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W. Iain Mackay

Peruvian city and capital of the department of Arequipa. The city (population in 1996 c. 680,600) is situated on the River Chili in a fertile valley in the foothills of the Andes and on the slopes of a volcanic range. Earliest settlement dates back to the Early Horizon (c. 900–c. 200 bc), and there have been archaeological finds at San Juan de Siguas, Santa Isabel de Siguas (to the north), and in the Vítor Valley (to the west of Arequipa). The Lupaca people first settled in the area around what is now Arequipa c. ad 800–1200. The site of Churajon lies about 30 km from Arequipa; substantial agricultural systems and terracing characterize the region. In drier areas there are numerous petroglyphs, notably at Toro Muerto. By the 1350s provincial Inca settlements had been established near the present-day city. Arequipa would have been a tambo (Quechua: ‘road-side inn’) on the route between the highlands and the coast. The Spaniards founded the city of Villahermosa de Arequipa (or Villa Hermosa de la Asunción) on ...

Article

Irene Fanning, Mario Tesler, Jorge Glusberg, Cheryl Jiménez Frei, Nelly Perazzo, Christopher Hartop, Jorge F. Rivas Pérez, Ruth Corcuera, Marta Arciprete de Reyes, Julieta Zunilda Vaquero and Marta Calvo

[República Argentina]

South American country. It is bordered to the north by Bolivia and Paraguay, to the northeast by Brazil and Uruguay, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the west by Chile (see fig.). Buenos Aires is the capital city, and the country is divided administratively into several areas. The mild and fertile Pampa region in the center accounts for the country’s agricultural wealth; the Andes in the west range from dry, hot, northern peaks to sub-Antarctic Patagonia; the arid northwest is rich in mineral reserves. The north is covered by subtropical forest, known as the Chaco. Mesopotamia, to the northeast, is enclosed by two great rivers, the Paraná and the Uruguay, which 16th-century Spanish expeditioners followed in search of the gold and silver that they believed Argentina (“the land of silver”) concealed. This varied hinterland has, nevertheless, remained underdeveloped at the expense of the over-populated capital; around a third of the total population lives there and in the surrounding province. The majority of the population is of European descent, particularly Spanish and Italian, but also including British, German, French, Lebanese, Syrian, Eastern European, and Jewish communities, with growing immigration coming from neighboring countries and East Asia as well. The population of African descent that was introduced through slavery during colonial rule has all but disappeared, not least as a result of an epidemic of yellow fever in ...

Article

Gustavo Navarro-Castro

(b Caracas, 1952).

Venezuelan photographer. He was self-taught and dedicated himself to photography from 1972, first working for the magazine Escena (1974–6) and then for the Galería de Arte Nacional in Caracas (1976–8). His first exhibition, Acercamiento a Zitman, was held at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Sofía Imber, Caracas, in ...

Article

Pedro Querejazu

(b Catavi, Potosí, 1932).

Bolivian painter. He was self-taught as a painter and had his first one-man show in Cuzco in 1954, which was followed by 25 one-man shows in La Paz and by exhibitions in North American cities and in Paris. Arnal was the principal exponent of the Generación del 52. In the 1950s he painted still-lifes with subjects drawn from open-air markets that included potatoes, roosters and dogs, as in The Inn (1960; La Paz, Mus. N. A.). In the early 1960s he painted towns of earth and stone, and at the end of the 1960s he paintedAparapitas, the stevedores of La Paz, as well as condors and recumbent female nudes, which in the 1980s became Mountains, especially during the period 1985 to 1988. He then portrayed the galleries of Mines with a progressive stylization and abstraction, and repeated all the themes he had treated throughout his career in a number of series under the overall title the ...

Article

Robert M. Craig

American architectural firm incorporated in 1977 by Bernardo Fort-Brescia (b Lima, Peru, 19 Nov 1950), Laurinda Hope Spear (b Rochester, MN, 23 Aug 1950), Hervin Romney (b Havana, Cuba, 9 Feb 1941), Andres Duany (b New York, 7 Sept 1949), and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (b Bryn Mawr, PA, 10 Dec 1950). The latter two members of the firm left in 1980 to start their own practice, as did Romney, in 1984. Arquitectonica’s modernism was youthful, unpredictable, and slightly rebellious, and essentially displaced the polemical and elitist high modern with a populist, chic, and jazzy modernism. The firm continued the colourism of Miami’s ‘tropical art deco’, but its roots remained in the Latin culture of Peru, Cuba, and Miami: ultimately their commercially hot architecture called to mind the non-academic character of Pop art, the non-conformity and pizzazz of youth, and the cultural flare and brassy musicality of Brazil 66, Tijuana Brass, and the Miami Sound Machine....

Article

Fausto Ramírez

(b Santa Ana Chiautempan, near Tlaxcala, Aug 28, 1803; d Puebla, Dec 22, 1874).

Mexican painter. He was one of the first students at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Real Casa de la Academia y Junta de Caridad para la Buena Educación de la Juventud, founded in Puebla in December 1813, which eventually became the Academia de Bellas Artes. In September 1825 he was recommended and hired as a professor there, where he taught, possibly until 1860. In the last years of his life he taught drawing in the Hospicio de Pobres of Puebla. He is the most representative artist of the mid-19th-century Puebla school, both for his teaching and for his abundant production within several pictorial genres (with the exception of landscape painting).

Arrieta concentrated at first on portraits, but c. 1840 he began to specialize in costumbrista paintings and still-lifes, for which he acquired a large local clientele. He exhibited paintings of both kinds from 1851 at the academies in Puebla and Mexico City. His genre paintings, like the Flemish and Dutch works from which they are derived, often have a moralizing intention, a characteristic the painter shared with contemporary ...

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Real de Pachuca, c. 1670; d Mexico City, 1738).

Mexican architect. He qualified as an architect in 1691. Between 1695 and 1709 he worked on the Basílica of Guadalupe, Mexico, which is mainly interesting for its broken lines and for the octagonal form used in the dome, in the section of the towers, and the lintels of the doors. His activities were concentrated mainly in Mexico City, where he worked as Maestro Mayor for the Inquisition and the cathedral. He was responsible for the churches of S Gregorio and S Bernardo, the church and convent of S Teresa la Nueva, the monastery of S José de los Carmelitas Descalzos, the church of El Amor de Dios, and the church, sacristy, and sacristy entrance hall of S Domingo, as well as the Palace of the Inquisition and Customs, all in Mexico City. He also collaborated on the churches of S Clara, Jesús Nazareno, S Francisco, S Miguel, and La Profesa, all in Mexico City, and worked on the Colegio Seminario of the cathedral. His non-ecclesiastical works include the S Juan del Río, Mariscala, and Alhóndiga bridges. He used a white stone from Chiluca and ...

Article

Latin American art has held a strong place in the international market since the 1990s, with markedly less speculation than other geographic areas, such as in China. However, the growth of international exhibitions in Latin America has helped to increase the visibility of modern and contemporary Latin American artists on the global stage, both expanding awareness of regional traditions and dispelling stereotypical notions of a monocultural Latin American style.

The São Paulo Art Biennial, the second oldest art biennial in the world, was founded in 1951 under the auspices of the Italian Brazilian industrialist and arts patron Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho (also known as Ciccillo Matarazzo) and his wife Yolanda Penteado. Initially conceived as an extension of the then recently established Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo (1948), the Biennial aimed to provide knowledge of contemporary art trends—primarily from Europe and the United States—to the Brazilian art world while also spotlighting Brazil as an international contemporary art center. Modeled after the Venice Biennale, the São Paulo Biennial in its early years was organized around national pavilions (“National Representations”) exhibiting works from Brazilian artists and those from countries participating in the event via diplomatic invitation. In the early 2000s this format was completely abandoned; only the display of Brazilian art works and international exhibitions organized by rotating chief curators remained. Since ...

Article

Magazines play an important role in the articulation and diffusion of cultural modernization programs in Latin America. From Martín Fierro, the 1920s Argentine magazine that became the avant-garde standard of excellence, to the emblematic Revista de Antropofagia Paulista, in which Oswald de Andrade’s “Manifiesto Antropófago” appears with vignettes and drawings by Tarsila, the vanguard of magazine publications projected Latin American artists’ aspirations to a transformed world.

Magazines had a key role in disseminating the aesthetic ideals of various artistic groups. For instance, there is a long list of magazines that could be deemed “constructivist” publications. A pioneering title, Círculo y Cuadrado, produced by Joaquín Torres-García (1874–1949) heralded a long series of publications that underscore the geometric universe and abstraction. Publications in this vein, espousing a particular ethos and style, were often short-lived. The paradigmatic case of this is Arturo: Revista de Artes Abstractas, which gathered artists and poets and brought about the debate about abstract art in Buenos Aires in the mid-1940s, even though it only produced a single issue, in ...

Article

Abigail Winograd

Museums have played a central role in the cultural life of Latin American countries from independence to the present. Art museums in particular have featured prominently in civic, nation-building discourse throughout the region, with the opening of such museums often occurring concurrently with major economic and political changes. Museums, wherever they were founded, helped shape collective and social understanding; they were the institutions par excellence in which hegemonic cultural realities could be defined and reflected.

In the 19th century, countries across the Americas gained their independence from European colonial powers. The newly founded republics urgently felt the need to distance themselves from their colonial pasts and endeavored to establish and construct new national identities. Latin American artists and governments began a concerted effort to celebrate their independence through arts and culture. Both paintings (the preferred form) and cultural institutions aimed to create and promote a usable past: a history replete with heroes, founding myths, and “indigenous” symbols of patriotism. These founding myths favored large-scale history paintings, portraits of liberators, and romantic landscapes, housed in museums built by local elites and governments who understood cultural institutions (art museums as well as encyclopedic museums) to be ideal locations to enshrine the project of a cohesive national identity....

Article

Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (see also Investment).

The first major development has been the spread of art price information and art price indexes over the last half-century. After a few difficult decades, art price levels and public interest in the art market were going up again in the 1950s and 1960s. A number of books on the history of the art market and on art investment that were published around that time—Le Vie Etrange des Objets (1959) by Maurice Rheims, Art as an Investment...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

Style of Argentine painting named in 1959 by Eduardo MacEntyre and Miguel Angel Vidal to describe their work, with its power to generate optical sequences by circular, vertical and horizontal displacement, and based on their studies of Georges Vantongerloo. Developing the tradition of geometric abstraction that had emerged in Argentina in the 1940s with groups such as Arte Concreto Invención, Movimiento Madí and Perceptismo, the aim of these artists was to extol the beauty and perfection of geometry through line and colour. They and the collector Ignacio Pirovano (1919–80), who acted as their theorist, were soon joined by the engineer and painter Baudes Gorlero (1912–59), who as well as creating his own work also analysed its development mathematically. All three artists were awarded prizes in 1959 in the Argentine competition Plástica con plásticos by a jury that consisted of the French critic Michel Ragon, the American museum director ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

Argentine movement of the 1940s based in Buenos Aires and led by Gyula Košice and the Uruguayan artists Carmelo Arden Quin (b 1913) and Rhod Rothfuss (b 1920). Together with Joaquín Torres García and the Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (b 1919), they were responsible for the publication in early 1944 of a single issue of a magazine, Arturo, which heralded the development of the Constructivist movement in Argentina, stressing the importance of pure invention and of interdisciplinary links. Tomás Maldonado, who designed the cover, and Lidy Prati (b 1921), who was responsible for most of the vignettes, soon dissociated themselves from their colleagues to help set up the Asociación arte concreto invención; the editorial content of the magazine, however, suggested a coherent aesthetic that was also promoted in booklets published by Košice and Bayley in 1945 and in two exhibitions, Art Concret Invention...

Article

Keith Eggener

(b Mexico City, 1916; d Mexico City, Mar 2, 1999).

Mexican architect. Noted for his minimalist modern houses, Artigas was the most prolific designer working at the Jardines del Pedregal, the Mexico City district developed after World War II by Luis Barragán. The son of the army general and Mexico City police chief Francisco Artigas Barbedillo (1884–1961), Artigas attended school in Mexico City until his family moved to Cotija, Michoacán, during the 1920s. Cotija’s colonial and vernacular buildings would influence some of his later work. Returning to the capital, he entered the Escuela Nacional de Ingeniería, but dropped out after one year, opting to travel and study architecture informally on his own. In California the work of Richard Neutra and other Modernists impressed him greatly. His earliest buildings were private houses in Culiacán, Sinaloa, beginning in 1942. By 1950 he had returned to Mexico City and begun work on the first of many houses in the Pedregal district. Over the next decades Artigas worked extensively in Mexico, designing offices, hotels, houses, urban renewal projects, and schools (when he headed CAPFCE, the Comité Administrador del Programa Federal de Construcción de Escuelas, ...

Article

(b Curitiba, June 23, 1915; d São Paulo, Jan 6, 1985).

Brazilian architect, teacher and writer. He graduated as an engineer–architect from the Escola Politécnica of the University of São Paulo (1937) and became a partner in the design and construction firm Marone & Artigas. In his earliest projects he sought to move away from the academic electicism that dominated São Paulo at the time, and his first projects were influenced by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright; for example, the Rio Branco Paranhos house (1943) was clearly inspired by Wright’s prairie houses. In 1944 he opened his own design office in São Paulo; he was increasingly influenced by the rationalist modernism of Le Corbusier that began to spread from Rio de Janeiro and often used pilotis, brises-soleil and roof gardens at this time, as in the Louveira block of flats (1948) and the Mario Bittencourt house (1949), São Paulo, and the bus station (...

Article

Argentine group of artists formed in 1952 and active until 1954. It was founded on the initiative of the art critic Aldo Pellegrini (1903–1975) as a union of Constructivist painters belonging to the Asociación arte concreto invención—Tomás Maldonado, Alfredo Hlito, Lidy Prati (1921–2008), Ennio Iommi, and Claudio Girola (1923–1994)—and four independent semi-abstract artists: José Antonio Fernández Muro, Sarah Grilo, Miguel Ocampo, and Hans Aebi (1923–1985). Pellegrini’s main concern was with the quality of the artists’ work rather than with a shared program. They were the first abstract artists in Argentina to exhibit together as a group abroad: in 1953 they showed both at the Museu de Arte Moderna in Rio de Janeiro and at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

Pelligrini was pleased with the genuine interaction within the group. The work of the independent artists became more rigorous and economical, inclining progressively toward geometric abstraction, and their lack of dogmatism in turn led the Constructivists to adopt a more flexible approach. The group disbanded on Maldonado’s move to Germany in ...

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Arturo  

Article

Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, April 25, 1944).

Mexican photographer. She studied art at the Universidad Motolinía and at the Universidad Anáhuac, both in Mexico City, and undertook specialist studies at the Club Fotográfico de México. Ascher’s work showed the influence of such photographers as Yousuf Karsh, Sam Haskins (b 1926) and Richard Avedon, but it was also more generally stimulated by the work of Eugène Atget, Alfred Stieglitz, Paul Strand, Manuel Alvarez Bravo and Henri Cartier-Bresson. She made frequent trips to New York, where she acquired experience from photographers and artists that not only enriched her own visual concepts but also the technical aspects of her work. Ascher consolidated her position in Mexican photography through her work, particularly in the acute sensitivity of her many portraits of personalities from the artistic and cultural world. Her series of José Luis Cuevas and Juan Rulfo are among her most outstanding works. After several years of work she collected the material that was published as ...

Article

Argentine group formed in November 1945 by Tomás Maldonado and other Constructivist artists and active until c. 1964. Its other original members were Lidy Prati (b 1921), Alfredo Hlito, Manuel Espinosa, Raúl Lozza (b 1911), Alberto Molenberg (b 1921), Ennio Iommi, Claudio Girola (b 1923), Jorge Souza (b 1919), Primaldo Mónaco (b 1921), Oscar Núñez (b 1919), Antonio Caraduje (b 1920) and the poet Edgar Bayley (b 1919). Maldonado and Prati were prominent among the artists involved in the publication of the single issue of the magazine Arturo in early 1944, in which the image–invention was proposed as an alternative to representational, naturalistic or symbolic imagery, but they did not take part in two exhibitions of associated artists in 1945 that led to the establishment of Arte Madí. In fact, their central role in setting up the Asociación Arte Concreto Invención was a way of declaring their independence from the other group....

Article

Luis Enrique Tord

(b Lima, 1866; d Lima, Jan 12, 1914).

Peruvian painter. He studied at the Academia de S Fernando in Madrid, where he lived from 1883 to 1893; his friends there included Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, a fellow student. On his return to Lima in 1893 he painted portraits and for 14 years taught drawing at the Academia Concha. He also worked as an illustrator for the review ...