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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

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Marcus Burke

[Alvárez de Toledo] [now Berwick y Alba]

Spanish family of politicians and collectors. The prominent role of the Alvárez de Toledo family in the history of Spain and the dynastic marriages that have joined many other titles into the house of Berwick y Alba have placed the Alba collection among the finest in Europe. Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo (1507–82), the ‘Gran-Duque’ de Alba, Governor of the Netherlands (from 1567), commissioned paintings from Anthonis Mor and Titian (General Pardon Conceded to Flanders by the Duque de Alba; Christ in the House of Martha; portrait of Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, Duque de Alba, in Armour; all Madrid, Pal. Liria, Col. Duke of Alba). His namesake, Don Fernando Alvárez de Toledo, the 6th duke, returned to Spain in 1653 from an embassy in Italy with a large shipment of works of art. The family collection, which included an impressive holding of tapestries, was housed in the palace of La Abadia in Extremadura and at the former ducal seat in Alba de Tormes....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Slip clay that can produce a dark brown glaze. Albany slip was mined near Albany, NY, from the early 19th century, and was used on American stoneware. It is no longer mined commercially, but is imitated by colouring similar clays.

‘Slip Sliding Away’, Ceramics Monthly, 36 (Jan 1988), pp. 57–8...

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(b Amsterdam, Aug 13, 1820; d Amsterdam, March 17, 1889).

Dutch writer, critic and collector. He was raised in a cultivated and artistic merchant family but preferred writing to commerce. In addition to serving as an editor of the Volksalmanak voor Nederlandsche Katholieken, he published the Dietsche Warande. His lifelong advocacy of Roman Catholic emancipation is reflected in many of his short stories (written under the pseudonym Pauwels Foreestier) concerning Catholic life in 17th-century Holland. In 1876 he was appointed professor of aesthetics and the history of art at the Rijksacademie voor Beeldenden Kunsten, Amsterdam. An architectural preservationist and an important critic of the art and architecture of his time, he asserted that art should serve a religious function, as it had during the Middle Ages. It should be social, idealistic and transcendental. In his ideal society the arts would form a harmonious unit under the heading of architecture. His brother-in-law P. J. H. Cuypers was the leading Dutch architect of the day, whose career was assisted by Alberdingk Thijm’s advocacy of Gothic Revivalism in architecture. Alberdingk Thijm was particularly opposed to the painters of the Barbizon and Hague schools, whose work he considered to have no underlying purpose. Rather, he preferred the Düsseldorf school, which displayed a knowledge of history and literature. His large collections reflected his philosophical orientation. His numerous 17th and 18th-century Dutch paintings, mostly by minor masters, represented all the genres. He also owned a large collection of drawings and prints, as well as books, manuscripts and religious art from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, which included a Gothic ciborium, a Byzantine crucifix and embroideries on silk, which were dispersed at auction after his death (Amsterdam, Muller, ...

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M. Puls

(b Werden, Essen, May 28, 1835; d Cologne, Aug 9, 1913).

German sculptor and teacher. He trained (1851–4) as a wood-carver in Elberfeld, and from 1855 he studied at the Akademie der Künste, Berlin, also working in the studios of August Fischer (1805–66) and Hugo Hagen (?1818–1871). In 1865 Albermann moved to Cologne and established his own workshop. From 1871 to 1896 he taught the modelling class at the Gewerbliche Zeichenschule, and from the 1890s onwards he was active in the Verein zur Förderung der Bildhauerkunst in Rheinland und Westfalen, which was established in reaction to Berlin’s dominance in commissions for monumental sculpture.

Albermann’s early work consists mostly of figurative and ornamental decoration for private houses in Cologne. From the late 1870s, however, he produced many war memorials and statues, of Emperor William I, Frederick III, Bismarck and Moltke, often combined in groups as founders of the German Reich. These works were erected further afield, although still all within the Rhineland, for example at Bielefeld; Werden, Essen, and Kettwig, Essen; Kempen; Neuss and Zweibrücken....

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Hilary Morgan

In 

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Colin J. Bailey

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Elisa García Barragán

(b Marseille; d after 1912).

Italian sculptor and teacher, active in France and Mexico. He began his career in Marseille as a sculptor of the French school, and in 1888 he received an honourable mention at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he exhibited regularly until 1913. He probably moved to Mexico at the end of 1889. He won critical acclaim for his first works there, marble and bronze busts of important Mexican figures. In 1891 the government commissioned him to create statues of national heroes and dignitaries for the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City; the statue of Col. Miguel López was exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, IL, in 1893 and at the World’s Fair in Atlanta, GA, in 1895, winning prizes on both occasions. This was Alciati’s most dramatic and realist work, and the influence of Rodin is clear. In 1895 he was appointed professor of sculpture, decoration and modelling at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. At the turn of the century he was commissioned to create, under the direction of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Spanish pottery manufactory. In 1727 a pottery factory was established in Alcora, in the Catalan province of Castellón (see also Valencia §3). The most important products of the factory in its early years were plaques and glazed floor titles; the plaques were typically decorated with biblical or mythological scenes set within moulded frames, and the floor tiles used religious motifs (for churches and convents) and secular subjects such as maps and theatrical scenes. Later in the century the factory began to produce tableware, notably fruit bowls, sugar bowls, and pyramidical centrepieces. At the end of the 18th century Italian models were displaced by French design, and the factory began to produce tableware of soft porcelain in the Sèvres style. In this period the factory also started to manufacture the polychrome earthenware terrines known as Fauna d’Alcora because they were the shape of animals. The factory closed in 1895...

Article

Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Tivenys, Tarragona, 1835; d Madrid, Dec 1908).

Spanish sculptor. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado, Madrid, where he later taught, and also under the sculptor José Piquer y Duart. His oeuvre is diverse in subject-matter—including religious compositions, portrait busts and monumental sculpture—and also in material—he worked in clay, plaster, marble and stone, as well as producing polychrome statues. Alcoverro y Amorós was a regular exhibitor at the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes, and it was largely through them that his work became known; in 1867 he exhibited Ishmael Fainting with Thirst in the Desert of Beer-Sheba (Valencia, Real Acad. B.A. S Carlos). In 1870 he carved a St John the Baptist (1870; untraced) for Bermeo, Vizcaya, and at the following year’s Exposición he showed Lazarus at the Gate of Dives and Christ and Mary Magdalene as well as two portrait busts (one, in clay, of Rossini). In 1876 he exhibited a statue of ...

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Olivier Bonfait and François Quiviger

[Aldovrandi]

Italian family of patrons. The Aldrovandi were one of the oldest patrician families in Bologna and were prominent in the city’s civic life from at least the 12th century. Giovanni Francesco Aldrovandi (d 1512) was ambassador to Rome and Ferrara, a poet and patron of literature. According to Vasari, Michelangelo stayed in Aldrovandi’s palazzo in 1494–5 (see Michelangelo §I 1., (i)). The most renowned family member was (1) Ulisse Aldrovandi, the naturalist and antiquarian. Conte Filippo Aldrovandi commissioned paintings from Guercino, such as the Portrait of a Dog (c. 1625; Pasadena, CA, Norton Simon Mus.), and fresco decorations in the Villa Giovannina, near Cento. The earliest inventory of the family collection (1644) lists 72 items; by c. 1690 this had grown to 293. Pompeo Aldrovandi (1668–1752), who was made a cardinal in 1734, began rebuilding the family palazzo (now the Palazzo Montanari) in ...

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G. A. Printseva

(Yakovlevich)

(b St Petersburg, 1753/4; d St Petersburg, Nov 23, 1824).

Russian painter. The son of a retired soldier, he studied from 1766 at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, from 1767 in the class of bird, animal, fruit and flower painting. In 1772 the rector of the Academy, the history painter Anton Losenko, drew attention to Alekseyev’s skill in rendering perspective, and Alekseyev joined the landscape class, studying under Gavriil Kozlov (?1738–91) and Antonio Peresinotti (1708–78). He graduated in 1773, and he was sent to Venice for three years to study scenery painting. There he worked under the direction of Giuseppe Moretti and Pietro Gaspari (c. 1720–85). He was not disposed to working in the traditions of the late Baroque, and he soon gave up the idea of becoming a scenery painter, deciding instead to paint landscapes and to move to Rome, where there were skilled classicist painters. He did not, however, receive the Academy’s permission, and in ...

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Gordon Campbell

[Fr. point d’Alençon]

Type of lace produced in France. In 1675 a group of 30 Venetian lacemakers was settled in the Norman town of Alençon by Jean-Baptiste Colbert (Louis XIV’s minister of finance). The Venetians instructed local needlewomen in point de Venise, but by the 1690s the distinctive local style known as point d’Alençon had emerged (see alsoLace §2, (iii), §2(iii)). Needlewomen adopted the net ground technique, and invented a series of new stitches.

Lace production was halted at the Revolution because of its association with the ancien régime, but revived under Napoleon (reg 1804–14) and again under the Second Empire. Lace is still produced in Alençon, supported by the Atelier National du Point d’Alençon founded in 1976, and there are good collections of Alençon lace in the Musée de la Dentelle au Point d’Alençon and the Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle.

The term point d’Alençon now denotes a style as well as a place of origin. The style is characterized by a uniform mesh (called the ...

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José Manuel Arnáiz

(b Madrid, Nov 6, 1807; d Madrid, June 30, 1845).

Spanish painter and illustrator. He studied at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, under Juan Antonio Ribera y Fernández and José de Madrazo y Agudo. He worked independently of court circles and achieved some fame but nevertheless died in such poverty that his burial was paid for by friends. He is often described as the last of the followers of Goya, in whose Caprichos and drawings he found inspiration for the genre scenes for which he became best known. Of these scenes of everyday life and customs the more interesting include The Beating (Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro) and Galician with Puppets (c. 1835; Madrid, Casón Buen Retiro). Alenza y Nieto’s numerous drawings include the illustrations for Alain-René Lesage’s Gil Blas (Madrid, 1840), for an edition of the poems of Francisco de Quevedo published by Castello and for the reviews Semanario pintoresco and El Reflejo. The painting Triumph of David...

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Roman Prahl

(b Mirotice, nr Písek, Nov 18, 1852; d Prague, July 10, 1913).

Czech painter, illustrator and designer. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague under Josef Mathias von Trenkwald (1824–97) and Jan Swerts (1820–79), and he rarely travelled, except to Vienna in 1873 and Italy in 1877. He was one of the leading Bohemian artists of the so-called Generation of the National Theatre. The décor of this theatre, opened in 1881 and again after a fire in 1883, marked a national artistic rebirth. Aleš, together with František Ženíšek, had won the competition in 1877 to decorate the walls, lunettes and ceilings of the theatre foyer. Aleš’s cycle My Country, designed for the lunettes, is one of the most famous Czech works of art.

In the late 1870s Aleš emerged as a draughtsman and painter with a rich imagination. He outlined many cycles to be finished later and he studied heraldry, which contributed to the development of his original ornamental style. He applied this style for the first time on painted furniture, as in ...

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