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Elisa García Barragán

(b Marseille; d after 1912).

Italian sculptor and teacher, active in France and Mexico. He began his career in Marseille as a sculptor of the French school, and in 1888 he received an honourable mention at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he exhibited regularly until 1913. He probably moved to Mexico at the end of 1889. He won critical acclaim for his first works there, marble and bronze busts of important Mexican figures. In 1891 the government commissioned him to create statues of national heroes and dignitaries for the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City; the statue of Col. Miguel López was exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, IL, in 1893 and at the World’s Fair in Atlanta, GA, in 1895, winning prizes on both occasions. This was Alciati’s most dramatic and realist work, and the influence of Rodin is clear. In 1895 he was appointed professor of sculpture, decoration and modelling at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. At the turn of the century he was commissioned to create, under the direction of ...

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Francisco Portela Sandoval

(b Tivenys, Tarragona, 1835; d Madrid, Dec 1908).

Spanish sculptor. He studied at the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado, Madrid, where he later taught, and also under the sculptor José Piquer y Duart. His oeuvre is diverse in subject-matter—including religious compositions, portrait busts and monumental sculpture—and also in material—he worked in clay, plaster, marble and stone, as well as producing polychrome statues. Alcoverro y Amorós was a regular exhibitor at the Exposiciones Nacionales de Bellas Artes, and it was largely through them that his work became known; in 1867 he exhibited Ishmael Fainting with Thirst in the Desert of Beer-Sheba (Valencia, Real Acad. B.A. S Carlos). In 1870 he carved a St John the Baptist (1870; untraced) for Bermeo, Vizcaya, and at the following year’s Exposición he showed Lazarus at the Gate of Dives and Christ and Mary Magdalene as well as two portrait busts (one, in clay, of Rossini). In 1876 he exhibited a statue of ...

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Marjorie Trusted

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(b c. 1398; d c. 1468).

Sculptor, possibly of Netherlandish or German origin (Sp. alemán: ‘German’), active in Spain. He worked on the Puerta de los Leones on the south transept of Toledo Cathedral, which was begun in 1452 under the direction of the Master of the Works, Hanequin de Bruselas. The portal is important because it establishes Netherlandish influence in Toledo from the middle of the 15th century. Juan Alemán collaborated on the portal with Egas Cueman and Francisco de la Cuevas, but he was given the commission for the most important sculptures: the statues of four Apostles, the three Marys and Nicodemus (for the embrasures) and twenty-four angel groups (for the archivolts). His style shows strong German influence, seen in the accentuated, metallic drapery folds, which impart strong chiaroscuro effects and add to the nobility of the stylized figures. The tympanum of the inner portal, depicting the Tree of Jesse, must also be by Juan Alemán; it includes the original iconographic motif of the tree sprouting from Jesse’s cheek. He probably carved the ...

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José María Azcárate Ristori

(fl 1485; d before 1512).

Spanish wood-carver. He was the most important wood-carver in Toledo in the last decade of the 15th century. His family name was probably Duque, because he is named Rodrigo Duque in a document of Sigüenza Cathedral (Guadalajara). He is first recorded in 1485 in connection with the lower choir-stalls of Toledo Cathedral, which were completed in 1495. The ornamental detail is carefully executed and shows Lower Rhenish stylistic characteristics. The unusual iconography of the 52 stalls represents events in the reconquest of Granada from the Moors, according to accounts of contemporary chroniclers (notably Fernando del Pulgar). The narrative is brisk and lively and enriched by the inclusion of realistic incidents. Alemán was next commissioned to execute the central section of the base of the high altar retable in Toledo Cathedral, which bears fine ornamental carving.

From 1497 Alemán worked simultaneously on the magnificent choir-stalls in the cathedrals of Plasencia (Cáceres) and Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca). The former include portraits of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella and animated biblical scenes, while the latter are dominated by tracery. Alemán probably also provided designs or contributed to the initial stages of work on the choir-stalls of Zamora Cathedral. In ...

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Samo Štefanac

[Aleši, Andrija; Alexii, Andreas; Andrea di Niccolò da Durazzo]

(b Dürres, c. 1425; d Split, 1504).

Dalmatian sculptor and architect of Albanian birth. Although he is recorded in 1435 at Zadar as a pupil of Marco di Pietro da Troia, his most important artistic influence was the Late Gothic style of Giorgio da Sebenico, with whom he worked in 1445 on Šibenik Cathedral and in 1452 at Ancona on the Loggia dei Mercanti. Between 1448 and 1460 Alessi also controlled his own workshop at Split and Rab. In 1466 he began work on his masterpiece, the baptistery at Trogir, which was finished in 1467. The chapel is rectangular in plan, covered with a barrel vault with acute angled coffers; its richly decorated interior is an eclectic blend of Late Gothic and Renaissance elements. The sculpture shares these characteristics: the Baptism of Christ over the entrance, with its elongated figures and complex drapery patterns, derives from Giorgio da Sebenico’s mannered style, while St Jerome in the Desert...

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Carlos Cid Priego

(b Tarragona, 1832; d Barcelona, 1901).

Spanish sculptor. He entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja, Barcelona, when still very young and was a student of the Neo-classical artist Damián Campeny y Estrany, who was also influenced by Romanticism and naturalism. In 1855 Aleu y Teixidor applied for the Chair in Modelling at the Escuela, a position to which he was eventually appointed after the committee had been involved in intrigues and disputes. He taught Catalan sculptors for half a century and wielded an enormous, though not entirely positive, influence. He became Deputy Director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes, belonged to the Academia de Ciencias y Artes of Barcelona and won first prize at the Exposición Nacional de Madrid in 1871.

Almost all the work of Aleu y Teixidor is in Barcelona. The best is the over life-size stone sculpture of St George (1871) for the façade of the Palau de la ...

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M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

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Phillip Lindley

(fl 1291–1317).

English sculptor. His first recorded works are in connection with the funerary monuments for Queen Eleanor of Castile (d 1290), the first wife of King Edward I. Alexander of Abingdon supplied wax models for three small images cast by William of Suffolk for the heart tomb in the Dominican church of the Blackfriars, London, as well as a painted cloth and ironwork to stand round the tomb (all destr.). From 1291 to 1294 he was also employed with Dymenge de Legeris on carving the Purbeck marble tomb-chest for the bronze effigy (both destr.) of Eleanor in Lincoln Cathedral. From William Sedgwick’s drawing of c. 1641, which is included in Sir William Dugdale’s Book of Monuments (London, BL, Loan MS. 38, fol. 98v), it appears to have been very similar to that still surviving at Westminster Abbey, London. Alexander supplied seven images at a cost of 5 marks each for the Charing Mews Eleanor Cross (destr.; ...

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Joan Marter

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Abigail Schade Gary

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Abigail Schade Gary

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Kevin Mulhearn

(b Johannesburg, 1959).

South African sculptor and installation and multimedia artist. Though Alexander trained as a sculptor at the University of the Witwatersrand, earning a Bachelor in Fine Arts in 1982 and a Masters in 1988, she nevertheless pursued a variety of artistic disciplines, regularly employing photomontage and sometimes using video in her practice. While working towards her Masters’ degree, she produced Butcher Boys (1985–6), an iconic work from this contentious era in South African history. The sculptural tableau presents three monstrous, grey nude male figures built from plaster over a gauze core and glazed with oil paint. Seated casually on a bench, their heads strikingly combine human and animal forms, with twisting horns and sealed-up mouths. While Butcher Boys, like many of the artist’s works, responded to its socio-historical context, Alexander typically has not produced explicitly political work or supplied interpretive statements, preferring pieces to remain open-ended in their meanings....

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(b Valencia, Aug 5, 1927).

Spanish sculptor. In 1932 he entered the Institución Libre de Enseñanza, Valencia, directed by José de Navarro (b 1931) who had a great influence on his early education. He later studied at the Instituto Escuela in Valencia and in 1942 joined the Bachillerato Studios at the Colegio de S Tomás de Villanueva. The exhibition in Valencia in 1953 of work by the sculptor Rafael Alvarez Ortega greatly impressed Alfaro, encouraging his enthusiasm for experimental work. In 1955 he established contact with the artists José Solar Vidal Monjalés, Vicent Ventura, Pepe Iborra and Joan Fuster. In 1958 he visited Paris and Brussels, where he saw the major exhibition Les Années cinquante de l’art moderne. In the later 1950s he was associated with Aguliera Cerni, Eusebio Sempere and José Maria de Labra (b 1925), who were among the members of the Parpalló group of Valencian artists formed in Valencia in ...

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Rudolf Preimesberger

(b Bologna, July 31, 1598; d Rome, June 10, 1654).

Italian sculptor, architect and draughtsman. He was, with Gianlorenzo Bernini, the most important sculptor active in Rome in the middle years of the 17th century. After the early death of François Duquesnoy in 1643, Algardi’s work came to represent the classicizing stylistic antithesis to the High Baroque sculpture of Bernini, and the two artists were perceived by their contemporaries as equals and rivals. During Algardi’s first years in Rome, Bernini was the principal sculptor in demand at the court of Urban VIII, and Algardi had to be content with relatively modest commissions given to him by patrons with connections to his native Bologna. It was only during the papacy of Innocent X (1644–55) that he came to true artistic prominence, revealing himself to be one of his century’s greatest relief and portrait sculptors. At a time when few sculptors drew with any skill, Algardi was an accomplished draughtsman, making drawings for his sculptural projects and also original works for engravers. In addition he worked as an architect, though the exact extent of his involvement with the design of many of the buildings with which his name has been associated is unclear....

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A. Delivorrias

(fl second half of the 5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. His date of birth and origins are uncertain; later sources mention both Athens and Lemnos as his birthplace. After the departure of Pheidias to Olympia, Alkamenes became the most eminent exponent of Athenian art. Sources that regard him as a student of Pheidias are not reliable, and the workshop in which he trained and developed his stylistic idiom is unknown. The number of his works in Athenian public buildings and the fact that Thrasybulus entrusted him with the production of a commemorative monument for his Theban allies after the fall of the Tyranny in 403 bc implies that Alkamenes was a supporter of the democratic party.

This monument, the form of which is difficult to visualize, is Alkamenes’ last attested work. His earliest work remains unknown, despite increasing acceptance of the assertion by Pausanias (V.x.8) that Alkamenes helped to execute the architectural sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Two ‘archaistic’ works for the Athenian Acropolis indicate that he must already have been active before the mid-...

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Simon Lee and Guilhem Scherf

French family of artists. (1) Etienne Allegrain was a landscape painter who worked predominantly in the tradition of classical scenes established in the mid-17th century by Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain. His brother Jean-Baptiste Allegrain (1644–before 1714) was a sculptor, while his son Gabriel Allegrain (i) (1679–1748) was also a landscape painter, whose works (e.g. Landscape with Apollo and the Sibyl, Tours, Mus. B.-A.) can be distinguished from those of his father only with difficulty. Gabriel’s son (2) Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain was a sculptor who was much influenced by his more illustrious contemporary and brother-in-law Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. Christophe-Gabriel’s own son Gabriel Allegrain (ii) (1733–after 1779) was a sculptor who worked in the naval dockyard at Rochefort.

Simon Lee

(b Paris, 1644; d Paris, April 2, 1736).

Painter and draughtsman. He was possibly the pupil of Henri Mauperché and in 1676 was admitted (...

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G. Lola Worthington

(b Santa Rosa, CA, Sept 22, 1899; d California, Dec 31, 1990).

Native American (Pomo-Comanche) basketweaver. Taken from her family to attend an Indian boarding school in Covelo, CA, Allen’s father, George Allen, of the Ukiah Pomo, and her mother, Annie Burke (1876–1962), of the Comanche, allowed Elsie’s grandmother Nellie Burke to raise and teach her about Pomo basketry techniques near Cloverdale, CA. A matrilineal skill passed down from mother to daughter, Pomo tradition requires the burial with the deceased of all baskets created during an artist’s lifetime. Annie Burke did not want Pomo basket artistry to die out and demanded that Allen not bury her with her baskets. Allen broke with tradition and kept her mother’s baskets.

In 1919 she married Arthur Allen of the Pinoleville Pomo tribe. Over the next 30 years, Allen devoted herself to education and adding baskets to the family collection. In 1980, her grandniece Susie Billy became her apprentice. Studying for five years, Billy developed her Pomo basket weaving knowledge and increased efforts to preserve Pomo basket cultural traditions. Allen’s oldest daughter, Genevieve Allen Aguilar (...

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Allianz  

Swiss group of painters and sculptors founded in 1937 from various avant-garde elements, with Max Bill, Walter Bodmer, Richard Paul Lohse, Robert S. Gessner (b 1908), Camille Graeser, Fritz Glarner, Max Huber (b 1919) and Verena Loewensberg (b 1912) among its original members; its president was the painter Leo Leuppi (b 1893). The group had no official aesthetic but was not as heterogeneous or politically motivated as the roughly contemporary Gruppe 33, instead displaying a notable bias towards Constructivism and geometric abstraction. The first group exhibition, Neue Kunst in der Schweiz (Basle, Ksthalle, 1938), was followed by a second at the Kunsthaus in Zurich in 1942 and by further group shows at the Galerie des Eaux Vives in Zurich, starting with two in 1944. The Almanach Neuer Kunst in der Schweiz, published by the group in 1940, brought together reproductions of their works with those of artists such as ...

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Morgan Falconer

(b Troutbeck Bridge, Westmoreland, 1951).

English sculptor and draughtsman. He studied at Lancaster College of Art (1968–71) and Central School of Art, London (1971–4), initially training as a ceramicist. He came to prominence in the 1980s in the context of a movement sometimes referred to as ‘New British Sculpture’, which included such artists as Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon and Anthony Gormley. A visit to Greece in the early 1970s fired his interest in Platonic ideas, which began to enter into his work at the end of the decade. Allington was particularly intrigued by the notion that the world is a reflection of a higher ideal; the conjunction of this theme with strategies and ideas drawn from the conceptual and environmental art of the period produced a humorous and almost satirical quality in his art that was to prove lasting. Another abiding concern with the contrast between ideal symbols and real sculptural forms is demonstrated in ...