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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...

Article

Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, Dec 11, 1848; d New York, Jan 18, 1931).

American businessman, collector, patron and dealer. He began collecting art in 1869 with paintings by American Hudson River school artists and conventional European works, Chinese porcelain, antique pottery and 17th- and 18th-century English furniture. By 1883 his taste had focused entirely on American works, especially on paintings by George Inness and Winslow Homer. By dealing in such works and by giving frequent exhibitions, Clarke enhanced the popularity of these artists, while also realizing large profits for himself. His founding of Art House, New York, in 1890 confirms the profit motive behind his collecting practices. The most notable sale of his paintings took place in 1899, when he sold at auction 373 contemporary American works at a profit of between 60 and 70%. Four landscapes by Inness—Grey, Lowery Day (c. 1876–7; untraced), Delaware Valley (1865; New York, Met.), Clouded Sun (1891; Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mus. A.) and Wood Gatherers: Autumn Afternoon...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English family of potters, active also in the USA. Ralph and James Clews (both fl 1818–36) owned a Staffordshire pottery at Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent. Their pottery, which was largely made for export to America, is marked clews or clews warranted staffordshire or clews dresden opaque china. In 1834 the factory closed, whereupon James Clews moved to Troy, IN, where he opened a pottery; when this venture failed he returned to England....

Article

Roger S. Edmundson

English ceramic manufactory. The works, near Ironbridge, Salop, beside the River Severn and close to coal resources, were founded by John Rose (1772–1841), a former apprentice at the Caughley works, with backing from Edward Blakeway (1720–1811). After manufacturing from c. 1794 at the Calcut China Manufactory, Jackfield, Salop, they moved to Coalport in 1796. In October 1799 they bought the Caughley works and used them until 1814, when all the production was consolidated at Coalport. In 1800 Rose’s younger brother Thomas Rose (1780–1843) opened a smaller works in the former Coalport Pottery owned by William Reynolds (1758–1803), who was succeeded by Robert Anstice (1757–1845) and William Horton (1754–1833). Both works produced fine utilitarian and ornamental wares in hard-paste porcelain, emulating Chinese and French shapes and decoration. In 1814 John Rose & Co. took over Thomas Rose’s works. Softer and more translucent bodies were produced by the 1820s, when Rose bought the moulds of the discontinued ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1774; d c. 1846).

English painter and sculptor, active also in America. He worked in porcelain, plaster, and terracotta and after an early career in an artificial stone factory in London he moved c. 1792 to the Derby Porcelain Factory, where he worked as a modeller. In 1816 he emigrated to America, where he contributed architectural decoration to the University of Virginia, including the plaster of Paris friezes for the university buildings and internal plaster and lead ornaments for various buildings....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Horsham, 1829; d St John’s Wood, London, March 22, 1904).

English book illustrator and painter. He trained as a surgeon, but never practised, instead working as a writer and illustrator of books on natural history and as a painter of watercolour landscapes. In 1869 Coleman embarked on a new career when he joined Copeland’s (see Spode Ceramic Works) as a painter of china plaques. Later that year he moved to the Minton Ceramic Factory, attracted by the opportunity to work with their well-known turquoise colour. At Minton he designed table services, which were transfer-printed in colour with his scrupulously accurate depictions of flora (e.g. ‘The Naturalist’) and fauna (e.g. ‘Game Place’) and people (a series of dessert services with orientalized ladies). In 1871 he became head of the new Minton’s Art Pottery Studio in Kensington Gore; there he designed porcelain plaques, many of which depict flora, fauna and lighly-clad girls and women. He resigned as director in 1873...

Article

(b Doesburg, Oct 31, 1841; d Laag-Keppel, May 28, 1930).

Dutch decorative artist. He trained as an architect at the firm of L. H. Eberson in Arnhem. From c. 1867 to 1870 he lived in Paris, where he was involved in the preparations for the Exposition Universelle of 1867. After returning to the Netherlands he concentrated increasingly on the applied arts. From 1884 until 1889 he was the artistic director of the Rozenburg delftware factory in The Hague, which was established by W. W. von Gudenberg in 1883. It was not only Colenbrander’s designs of ornamental china that were revolutionary but also the asymmetric, whimsical, but at the same time elegant, decorative patterns, which were applied in bright, transparent colours. His motifs seemed to indicate an awareness of oriental decorations, which he may have seen at Expositions Universelles, although for the most part they were original. After a disagreement with the management, he left Rozenburg in 1889 and spent several years working in different fields within the applied arts, including interior design and textiles....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(d 1882).

French potter and designer. He collaborated with Adalbert de Beaumont to publish a Recueil de dessins pour l'art et l'industrie [A Collection of Designs for Art and Industry], which contained 217 engravings, many of which portray Islamic ceramics and glass from their own collections or seen in their travels. This book was a seminal influence on the introduction of Islamic decorative art to French artists and craftsmen, notably ...

Article

Term used to describe the continuation in the decorative arts of the Neo-classical style (see Neo-classicism) in France between 1800 and 1805 under Napoleon Bonaparte (First Consul; 1799–1804). His Consulate was an era of renewal in the furniture, porcelain and metalwork industries in France (see France, Republic of, §VI, 4), greatly encouraged by the patronage of Napoleon, who sought a model for his position in the magnificence of ancient Rome. While little actual building took place, the period was important for such changes in interior decoration as the lavish use of draperies—begun during the 1790s—that established the Consulate and the Empire styles (for illustration see Empire style); although these terms were invented by later art historians to denote the change in political systems, in fact the styles to which they refer are virtually indistinguishable. Furniture was similar to that of the preceding Directoire style...

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

Italian porcelain factory. It was established in the Cannaregio area of Venice by the banker and ceramic technician Geminiano Cozzi (1728–97) in 1764. Cozzi had been trained at the Vezzi Porcelain Factory in Venice and later established a partnership with the Saxon potter Nathaniel Friedrich Hewelke, a porcelain expert. The factory produced mostly hard-paste porcelain but also some maiolica and cream-coloured earthenwares in the English style. Tablewares and vases were decorated with chinoiseries, carnival scenes and floral designs in bright colours and thick gilding. Painters and sculptors such as Domenico Bosello worked at the factory. Cozzi’s brother Vincenzo Cozzi also worked with him, and the factory is known to have remained in production until 1812.

G. M. Urbani De Ghelthof: Studi intorno alla ceramica veneziana (Venice, 1876)N. Barbantini: De porcellane di Venezia e delle Nove (Venice, 1936)F. Stazzi: Le porcellane veneziane di Geminiano e Vincenzo Cozzi...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German pottery founded in 1720 by Georg Veit Weiss, run by his son Johann Georg Weiss from 1769 to 1800 and then by his grandson J. G. Weiss (and his widow) from 1800 to c. 1827. The factory’s best-known products were tankards, typically decorated with hunting scenes.

H. Gretsch: Die Fayencefabrik in Crailsheim...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery factory founded in 1795 at Creil (Oise) with a view to producing earthenware that would imitate and undercut English manufacturers of cheap tableware. The factory employed English craftsmen from the outset, and made pottery decorated with both English themes (e.g. hunting) and French themes (e.g. Napoleon). The factory merged with a creamware factory at Montereau from ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American pottery established by William Crolius [Johan Willem Crollius] (b Neuwied, near Koblenz, c. 1700; d New York, c. 1776) and John Remmey [Remmi] (d New York, Nov 1762). Crolius arrived in New York c. 1718 and established a stoneware pottery on Pot-Bakers Hill. Bound by intermarriage to the Corselius and Remmey families, who were also in the pottery business, the Crolius family figured prominently in Manhattan pottery history until about 1850. From c. 1735 William Crolius and John Remmey were in business together. Although salt-glazed stoneware was the principal product, lead-glazed earthenware was also made in the early years of the Crolius and Remmey potteries. Before the American Revolution, their stoneware closely resembled Rhenish stoneware with incised decoration filled in with a blue cobalt oxide glaze, but subsequent generations usually painted simple blue embellishments (e.g. pitcher, 1798; New York, NY Hist. Soc.). Remmey’s grandson Henry Remmey sr (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1844; d 1910).

French potter. He left his native Limoges to work at the Jules Viellard pottery in Bordeaux, where he made tableware, and after a brief return to Limoges (1873–4), where he worked at the pottery of Léon Sazerat (1831–91), he moved in 1876 to Monaco, where he began to make stoneware. He left after the earthquake of 1887 and finally settled in Bourg la Reine, where in 1889 he founded a pottery with the sculptor Alphonse Voisin-Delacroix (1857–93); in 1894, after the latter’s death, Dalpayrat’s new partner was Jean Coulon (1853–1923). This change of partnership led to the introduction of more conventional china alongside the flamed stoneware that had long been associated with the company; in the same decade Dalpayrat was joined by his four sons (Albert, Adolphe, Hyppolite and Paul). Dalpayrat continued to design display pieces, some of which were set in gilded bronze by Parisian jewellers such as Maison Cardeilhac. The pottery closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1848; d 1926).

French potter, glass-maker and sculptor. He was the son of a porcelain modeller at Sèvres, where Albert-Louis was eventually to have his own studio, where he became an exponent of the Pâte-sur-pâte technique of ceramic decoration. His early work is maiolica designed under Italian influence, but from the early 1880s he turned to stoneware designed under Japanese influence. He designed for other manufacturers, notably the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(ceramics)

English family of pottery and porcelain manufacturers. In 1794 John Davenport (b 1765) founded a pottery at Longport (Staffordshire) to manufacture earthenware. He was succeeded in 1830 by his sons Henry and William, and when Henry died in 1835, the firm became known as William Davenport and Company; it remained in the Davenport family till 1887. Initially the company only made underglaze blue printed earthenware, but from about 1815 it also manufactured porcelain. The company had a huge range of domestic wares (which included many willow patterns) and manufactured in large quantities for both domestic and export markets. The pottery is marked ‘Davenport’ (or occasionally ‘Longport’), initially in lower case letters and later in upper case; after 1805 the mark sometimes includes an anchor.

T. A. Lockett: Davenport Pottery and Porcelain, 1794–1887 (Newton Abbot, 1972)T. A. Locket and G. A. Godden: Davenport: China, Earthenware, Glass (London, 1989)...

Article

Joellen Secondo

(b Peckham Rye, London, Jan 29, 1845; d London, April 18, 1910).

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at Clayton & Bell and by 1870 had joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, for whom he worked on the decoration of Eaton Hall, Ches. In late 1880 Day started his own business designing textiles, wallpapers, stained glass, embroidery, carpets, tiles, pottery, furniture, silver, jewellery and book covers. He designed tiles for Maw & Co. and Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., stained glass and wallpaper for W. B. Simpson & Co., wallpapers for Jeffrey & Co. and textiles for Turnbull & Stockdale where he was made Art Director in 1881.

Day was a founder-member and Secretary of the ...

Article

(b Guebwiller, Alsace, 1823; d ?Paris, 1891).

French potter. He followed his father into the silk-dyeing trade, where no doubt he acquired his predilection for colour. About 1842 he was apprenticed at a Strasbourg stove factory and from 1844 travelled and worked in France, Germany and Austria. In 1856 he established his own workshop in Paris, where he experimented with glazes, eventually creating his much-admired bleu de Deck (1861). He produced lustre and polychrome painted, tin-enamelled wares based on Isnik and Persian ceramics and Italian maiolica. He also made ‘inlaid’ pottery in the style of 16th-century wares from Saint-Porchaire; a selection of these was shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Industries of 1861 in Paris. His reputation as the first ‘modern’ studio potter rests on the range and quality of his technical innovations and his successful use of historical methods. Many early pieces from his workshop (e.g. dish painted by Eléonore Escallier, c....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1857; d 1940).

French potter. As a young man he made architectural ornaments (principally tiles) in a ceramics factory near Beauvais. In 1887 he moved to Paris to assume responsibility for the Haviland studio of Ernest Chaplet; he specialized in stoneware vases with high-temperature flambé glazes, often decorated with Persian motifs. In 1894...