm became Hobbs, Brockunier & Co., and comprised Hobbs, his son John H. Hobbs, company bookkeeper Charles W. Brockunier and a silent partner, William Leighton sr (1808–91), son of Thomas H. Leighton (1786–1849) of the New England Glass Co. William Leighton was a scientist and superintendent of the firm, and his son William Leighton jr (1833–1911) succeeded him on his retirement in 1867.

By 1879 Hobbs, Brockunier & Co. was one of the largest glass factories in the USA and was making fine cut and engraved lead crystal, as well as an extensive range of pressed glass using the soda-lime formula developed by Leighton sr. This formula revolutionized pressed-glass making after ...

Article

Peter Cormack

(George Alexander)

(b London, June 17, 1839; d London, April 15, 1927).

English stained-glass artist, painter and illustrator. He studied painting in London at Leigh’s Art School and the Royal Academy Schools, where he was influenced by Pre-Raphaelitism. Contact with Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s circle and the architect William Burges introduced him to the applied arts, and from 1863 he worked primarily as a stained-glass artist, particularly in collaboration with the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons and Heaton, Butler & Bayne. After visiting Italy in 1867 he abandoned his early Pre-Raphaelite style for one inspired by Classical and Renaissance art, aiming to create a ‘modern’ style of stained glass no longer dependent on medievalism. His memorial window (1868) to the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in Westminster Abbey and the complete glazing scheme (1869–75) of St Mary Magdalene, Paddington, London, illustrate the expressive figure drawing and feeling for monumental scale characteristic of all his mature work. In 1891, dissatisfied with the working methods of the commercial stained-glass firms, he established his own workshop in Hampstead, London, and experimented successfully with making pot-metal glass. Many of Holiday’s later commissions were for American churches; his windows (...

Article

Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics manufactory. It evolved from a glassworks in the village of Hollóháza on the estate of Count Károlyi, in northern Hungary. Between 1860 and 1880 it was leased to Ferenc Istvánffy, who enlarged and modernized it and added stovemaking. The factory produced dinner-services, a series of ornamental plates inscribed with a line from the Lord’s Prayer and ornamental dishes and bottles, which were very popular. Typical Hollóháza motifs were the cornflower and rose. After 1880 wares were decorated with new designs, which were influenced by the Zsolnay Ceramics Factory and consisted of late Renaissance and traditional Turkish motifs. The factory was very successful at the Millennial Exhibition of 1896 in Budapest and at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris. In 1915 the factory was merged with the stoneware factory of Emil Fischer in Budapest, and Fischer became the artistic and commercial director of the works. From 1918 until ...

Article

(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Finnish glass factory that was established in 1881 and produced tableware and art glass; its designers included Alvar Aalto, Tapio Wirkkala (who became artistic director in 1947) and Timo Sarpaneva (1950–70). In 1988 the factory merged with Nuutajärvi to form the Iittala–Nuutajärvi Co., which in 1990 was acquired (together with Arabia Porcelain Factory and Rörstrand Ceramics Factory) by Hackman & Co. In ...

Article

John Mawer

(b Bodiam, E. Sussex, Feb 17, 1849; d London, Aug 21, 1930).

English designer. He was educated at Marlborough College and New College, Oxford, where he studied drawing under John Ruskin. Although he took Holy Orders in 1873, he continued to practise as a designer and eventually gave up his clerical duties in 1882, the year in which Arthur Mackmurdo founded the Century Guild of Artists, London. In 1883 Mackmurdo and Image opened the Century Guild Workshops. Image painted panels and inscriptions and designed inlaid decoration for furniture made by the Guild and also produced the title-page woodcut for its magazine The Hobby Horse, first published in 1884, which he co-edited from 1886 to 1892. The Guild itself was dissolved in 1888. He undertook design commissions in several fields—stained glass, typography, mosaic and embroidery (for the Royal School of Needlework). He also became active within the Art Workers’ Guild, London, of which he became master in 1900. In the same year he began working for the Glasgow furniture manufacturers ...

Article

Carola Hicks

English firm of glass manufacturers. The late 17th-century Whitefriars Glass Works, on the site of the Whitefriars monastery in the City of London, was bought in 1834 by a merchant James Powell (1774–1840). In 1844 his sons added a stained-glass department to cater for the growing demand for windows. In 1851 the firm was commissioned by the stained-glass specialist Charles Winston (1814–64) to re-create medieval glass through its proper chemical constituents. This ‘antique’ glass was produced on a large scale from 1853 (e.g. the west window of Norwich Cathedral, painted by George Hedgeland in 1854) and was used by many other studios. Powell’s was one of the most successful Victorian firms because it had a policy of employing many distinguished artists as freelance designers. Although there was no distinctive house style, standards of design were high. Edward Burne-Jones provided cartoons from 1857 to 1861; he was succeeded in ...

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

German glasshouse founded in Jena in 1884 by Otto Schott (1851–1935). The factory made both industrial and domestic glass, notably the tableware of Wilhelm Wagenfeld in the 1930s. Under the Nazis the factory made glass for military purposes, and on 17 March 1945 the factory was bombed. In 1945, in the move known as ‘the odyssey of the 41 glassmakers’, key employees (especially those with expertise in optical glass) were taken by American troops and relocated in West Germany; after various moves, they were relocated in Mainz in 1952. The Russians occupied Jena, and reopened the factory there. The two companies had identical names (‘Ven Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen’) from 1945 to 1981, and products are distinguished by the names ‘Jena’ and ‘Mainz’. In 1981 the companies were formally separated into Veb Jenaer Glaswerk in the East and Schott Glaswerke in the West. In 1994 the company returned to Jena, and since ...

Article

Mária Szobor-Bernáth

(b Budapest, Dec 23, 1873; d Budapest, June 10, 1940).

Hungarian painter and decorative artist. In 1892 he was a pupil of Simon Hollósy in Munich, then he spent three years studying at the Académie Julian in Paris. Returning to Hungary in 1897 he painted the Factory Canteen: Agitator (Budapest, N.G.), a Realist picture imbued with a socialist message. This was followed by more joyful scenes of peasant life often in bold and glowing colours (e.g. the harvesting scene Plums; 1901, Budapest, N.G.). In 1905 he settled in Nyergesújfalu, becoming the leading figure of a group of artists with radical bourgeois views. In 1906, however, he left for Paris once more, where he was impressed by the style of the French Fauves, especially the work of Matisse. This is evident in Kernstok’s richly coloured portrait of Béla Czóbel (1906; Budapest, N.G.)

Kernstok’s most original contribution to the development of modern Hungarian painting came after 1910 when he started to concentrate on the subjects of boy nudes and nude horsemen, shown in a decorative but vigorous style with heavy contours and emphasis on the overall structure of the picture, as in ...

Article

(b Long Eaton, Derbys, Aug 4, 1877; d London, July 7, 1970).

English painter and designer. She studied at Nottingham College of Art from 1889. In 1894 the deaths of her mother and grandmother left her dependent on her own earnings, and she taught art from a studio in the Castle Rooms, Nottingham. From 1903 she exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy, London, and in the same year married the painter Harold Knight (1874–1961); they lived in an artists’ community in Staithes, north Yorkshire, until 1907, also spending time in another community in Laren, Netherlands. They then moved to Newlyn, Cornwall, attracted by the presence of a number of prominent artists. The couple exhibited together at the Leicester Galleries, London, in 1912. Although Knight painted various subjects, her reputation was founded on paintings of the ballet and the circus, which became predominant after she moved to London. Technically of a high standard, her narrative realist works were painted in bright colours and have limited depth of expression (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Ada Polak

Glass factory established in 1742 in Kosta, in the Småland region of southern Sweden. No particularly original styles can be distinguished in its early wares. In the late 19th century, however, designers such as Gunnar Wennerberg (1863–1914) began to produce Art Nouveau glass in a style indebted to Emile Gallé. In 1903 Kosta and Reijmyre Glasbruk merged to become the Svenska Kristallbruk but retained their names and continued to design and manufacture separately (see under Sweden, Kingdom of §VIII 2.). Edvin Ollers worked as a painter and designer at Kosta (1917–18), and Dahlskog, Ewald revived glass-engraving during his period as director (1926–9). From 1950 to 1973 the artistic director was V. E. Lindstrand. Sweden's greatest studio glassmaker, Ann [Wärff] Wolff (b 1937), worked for the Kosta Glasbruk from 1964 to 1979, before she established her own studio at Transjö (near Kosta). In ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b New York, March 31, 1835; d Newport, RI, Nov 14, 1910).

American painter, decorative artist, and writer. He grew up in New York in a prosperous and cultivated French-speaking household. He received his first artistic training at the age of six from his maternal grandfather, an amateur architect and miniature painter. While at Columbia Grammar School, he learnt English watercolour techniques and afterwards studied briefly with George Inness’s teacher, the landscape painter Régis-François Gignoux. In 1856, while touring Europe, he spent a few weeks in Thomas Couture’s studio. Returning to New York via England, he was impressed by the Pre-Raphaelite paintings at the Manchester Art Treasures exhibition of 1857 and later said that they had influenced him when he began to paint. In 1859 he decided to devote himself to art and moved to Newport, RI, to study with William Morris Hunt.

Unlike Hunt, who never broke away from the manner of Couture and Jean-François Millet, La Farge rapidly evolved a highly original and personal style characterized by free brushwork, unusual colour harmonies, and great delicacy of feeling (...