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Carl Van de Velde

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Milan Ivelić

(b Santiago, 1918; d Jun 1993).

Chilean painter and printmaker. After studying architecture at the Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago he won a scholarship that enabled him to continue his studies at Columbia University, New York, from 1943 to 1945. Having painted sensitive watercolors from nature while living in Chile, his journey to New York had a disquieting effect on him: he translated his experience of the concrete city, with its massive buildings dwarfing the anonymous inhabitants wandering the streets, into nearly abstract geometric compositions. He remained in New York to work with Stanley William Hayter from 1948 to 1950 and later traveled to Spain.

On his return to Chile in 1953 Antúnez founded Taller 99, a workshop modeled on Hayter’s Atelier 17, which had far-reaching effects on the development of printmaking in Chile. His renewed contact in Chile with the natural landscape and its fields, beaches, and mountains allowed him to return to intimate, sensitively colored scenes, as in the ...

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Kenneth W. Prescott

(b Erie, PA, May 23, 1930).

American painter, printmaker and sculptor. He trained at the Cleveland Institute of Art in Cleveland, OH (1948–53), and under Albers family, §1 at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture in New Haven, CT (1953–5). In his paintings of the late 1940s and early 1950s he depicted everyday city life, as in The Bridge (1950; artist’s priv. col., see Lunde, pl. 66). In 1957 he moved to New York, where from 1957 to 1958 he worked as a conservator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and from 1959 to 1961 as a silver designer for Tiffany and Co. During this period he began to produce abstract paintings, using either organic or geometric repeated forms, as in Winter Recipe (1958; New York, Mr and Mrs David Evins priv. col., see Lunde, pl. 100). These led in the early 1960s to asymmetric and imperfectly geometric works, such as ...

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Willemijn Stokvis

(b Amsterdam, April 25, 1921; d Zurich, May 3, 2006).

Dutch painter, sculptor, designer, printmaker and writer. He was first encouraged to paint by an uncle, who gave him a set of paints for his 15th birthday, and he also took painting lessons. From 1940 to 1943 he studied at the Rijksakademie of Amsterdam, where he became friendly with Corneille. His earliest works recalled the painting of George Hendrik Breitner; during World War II, however, he began to paint with a more vigorous palette, with a clear interest in German Expressionism and above all in the work of van Gogh. There was a turning-point in Appel’s style c. 1945 when he found inspiration in the art of the Ecole de Paris and in particular of Matisse and Picasso. This influence remained visible in his work until 1948, for example in a series of plaster sculptures that he made at this time. From 1947, his completely personal, brightly coloured universe of simple, childlike beings and friendly animals populated gouaches, oil pastel drawings, painted wood sculptures and, gradually, oil paintings. His sense of humour comes to the fore in grotesque assembled pieces and wooden reliefs and paintings such as ...

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(b Lyon, Aug 28, 1818; d Lyon, April 29, 1898).

French painter and printmaker. He was a student of François Grobon (1815–1901) and Augustin Thierriat (1789–1870) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. Appian made a speciality of charcoal studies from nature in which colours were transposed into tonal values. From 1852 he worked from nature at Crémieu, together with Corot, Charles-François Daubigny, Auguste Ravier, Louis-Hector Allemand (1809–86) and Louis Carrand. He had by this time achieved financial independence and devoted himself completely to painting.

Appian depicted an enormous range of subjects, visiting the Pyrenees, the Auvergne, the Bugey and Italy: he often favoured views of still waters and the Mediterranean such as The Beach (1870; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). His scenes are frequently dotted with little figures in the style of his friend Corot. The style of this prolific and meticulous production remained rather static until 1877, when Appian abandoned his earlier sombre palette and became a virtuoso colourist, producing work with a glistening enamel-like quality. In ...

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(Gooch)

(b Shalford, Essex, 1854; d 1924).

English mezzotint engraver. He worked in London from the late 1870s until 1903. His early work includes prints after Luke Fildes (e.g. Roses, exh. RA 1877) and Frederic Leighton. Although he continued to engrave contemporary work, he achieved prominence with his prints after 18th- and early 19th-century English portrait painters, copying works by, among others, ...

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Craig Hartley

Term used to describe either the intaglio process or the print made by etching a plate through a special etching ground composed of particles of resin. During the confused early history of the technique, the term manière de lavis was used. However, this led to a misleading broad definition that included any printmaking process emulating the effect of a flat wash. The strict definition above is now generally preferred.

See also Prints, §III, 2.

After stopping-out (with varnish) areas that are to remain white, the image is formed by applying the aquatint ground of resin (or a substitute of asphalt, bitumen or pitch) using one of two methods. The first is to allow the resin to settle on the plate as a dry dust, usually by inserting the plate at the bottom of a box in which the dust has previously been shaken. The plate is then heated so that each separate grain of the dust-ground melts and adheres to the metal. The second method is to dissolve the resin or asphalt in alcohol (or equivalent distillate); this spirit-ground is then poured over the plate. The alcohol evaporates, leaving a thin film of resin which cracks in the final stages of drying....

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Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

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Christiane Paul

(b Buffalo, NY, May 25, 1978).

American computer artist, performance artist, video artist, installation artist, composer, sculptor, and printmaker. He graduated in 2000 from the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, where he originally studied classical guitar but later switched to the technology of music. At Oberlin he also met Paul B. Davis with whom he formed the Beige Programming Ensemble in 2000, and released a record of 8-bit music entitled The 8-Bit Construction Set. In 2010 he co-founded, with Howie Chen and Alan Licht, the band Title TK.

Arcangel’s body of work has consistently addressed a series of themes, such as the manner in which we express ourselves through technological tools and platforms (from Photoshop to YouTube) in funny, original, creative, and awkward ways. His projects often explore our fascination with technology by playfully undermining our expectations of it and limiting viewers’ control. Another theme that frequently surfaces is the speed of technological obsolescence and the absurdity of a given technology’s lifecycle, which often moves from the cutting-edge of design to an insult of good taste (see Siegel, pp. 81–2). Arcangel connects these themes to the history of art, drawing parallels between pop-cultural vernacular and approaches in the fine art world and combining high tech and do-it-yourself (DIY) approaches. Among his best-known works are his hacks and modifications of Nintendo game cartridges and obsolete computer systems from the 1970s and 1980s (...

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(b Rādāuţi, Bukovina, April 28, 1929; d Paris, April 29, 2010).

Israeli painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer, of Romanian birth, active in France. The drawings he made in deportation from Nazi labour camps at the age of 13 and 14 saved his life by attracting attention to his precocious talent. In 1944 he emigrated to Israel, living in a kibbutz near Jerusalem and studying art at the Bezalel School in Jerusalem; after being severely wounded in 1948 in the Israeli War of Independence, he continued his studies in Paris (which he made his home in 1954) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1949–51). He first made his name as an illustrator, for example of an edition of Rainer Maria Rilke’s The Way of Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke (Jerusalem, 1953), for which he was awarded a gold medal at the Milan Triennale in 1954. From 1957 to 1965 he produced abstract paintings, such as Noir basse...

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William Hauptman

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Benjamin Benus

(b Remscheid, Dec 11, 1900; d The Hague, Dec 4, 1988).

German printmaker and graphic designer, active also in the Netherlands. Arntz moved to Düsseldorf in 1919 and, following a brief period of artistic training at Lothar von Kunowski’s art school, became active within the city’s avant-garde artistic circles. In 1920 Arntz made the acquaintance of Polish-born painter Jankel Adler, who in turn connected him to the Cologne painters Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (1894–1933) and Heinrich Hoerle. Arntz maintained a close relationship with these artists over the course of the 1920s and early 1930s; together with a loosely affiliated group of regional and international artists they constituted the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler.

Throughout these years Arntz primarily produced woodcuts. His earliest works in this medium reflect the influence of Expressionism; however, by 1924 Arntz had developed a distinctive approach to figuration, inspired partly by the work of Seiwert and Hoerle, and exemplified by prints such as Streckenarbeiter (1924; The Hague, Gemeentemus.) and ...

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R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

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Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...

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Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...

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Duncan Kinkead

(b Villanueva de los Infantes, Ciudad Real, Nov 3, 1633; d Seville, Jan 12, 1703).

Spanish painter and etcher . He is first documented in Seville in 1652 and entered the painters’ guild there on 16 June 1656. His mature style is predominantly influenced by the work of Murillo and, to a lesser extent, that of Juan de Valdés Leal. In 1675, with Bernardo Simón de Pineda, Arteaga y Alfaro designed the new altarpiece in the Royal Chapel in Seville Cathedral. His first independent commission dates from 1676, yet his finest work is the set of nine Old Testament scenes from 1690 (Seville Cathedral). Although he also worked as a gilder, the trade in painting with the New World was an important source of income for him. He was a prolific but not gifted etcher, producing prints from 1661 until the year of his death. His exact relationship to the etcher Bartolomé Arteaga (fl 1627) is unclear. Francisco de Arteaga (d 1679), Matías’s son (not his brother), was also an etcher. In Seville, Arteaga y Alfaro served the guild and the Real Academia de Santa Isabel de Hungría in various posts....

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Blanca García Vega

(b Huesca, c. 1650; d Huesca, 1711).

Spanish engraver, painter, architect, mathematician and astronomer . He founded the chair of mathematics at the University of Huesca, designed the façade of the university and from 1690 was responsible for overseeing the whole of its construction. He executed an etching of this façade, as well as others showing allegories referring to the city and the university. Artiga wrote scientific and literary works, including an unpublished treatise entitled Fortificación elemental, which he illustrated. He also illustrated Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Tratado de la moneda jaquesa (Saragossa, 1681) and engraved some further architectural views as well as images of antique Roman fragments and archaeological remains. In addition, he produced religious engravings, and a number of paintings have been attributed to him by Ceán Bermúdez.

Bénézit; Ceán Bermúdez A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 192 E. Páez Ríos: Repertorio (Madrid, 1981–3), i, pp. 70–71 C. Guitart Aparicio: ‘Geografía de la arquitectura barroca en Aragón’, ...