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David Rodgers

(b Glasgow, April 20, 1707; d Edinburgh, June 2, 1776).

Scottish printer and educator. He was of humble origin, but determined to become a printer. In 1739 he went to Paris where he purchased fine and rare books that he sold in London for a profit. Two years later he had established a bookshop in Glasgow and began to print with such success that in 1743 he was appointed printer to the university. Foulis’s Iliad (1757) and Odyssey (1758) are among the finest examples of 18th-century typography. From 1751–3 he travelled in France and the Netherlands purchasing prints and over 350 paintings to provide the nucleus of the teaching collection of an academy of fine arts that he intended to establish in Glasgow on his return. The Foulis Academy (founded 1753) was housed in the university and financed by loans from Glasgow merchants. Tuition was free and the academy was the first to award scholarships for foreign study. It also held the first public art exhibition in ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, Sept 15, 1712; d Paris, Oct 8, 1768).

French printer and publisher. He was born into a family of printers and type-founders. In 1729 he began to work at the celebrated Le Bé type foundry in Paris, of which his father was manager; he also studied drawing at the Académie de St Luc. In 1736 he started up as a professional type-founder, producing woodcut vignettes and some large-format type. In 1739 Fournier was formally registered as a typecutter. He made the first move towards the standardization of type sizes with a Table of Proportions (1737), although his method was supplanted by that of the Didot family. His first specimen book, Modèles des caractères de l’imprimerie (Paris, 1742), showed 4600 punches. Fournier’s typographic skills lay in his modernization of type forms. His roman types increased the thin–thick stroke contrasts and used flat, unbracketed serifs; his italic has been described as the most legible of all. His interests also lay in the design of metalcut floral ornaments and in music cutting, for which he developed a more unified system than that previously possible. Fournier’s technical improvements included moulds for the continuous casting of rules and leads that allowed for much longer rules. Having applied in ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

(b Nancy, May 4, 1717; d Paris, March 22, 1769).

French engraver and publisher. After studying painting at Nancy, he started work in 1733 in Dijon as an engraver of coats of arms. From 1740 to 1748 he worked as an engraver in Lyon with the publisher Robert-Menge Pariset, who in 1748 brought out his Principes de dessein faciles et dans le goût du crayon (Pognon and Bruand, nos 1–12). François then established himself in Paris, where he published (1751–3) volumes of engravings by the architect Emmanuel Héré (pb 227–91) of the châteaux in Lorraine belonging to Stanislav I, King of Poland. François was a skilled and inventive printmaker, who is best known for being the first in France to practise engraving in the crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) in order to imitate chalk drawings. To achieve this, he employed, in turn, the burin to make double or triple lines (1740–48); a plate prepared by the use of a mezzotint rocker (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Hammelburg, Franconia, c. 1460; d Basle, Oct 27, 1527).

German humanist printer. He moved to Basle in 1491 and trained as a printer and scholarly editor in the Amerbach family workshop. After the death of Johannes Amerbach in 1513, Froben established himself as an independent publisher with a particular interest in the printing of Biblical and patristic works (notably a nine-volume edition of St Jerome), and engaged Hans Holbein the younger (see Holbein family §(3)) and Urs Graf to design decorative initials and borders for his books; Holbein also painted his portrait (of which a copy is in Windsor Castle). Froben became a close friend of Desiderius Erasmus, who lived in Froben’s house, and was the publisher of Erasmus’s Greek New Testament (the first to be published). Froben also published tracts by Luther, but when Luther and Erasmus clashed over the doctrine of grace, Froben supported Erasmus. After Froben’s death the publishing house was managed by his descendants until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).

German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...

Article

(Théodore)

(b Courtrai, Oct 12, 1814; d Nice, April 12, 1902).

British publisher and dealer. He began his career in his father’s printing, binding and bookselling business, with a reading-room, at Courtrai, Belgium. From c. 1833 he was established in Paris, with his own print and paper-making business. In April 1840 Gambart arrived in England, representing Goupil’s print publishing business. By autumn 1842 he had formed a partnership known as Gambart & Junin, which specialized in the import of prints from the Continent. After a brief period at 12 Denmark Street, London, the expanding business was set up at 25 Berners Street, in March 1844, as publishers, importers and exporters of prints. It was from this address that Gambart launched his career as one of the leading print publishers of the mid-Victorian period, with engravings after all the most celebrated British and continental artists of the time, including Edwin Landseer, John Everett Millais, Rosa Bonheur, Lawrence Alma-Tadema and William Holman Hunt. Probably his most famous publication (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Paris, 1480; d Paris, 1561).

French typefounder. Garamond worked as a typefounder for several Parisian printers and designed the roman typeface now known as typi regii and the Greek type (now known as grecs du roi) used by Robert Estienne in an edition of Eusebius (1544) commissioned by Valois, House of family §(14)...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(b Rouen, 1799; d after 1834).

French print publisher and dealer. He was the son of a prosperous Rouen magistrate and may have had family connections with the engraver Thomas Gaugain. Henri Gaugain went to Paris to study law, but in 1826 he entered into partnership with the firm of Lambert & Noël to run a lithographic business in the Rue de Vaugirard. At the same time he opened a shop at 2 Rue Vivienne. His first prints were commissioned from the Romantic generation of artists young in the 1820s—Gustave Boulanger, Ary Scheffer, Camille Roqueplan, Eugène Devéria and Eugène Delacroix (who remembered him with gratitude). They shared the current taste for English literature, and Gaugain published scenes from Walter Scott from 1827 onwards, and in the same year a volume entitled Souvenirs du théâtre anglais dessinés par MM. Devéria et Boulanger.

In 1829 Gaugain opened a picture gallery within the elegant arcade known as the Galerie Colbert, naming it the Musée Colbert. His exhibitions, for which he published catalogues, received much critical attention, particularly as there had been no official Salon since ...

Article

David Alexander

(b Abbeville, Somme, March 24, 1756; d 1812).

French engraver and print-publisher, active in England. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1771, with the aim of becoming a painter; he exhibited in 1778–81 at the Royal Academy. In 1780 he began to engrave, initially engraving and publishing his own paintings. Some colour prints that he published were among the few English ones printed from several plates, rather than à la poupée. Gaugain built up a successful business; he bought pictures and drawings to engrave as decorative stipples, such as Selling Guinea Pigs and Dancing Dogs (1789–90), after George Morland, which enjoyed a large sale abroad, and the Sailor Boy after William Redmore Bigg, engraved (1791–2) by Thomas Burke. The decline in the export trade probably affected Gaugain more than most print-publishers, as in 1793 his stock of plates was auctioned. He continued to engrave, notably an ambitious Hogarthian set of Diligence and Dissipation...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b Paris, 1561; d Paris, c. 1635).

French engraver, draughtsman, print publisher and dealer. He was the son of the goldsmith Pierre Gaultier, but probably not, as has been stated, the son-in-law of Antoine Caron and brother-in-law of Thomas de Leu. His first dated engravings (1576; Linzeler, 13–120) form part of a suite of 108 plates illustrating the New Testament. He was a very prolific engraver—his output reached at least 985 prints—and treated various genres, producing religious engravings, allegories, coats of arms and above all portraits and book illustrations. Although he copied the suite of engravings by Agostino dei Musi and B. Daddi after Raphael’s fresco cycle the Loves of Cupid and Psyche in the Farnesina, Rome (l 163–95), most of his work was from his own drawings. His work was published by a number of print publishers: Pierre Gourdelle (fl 1555–88) and, in 1591, by his wife (e.g. the Salvator Mundi, l...

Article

Michel Melot

[Hippolyte-Guillaume-Sulpice Chevalier]

(b Paris, Jan 13, 1804; d Paris, Nov 24, 1866).

French lithographer and painter. He was one of the most highly esteemed artists of the 19th century. Like Daumier, with whom he is often compared, he produced around 4000 lithographs for satirical journals and fashion magazines, but while Daumier concentrated on giving a panoramic view of public life, it was said of Gavarni that his work constituted the ‘memoirs of the private life of the 19th century’. He specialized in genre scenes, in which the protagonists are usually young women, treating them as little dramatic episodes drawn from the light-hearted life of bohemia, dear to the Romantics.

Gavarni was initiated into the art of precision drawing while still very young, being apprenticed to an architect and then to a firm making optical instruments. He was also a pupil at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers. His first lithograph appeared when he was 20: a miscellany that accorded well with the taste of the time. His second work, the album ...

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Article

JoLynn Edwards

(b Paris, 1694; d Paris, March 24, 1750).

French marchand-mercier, picture dealer, publisher, and pioneer of the Parisian auction business. In 1718 his marriage to Marie-Louise Sirois (1698–1725), daughter of the master glazier, Pierre Sirois, brought him into the circle of Antoine Watteau’s intimate friends and determined the future course of his activities. His father-in-law frequently exhibited pictures and occasionally worked in association with the painter Antoine Dieu, a picture dealer, whose stock and business Gersaint had bought before his marriage. He took possession of Dieu’s shop, Au Grand Monarque, on the Petit Pont, on 15 April 1718, but it was destroyed by fire only a few days later. Gersaint rebounded to set up his business on the Pont Notre-Dame where he remained throughout his life. Sirois was also an early patron and friend of Watteau, who recorded his features in Sous un habit de Mezzetin (c. 1716–18; London, Wallace), and published ten prints after his work. Gersaint maintained this connection: after Watteau returned from London in ...

Article

Michel Melot

[Gosset de Guines, Louis-Alexandre]

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1840; d Charenton, May 1, 1885).

French draughtsman. The illegitimate son of the Comte de Guines and orphaned at an early age, he was recommended by the journalist Nadar to Charles Philipon, who hired him to work on the Journal amusant in 1859. At that time he signed himself André Gil; this changed to Gill in 1862. He was very successful during the Second Empire (1852–70) and made a speciality of large caricatures, full of power and movement, that covered the opening pages of satirical magazines — mainly La Lune, an opposition journal created by François Polo in 1865, when Napoleon III’s regime was becoming more liberal. Gill’s attacks reinforced the current of hostility against the regime in the late 1860s. Many of his prints were censored. On 17 November 1867 he drew the Emperor in the guise of Rocambole, a brigand and assassin who was the hero of a popular newspaper serial, and La Lune...

Article

Valerie Holman

(b Vienna, June 3, 1896; d London, June 27, 1973).

British writer and publisher of Austrian birth. He studied literature, Classics and art history at the University of Vienna. He began his career as a poet, and in 1923 he joined his schoolfriend Bela Horovitz in founding in Vienna the publishing house Phaidon Verlag, where he played a major role not only in publishing but also in editing and translating the literary texts that were the firm’s original specialization. Goldscheider was also responsible for the distinctive design of text pages, the selection of typefaces and of black-and-white photographs and the choice of colour plates, whose reproduction he supervised personally. His association with Phaidon lasted 50 years, and he played a leading role in the development of the illustrated art book.

In the early 1930s Phaidon produced large editions of the works of the great European scholars and historiographers, with illustrations chosen by Goldscheider; among these were new editions of Theodor Mommsen’s ...

Article

[Hendrik]

(b Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], Jan or Feb 1558; d Haarlem, Jan 1, 1617).

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker, print publisher and painter. He was an important artist of the transitional period between the late 16th century and the early 17th, when the conception of art in the northern Netherlands was gradually changing. Goltzius was initially an exponent of Mannerism, with its strong idealization of subject and form. Together with the other two well-known Dutch Mannerists, Karel van Mander I and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, he introduced the complex compositional schemes and exaggeratedly contorted figures of Bartholomäus Spranger to the northern Netherlands. These three artists are also supposed to have established an academy in Haarlem in the mid-1580s, but virtually nothing is known about this project. In 1590 Goltzius travelled to Italy, thereafter abandoning Spranger as a model and developing a late Renaissance style based on a broadly academic and classicizing approach. Later still, his art reflected the growing interest in naturalism that emerged in the northern Netherlands from ...

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W. Le Loup

(b Venlo, Oct 30, 1526; d Bruges, March 2, 1583).

Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter and numismatist. He was the son of Rutger den Meeler (Rutger van Weertsburg) and Catherina Goltzius, whose family name was taken by her husband. After studying in Venlo, Hubertus was sent to Luik (Liège) to the academy of Lambert Lombard, to whom he was apprenticed until 1546. He then moved to Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St Luke and took on Willem Smout as his pupil. Before 1550 Goltzius married Elisabeth Verhulst Bessemers, a painter from Mechelen, with whom he had four sons and three daughters. Her sister Mayken Verhulst was the second wife of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, which brought Goltzius into artistic circles. Goltzius was active in Antwerp as a painter and antiques dealer, but the only painting that can be attributed to him with certainty is the Last Judgement (1557) for the town hall at Venlo. In Antwerp he was introduced by his friends to prominent numismatists, for whom he made drawings of coins and began a system of their classification. For the same purpose Goltzius undertook a study trip in ...

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Linda Whiteley

(b March 7, 1806 or 1809; d May 1893).

French print publisher and dealer. He was a descendant on his mother’s side of the Drouais family of painters. At the age of 21 he set up as a printseller in association with John Arrowsmith, and in 1829 registered officially as a printseller in partnership with J. H. Rittner (1802–40), who had gone to Paris from Dresden with the intention of dealing in German prints. The critic Feuillet de Conches drew Goupil’s attention to Paul Delaroche, and prints after this artist’s work began to appear with some frequency. By 1840 the firm had made a name as publisher of copperplate engravings executed by the most famous engravers of the day, Luigi Calamatta and Louis-Pierre Henriquel-Dupont. Delaroche was the favourite of the firm. In 1841, following the death of Rittner, the firm was dissolved and re-established in partnership with Théodore Vibert, also a publisher of engravings. The firm published for an international market; Goupil opened a branch in London in ...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(fl Venice, 1543–58).

Italian painter, wood-engraver and publisher. No paintings by him are known. In August 1546, on his return from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he requested from the Venetian Senate a licence to publish a series of drawings executed during his journey. This privilege being granted, the work was published under the title Particularis et vera descriptio plateae sancti sepulcri … diligentia Dominici Dalle Greche Venet. Pict. descripta MDXLI … (the date is clearly incorrect). He later provided illustrations for the Pellegrinaggio di Ulrich von Wilkanaus (Prague, 1547). He also provided the botanical illustrations for the codices by the naturalist Pietro Antonio Michiel (Venice, Bib. N. Marciana, MSS Marc. It. II. 26-30/4860–4). Apart from some maps, some of which are lost, his most notable undertaking is the 1549 edition of Titian’s 12-block wood-engraving of the Submersion of Pharaoh’s Army in the Red Sea. On the Pharaoh’s scroll ornament is the inscription ...

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Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...