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Eleonora Villa

(b ?Cantiano, 1615–20; d ?Gubbio, after 1679).

Italian painter. A pupil of Cavaliere d’Arpino, he was attracted early on by the art of Pietro da Cortona, although the full Baroque remained alien to him. He has often been confused with his father, Flaminio Allegrini (?1587–?1663), who was also a painter. The early sources state that Francesco worked in Savona Cathedral and in the Durazzi and Gavotti palaces in Genoa, yet it remains unclear whether these commissions should be attributed to him or to his father. Francesco worked mostly in Rome, where many of his canvases and frescoes are preserved in churches and palaces. Around 1650 he executed the St Catherine altarpiece in the church of SS Domenico e Sisto, Rome (in situ). Between 1652 and 1654 he was working on frescoes in the Speralli Chapel in the cathedral at Gubbio. In 1653 he took part in an important project to decorate the church of S Marco, Rome, under the supervision of ...

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Věra Naňková

(b ?Laino d’Intelvi, c. 1665; d Litomyšl, Bohemia, ?March 13, 1720).

Italian architect, active in Bohemia. The son of Lorenzo Alliprandi (d c. 1712), a stucco artist who worked in Vienna, he served his apprenticeship with the master builder Francesco Martinelli (1651–1708) in Vienna from 1685 to 1688 and is recorded as working in Bohemia in 1690 as a foreman. From 1696 to 1702 Alliprandi was in the service of Count Heřman Jakub Černín (1659–1710) as an architect. At the same time, and also later, he worked for the Counts Pachta, Přehořovský, Kaiserstein, Špork and others. In 1706 he was appointed military engineer in Prague, where he acquired citizenship of the Malá Strana quarter in 1709, from which year he was in the service of Count František Václav Trautmansdorf (1676–1753). In 1712 he also served as a military engineer in Cheb.

Alliprandi brought to Bohemia an interesting personal reinterpretation of the achievements and inspirations of such Viennese masters as Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, Domenico Martinelli and Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt. His designs for such buildings as the country house at Liblice (...

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Gordon Campbell

American family of joiners and cabinetmakers, active in Hadfield, MA. The brothers John Allis (1642–91) and Samuel Allis (1647–91), whose maternal great-uncle was Nicholas Disbrowe, were both joiners, as was John’s son Ichabod (1675–1747). The firm was managed by John Allis the elder, and employed his brother and sons; John the elder’s partner was ...

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Vitor Serrão

(b Lisbon, 1634; d Lisbon, 1695).

Portuguese painter. He was a member of the Irmandade de S Lucas, the guild of painters in Lisbon. An able portrait painter, Almeida won the praise of Felix da Costa. He painted the portrait of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich (Hinchingbrooke House, Cambs) in 1663, when the English admiral and diplomat visited Lisbon for the wedding of Catherine of Braganza; the Earl described the portrait in his diary as ‘an extraordinary like Picture’. Almeida was a knight of the royal household and was in contact with such painters as António de Sousa (fl 1658–87), court painter to Peter II. He also assessed private collections, notably that of the Bishop of the Algarve, José de Menezes, about which he wrote a report in 1680. He is also known to have painted religious subject-matter, but these works are untraced.

F. da Costa Meesen: Antiguidade da arte da pintura (MS.; 1696); ed. ...

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Christiaan Schuckman

(b Mijdrecht, c. 1652; d after 1683).

Dutch etcher and draughtsman. His birthplace and date are inscribed on his mezzotint portrait of his father, Johannes ab Almeloveen (1678; Hollstein, no. 38), who was a preacher in Mijdrecht. Jan’s other 37 prints are all etchings, mainly landscapes. In his topographical views of Dutch rivers and occasionally the Rhine, van Almeloveen followed the tradition of established masters. Twenty of these landscapes are based on designs by Herman Saftleven, including a series of twelve depictions of Dutch villages such as Langerack and an unusual diamond-shaped series of the Four Seasons. The remaining, less lively compositions were made after his own designs. An annotation on one of his landscape drawings (Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab., AW #1008) indicates that on 8 August 1680 he was working at Frankfurt an der Oder, but he was presumably in Utrecht for most of the period from 1678 to 1683, when he dated his last known print, one in a series of six landscapes (Hollstein, 21–6)....

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Gordon Campbell

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(b Brussels, before 1573; d Brussels, between Jan 15, 1625 and Dec 11, 1626).

Flemish painter. The earliest document referring to him is a receipt dated 26 May 1593 for the gilding and decoration of the Garnier family monument in Notre-Dame-du- Sablon in Brussels. The records of the Brussels painters’ guild, which survive only from 1599 onwards, do not mention his admission as a master but show that he took on four apprentices between 1599 and 1625, the last being Pieter van der Borcht. In 1599–1600 he entered the service of Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella, who entrusted him with many important commissions. In 1603 and 1604 van Alsloot received two payments from them for the design and weaving of two-and-a-half laps of tapestry with grotesques. This has often been taken, erroneously, to indicate that he held a prominent place in the development of Brussels tapestry manufacturing.

Like Jacques d’Arthois, Lucas Achtschellinck (1626–99) and Lodewyk de Vadder, van Alsloot belonged to the school of Brussels landscape artists who drew much of their inspiration from the Forêt de Soignes. In several of van Alsloot’s works, which are generally topographically accurate, it is possible to identify places that still survive, especially near the abbeys of Groenendael and Ter Kameren. Some paintings, for example ...

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Joseph Connors

(Alta Emps, Hohenems)

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (reg 1559–65). Marcus was made Bishop of Konstanz in 1561 and legate to the Council of Trent. He began the development of the massive Villa Mondragone (see Frascati), to the designs of his house architect Martino I Longhi (i); Pope Gregory XIII (reg 1572–85) often visited it. Through papal favour he accumulated enormous wealth, which he used to rebuild the Palazzo Riario near Piazza Navona, Rome, into a magnificent family palace (known thereafter as the Palazzo Altemps) and to build the Altemps Chapel in S Maria in Trastevere; both of these designs were by Longhi. Effects of the Cardinal’s patronage or his generosity survive in the many estates that he purchased or received as gifts, at Loreto, Gallese and in the area around Frascati (e.g. at Mondragone, Monte Compatri and Monte Porzio). ...

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Altieri  

Italian family of patrons. Of noble rank, the Altieri, who claimed ancient Roman ancestry, enjoyed a recognized place in Roman society from the 14th century. The tombs of the 15th-century Altieri, including Marc Antonio Altieri (1450–1532), holder of various public offices, stand in the family chapel of the south transept of S Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. The most important member of the family was Cardinal Emilio Altieri (b Rome, 12 July 1590; d Rome, 22 July 1676) on whose election to the papacy in 1670, as Clement X, the Altieri became the first family in Rome. When the male line of the Altieri failed in the 1660s, Emilio adopted the Roman nobleman, Gasparo Paluzzo degli Albertoni (1646–1720) as his heir, on condition that the issue of Gasparo’s marriage (1667) to Altieri’s niece and sole heir, Laura Caterina, would bear the Altieri name. ...

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Margherita Palatucci

(b Barletta, 1637; d after 1695).

Italian painter. He received his first artistic training in the workshop of Carlo Rosa in Apulia, although his earliest known works, the Holy Family (1675; Barletta, S Maria della Vittoria) and a painting of the same subject attributed to him (Barletta, Pal. Monte di Pietà), reveal the influence of Cesare Fracanzano and Francesco Cozza. Altobello probably went to Naples during the 1670s and was certainly living there in 1687. Works attributed to him from this period are the Vision of St Ignatius (Naples, S Ferdinando) and a Visitation and Vision of St Francis (c. 1680; both Naples, S Maria la Nuova). They show his full acclimatization to the Neapolitan Baroque, clearly reflecting the monumentality of Giovanni Lanfranco, the tonal contrasts of Luca Giordano and the chiaroscuro of Mattia Preti; they represent the height of Altobello’s artistic development. Also attributed to his Neapolitan period is St Jerome (Naples, Pin. Pio Monte della Misericordia). Numerous canvases, listed in the inventory of ...

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Brigitte Heinzl

Austrian family of artists. (1) Martino Altomonte was the son of Michael Hohenberg, a baker who had emigrated from the Tyrol to Naples, and it was Martino who changed the family name to its Italian form in 1684. Martino and his son (2) Bartolomeo Altomonte both became celebrated for their decorative paintings in Austria, which continued the traditions of the Viennese school of late Baroque fresco. Of Martino’s other sons, Franz Lorenz Altomonte (b Poland, after 1693 or Vienna, 1698; d Prague, May 1765), an engraver, studied under Antonio Maria Gennaro (1679–1744) in Vienna. From 1727 he worked as an engraver at the Mint in Prague. Examples of his work can be found in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Andreas [Andrea] Altomonte (b Warsaw or Vienna, 1699; d Vienna, 12 June 1780), an architect, studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1726 to 1728...

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(b Palermo, 1643; d Palermo, 1732).

Italian architect. He was called to Rome in the 1670s by his Order, the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi, to work first as an assistant to Carlo Bizzaccheri then as supervisor on the enlargement of the convent of the Crociferi. Returning to Palermo by 1685, he produced work that showed Roman influences. His studies for the façade of the monumental church of La Pietà (1678–1723), with which he became associated in the late 1680s, fuse elements from S Andrea della Valle and Girolamo Rainaldi’s S Maria in Campitelli, both in Rome. While subduing the horizontal plasticity of the Roman façades, however, Amato intensified the vertical stress of his own: his free-standing superimposed columns are placed at the sides like a partially drawn-back screen, an effect enhanced by his use of the contrasting colours of tufa and Billiemi limestone. The façade’s circular window, a clear medieval reference, is characteristically Sicilian and distinguishes the building from contemporary Roman design. The interior decoration (1690s) is striking for its use of vernacular forms and such gilded metalwork as the nun’s grille at the west end, which rises like an elaborate fan into the grand barrel vault. The discrepancy between the broad lower and narrow upper storeys of S Teresa alla Kalsa (...

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Helen M. Hills

(b Ciminna, Jan 24, 1634; d Palermo, July 3, 1714).

Italian architect, writer and painter. He trained as a priest in Palermo and entered the Padri Ministri degl’Infermi. Another member of this Order was Giacomo Amato, with whom he worked, although they were not related. While serving as a chaplain Amato studied geometry, architecture, optics and engraving. His earliest known artistic work is a painting on copper of the Miracle of S Rosalia (1663), the patron saint of Palermo. After 1686 he created many works of an ephemeral character. For the feasts of S Rosalia and for important political events he provided designs for lavish triumphal chariots, probably developed from those by Jacques Callot, triumphal arches and other ceremonial apparatus set up on principal roads and piazzas, and he painted hangings, papier-mâché models and massive altarpieces for the cathedral. These works influenced Amato’s permanent architecture. The spiral columns of the campanile of S Giuseppe dei Teatini, Palermo, recall the festival designs of ...

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Hans J. Van Miegroet

In