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Article

John-Paul Stonard

revised by Michael Jay McClure

(b Paris, 1962).

French video artist and film maker. Huyghe studied at the Ecole Supérieure des Arts Graphiques (1981–2), and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs (1982–5). He was the leading figure in a generation of young French artists who emerged during the 1990s, working with a variety of media, principally film and video, but also posters, pamphlets, billboards and photography. He has made many works that engage with American cinema, showing the way images can be manipulated; these efforts can be compared with, amongst others, the work of his compatriot Pierre Bismuth, and that of the English artist Douglas Gordon.

Concern with the fate of individuals in the face of large corporations, and the manipulation of images in the media, form the conceptual core of Huyghe’s work. For his 1995 work Remake, Huyghe refilmed scenes from Hitchcock’s Rear Window in the suburbs of Paris, using unknown actors. For the ...

Article

Rachel K. Ward

(b Gifu, 1966).

Japanese electronic composer and sound artist, active also in France. He is best known for composing reductionist sounds of extreme frequencies, employing sine waves, electronic sounds, and white noise; these are often presented as ambient soundscapes in immersive installations made of light and/or projected visualizations of data. Ikeda originally trained in Japan as an economist. He began composing music in the 1990s, focusing on Minimalism with a curiosity for the duality of mathematics, specifically the binary patterns of 0s and 1s of digital software. His compositions continued the investigations of John Cage and Morton Feldman in exploring the potential differences between tones. Ikeda’s initial albums were +/- (1996) and 0°C (1998), which resonated with the glitch electronic scene emerging at that time. In 2000 Ikeda’s album Matrix, on the Touch label, attracted considerable attention as an interactive electronic work. Ikeda presented ten 5-minute long tones affected by the listener’s proximity. These were followed by a second series of tones made from orchestral instruments to produce overlapping sounds. The album explored time and tone and generated a wider discussion in the music industry about the relationship between sound and new media formats. Ikeda later produced the albums ...

Article

John R. Neeson

Installation art is a hybrid of visual art practices including photography, film, video, digital imagery, sound, light, performance, happenings, sculpture, architecture, and painted and drawn surfaces. An installation is essentially site specific, three-dimensional, and completed by the interaction of the observer/participant in real time and space. The point of contention with any definition concerns the site specificity, ephemerality, and consequently ‘collectability’ of the work itself. One view has it that the category installation is presupposed on the transitory and impermanent, the second that an installation can be collected and re-exhibited as a conventional work of art.

In either case installation had its genesis in the environments and happenings devised by artists in the 1950s in New York and Europe (Nouveau Réalisme in France, Arte Povera in Italy). These in turn had antecedents in the architectural/sculptural inventions such as the various Proun rooms of El Lissitzky and the Merzbau of Kurt Schwitters...

Article

Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

[net art]

Sarah Cook and Marialaura Ghidini

Art that uses the Internet not only as its tool of production and distribution but also as its source material or medium, and exploits or reflects the Internet’s inherently connective characteristics. While not a distinct art form or style, Internet art has been discussed in connection to the history of media art, predominantly through studies of the screen (see Bosma, 2013; Manovich, 2001) and the way things are framed, including still or moving images (see Video art and New media art in India). Internet art exceeds this narrow definition and its lineage can be better understood in the context of telecommunications, with a focus on information exchange and its occurrences through networked channels of transmission and their inherent politics. Because of this it is linked to Conceptual art practices, including intermedia art, Fluxus, and Correspondence art (such as the work of Knowles, Alison...

Article

Mary Chou

(b Bethlehem, 1970).

Palestinian conceptual artist. Jacir’s works use a variety of media including film, photography, installation, performance, video, sound, sculpture and painting. Jacir was raised in Saudi Arabia and attended high school in Rome, Italy. She received her BA from the University of Dallas, Irving, TX in 1992, her MFA from the Memphis College of Art, Memphis, TN in 1994, and participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program from 1998 to 1999. She became a professor at the International Academy of Art, Palestine in Ramallah in 2007. Jacir’s conceptual works explore the physical and psychological effects of social and political displacement and exile, primarily how they affect the Palestinian community. Her work investigated the impact of Israeli action on the Palestinian people and countered representations of Palestinians in the press as primarily militant. Jacir often collaborated with members of the Palestinian community, both local and international, in the creation of her works....

Article

Hyewon Lee

(b Seoul, March 13, 1967).

Korean multimedia artist active in Germany and the UK. Koo studied Western painting at Hongik University, Seoul (1985–90), and multimedia art at the Ecole National Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1991–7). While Koo’s drawings and photographs capture inconspicuous details of her daily life and surroundings, her installations incorporate such mundane objects as coins, rubber bands, sugar cubes, empty bottles, washing sponges and Walt Disney cartoon characters. Her interest in the fragments of everyday life not only reflects a sustained cultural interest in le quotidien in France, but is in tune with many Korean artists of her generation, who rose to significance in the Korean art world in the late 1990s, turning to small items of daily use rather than pursuing excessive visibility or the monumentality evident in the works of their predecessors.

More often than not, nestled down at insignificant corners of an exhibition space, Koo’s small-scale installations evade a viewer’s eyes at first glance. Sometimes an installation is even invisible, as in one of her two installations for the ...

Article

American experimental music class held by John Cage in New York. Although Cage had been faculty at the New School for Social Research (called the University in Exile in the period of and immediately after World War II, and subsequently, The New School University) since the early 1950s, team-teaching with his early mentor Henry Cowell (1897–1965), his critical tenure there was 1956–1960. It was in these years that his own work was hitting its greatest strides, and his dynamic classes reflected as much. The class focused on Cage’s most exploratory moves in music, not only his own trajectory—informed by Marcel Duchamp, Zen, and the international postwar avant-garde scene—but also new developments at Darmstadt (whether he was for them or against them), the world epicenter for exploratory musical work, which was driven by a younger generation mostly engaged with new sound technology.

Cage’s pedagogical modus operandi was surprising, in part due to his strikingly “low-tech” means. He was known for exemplifying the spatialization of sound, and its capacity for constant change, by such methods as placing a pencil—rubber eraser pointing down—between the strings of the New School classroom piano, to show students how, via direct alterations to the source, sound could be ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Long Beach, CA, 1959).

American photographer. He emerged in the art world in the 1980s, incorporating found texts from popular sources into computer-manipulated photographic images. Untitled (John-John and Bobby) (1998; see D. Raminelli, p. 162), citing the son and brother of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, is typical in that each letter is set in a different colour while the whole text lies on a bright pastel ground, reminiscent of billboard advertisement. In 1988 Johnson began to place his own, often urbane, poetic and mannered writing into his images. In a series of computer-generated images of the early 1990s these texts are shown as if erected on signboards and situated in unusual, almost Oriental or comic-book landscapes. Untitled (Ghost Story #1) (1991; see D. Hickey, p. 34) depicts words seemingly falling out of the sky into a snowy landscape. Johnson acknowledged debts to Sherrie Levine and Al Held, yet the tenor of his work suggests that it evolved out of a reaction against the didactic, political, text-based art of the 1980s. His work often suggested satirical attacks on other artists who employed appropriation as a technique, and his reliance on text and humour has led him to be compared to Richard Prince. In the 1990s Johnson began to exhibit photographed drawings and altered animation cells from children’s cartoons. ...

Article

Cecile Johnson

(b New York, July 13, 1936).

American performance and video artist, film maker, draughtsman, and printmaker. She studied sculpture and art history at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (1954–8). In 1958 Jonas travelled to Europe before studying sculpture at the Boston Museum School (1959–61) and various subjects at Columbia University (MFA 1964). She was particularly influenced by her experience of the New York art scene in the early to mid-1960s and by the work of John Cage and Claes Oldenburg and their interest in ‘non-linear’ structure. Believing any potential for innovation in sculpture and painting to be exhausted, Jonas turned to the relatively unexplored area of performance art. Her early performances (1968–71), called Mirror Pieces, were held in large spaces and included large and small mirrors, either as a central motif or as props or costume elements. From the early 1970s her works became increasingly symbolic, game-like, and ritualistic: in, for example, ...

Article

Michelle Yun

(b Ithaca, NY, 1966).

American multimedia artist. A second generation Korean–American, Joo grew up in Minneapolis, MN, and studied briefly at Wesleyan University as a biology major. He took a two-year sabbatical to work at a seed science firm in Austria and subsequently received his BFA from Washington University, St. Louis, MO. In 1989, Joo went on to receive an MFA in sculpture from the Yale School of Art, in New Haven, CT, in 1991, after which he moved to New York.

Joo’s diverse body of work includes sculpture, video, installations and works on paper that deal with issues relating to cultural identity, the body and the relationship between science and art. His projects overlap thematically and formally as part of an ongoing series. Joo has variously implemented a wide range of materials, including monosodium glutamate, salt, taxidermy animals and even his own body, to explore the transformative moment that signals a change of state between matter and energy. Through this exchange, Joo seeks to illuminate the slippages in meaning of the subject within a prescribed cultural context. Time often functions as a cyclical and multilayered catalyst for transformation, exemplified best through his video installations such as ...

Article

Susan Snodgrass

(b Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1962).

Chicago-based multimedia artist, poet and theorist. Kac’s pioneering works lie at the intersection of telecommunications and biotechnology, forging new, hybrid forms that merge biological processes and new media. Early works include body-based performances, holopoetry (Kac’s invented form of visual poems using holography; see Hologram), robotics and innovative online projects at the Web’s infancy.

Kac’s interest in telecommunications, computers and robotics led to experimental projects that integrated these various systems under the rubric of what the artist has termed ‘telepresence art’ (2005; see Kac, p. 127; see also Computer art). In 1989, he created the wireless robot Ornitorrinco (platypus in Portuguese), in collaboration with Ed Bennett, used in a nearly decade-long series of works that explored communication between humans and robots. A-positive (1997), in which a human and a robot engage in a physical exchange via an intravenous needle, probes the ethical implications of the human–machine interface. Working across disciplines, the artist defines (and redefines) the arena of electronic space to include ‘dialogical’ means of interactivity and interspecies communication, as in ...

Article

Michelle Yun

(Akira)

(b Los Angeles, CA, 1972).

Fourth generation Japanese–American multimedia artist. Kaino received a BA from the University of California, Irvine, in 1993 and an MFA from the University of California, San Diego, in 1996. He was a co-founder with Daniel J. Martinez and Tracey Shiffman of the former Los Angeles artist-run non-profit exhibition space Deep River (1997–2002). In addition to his artistic practice, Kaino ran a web design company during the late 1990s and was formerly chief creative officer of Napster. He also co-founded Uber.com, an online multimedia site that operated from 2006 to 2008.

Kaino’s sculptures, media works and site-specific installations reference, recycle and sample tropes from popular culture to challenge hegemonic narratives. Influenced by the work of Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol, Kaino looked to their example to develop projects that transmute cultural identity by re-contextualizing its production and exposing imbalances and inconsistencies in its structure. This concept is exemplified through the kinetic sculpture ...

Article

Kan-Si  

Joanna Grabski

[Sy, Amadou Kane]

(b Kaolack, April 12, 1961).

Senegalese painter. Before graduating from the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Dakar (1991), he pursued studies in law at the Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar. In the early 1990s he focused on a series of multi-media assemblages, Déstructurés, which questioned the relativity of visual perception. Combining wood, ribbed cardboard, paper and paint, these works suggest fractured compositions and fragmented picture planes. By contrast, Kan-Si employed a realistic and somewhat narrative style in his subsequent series, Rituel Seculaire (1998; artist's col.). In this series he depicts rows of figures in various gestures of prayer to suggest the central role of religion in Senegalese society. In the 1990s, he worked as a Studio Assistant in Printmaking at the Goree Institute and participated in numerous interactive artist's workshops, including Tenq (Dakar, 1996) and Daro Daro (Abidjan, 1997). In addition to his artistic endeavors, he also dedicates himself to such social projects as Man-Keneen-Ki and Forum pour un Développement Durable et Endogene. He has exhibited in Africa, Europe and the USA....

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Kliding, nr Koblenz, 1943).

German photographer, performance artist and video artist. He studied art at the Werkschule in Cologne from 1964 to 1970. In his work Klauke acted as his own model, exploring themes such as sexuality and social taboo, as in the 12-part photo-sequence Viva España (photographs on canvas, 1976–9; see von Weise), or banality, as in the 9-part photo-tableau Formalization of Boredom (1980–81; see 1981 exh. cat.). Klauke’s performances, such as Made in Germany (1978; Sydney, A.G. NSW), reflected the same concerns as his photography, for example the futility of existence and loss of identity in modern society. A number of his photographic series were published.

Klauke, Jürgen Sekunden, Tageszeichnungen und Polaroidfotos (Wiesbaden, 1970) Photosequenzen, 1979–1982 (Frankfurt, 1982) Zeitlebens (Cologne, 1983) Eine Ewigkeit, ein Lächeln (Cologne, 1986) Sequenzen: Fotofolgen zeitgenossischer Künstler (exh. cat. by U. M. Scheede, Hamburg, Kstver., 1977) S. von Weise: ‘Viva España’, Ausstellungsbl. Mod. Abt. Kstmus. Düsseldorf...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Monaco, Nov 13, 1927; d Berkleley Heights, NJ, Jan 11, 2004).

Swedish–American engineer. Klüver was known for his important collaborations with artists at the dawn of media art. Having grown up in Sweden, he came to the USA in 1954, and pursued a PhD in electrical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. After relocating to the East Coast, he worked as a staff scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1958–68). In 1960, Klüver’s compatriot, the renowned museum director H. K. G. Pontus Húlten, introduced him to the artist Jean Tinguely, to help the latter with his landmark, self-destroying, kinetic sculpture, Homage to New York (a 27-minute event staged in the Garden of New York’s Museum of Modern Art). This led to numerous collaborations, initiated by Klüver, in which he (and other engineers) would work with artists, dancers, and composers (e.g. Robert Rauschenberg, Robert Whitman (b 1935), Andy Warhol, Nam June Paik, Yvonne Rainer, and John Cage), culminating in ...

Article

Midori Yoshimoto

(b New York, NY, 1933).

American printmaker, sound artist and performance artist. She was one of the founding members of Fluxus, the international avant-garde collective formed in 1962. Transferring from Middlebury College to Pratt Institute in New York, Knowles studied painting and drawing with Adolph Gottlieb and Richard Lindner and graduated in 1956. By the late 1950s she had lost interest in painting and burnt all her early paintings in a bonfire. It was then that she befriended artists Dick Higgins (1938–98), George Brecht and composer John Cage whose meditation on everyday life and music of indeterminacy inspired her to pursue a new artistic path.

After marrying in 1960, Knowles and Higgins were invited by George Maciunas to perform in the Fluxus inaugural concert series in Europe. There Knowles started to write her “Propositions,” radical reinterpretation of Cagean text scores, which transferred the artistic agency to the audience. Among her early events, Make a Salad...

Article

Margaret Barlow

(b York, PA, Jan 21, 1955).

American sculptor, painter, and multimedia artist. He trained at Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore (BA 1976), and worked as a Wall Street commodities broker before embarking upon his career as an artist. In the 1980s he won international recognition as a radical exponent of Neo-Geo, an American movement concerned with appropriation and parody. Following the example of Pop artists of the 1960s, Koons used his work to reflect the commercial systems of the modern world. He also referred back to the Duchampian tradition, appropriating an art status to selected products (see Appropriation art). His vacuum cleaners encased in Perspex (1980–81; see 1993 exh. cat., pls 5–9) were classified as monuments to sterility. His immaculate replicas of domestic products, advertisements, kitsch toys, and models exercised an enthusiastic endorsement of unlimited consumption, unlike the veiled criticism of some work of the first generation of Pop artists. Koons perceived Western civilization as a driven society, flattered by narcissistic images and with a voracious appetite for glamorous commodities. In his expressions of the ecstatic and the banal he did not hesitate to breach the borderlines of taste; in the body of work titled ...

Article

Elaine O’Brien

(b Vienna, 1970).

Austrian performance and multimedia installation artist. Krystufek studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna (1988). Her oeuvre is an extended ‘bad girl’ interrogation of female identity at the interactive site of seeing and being seen. Her method has been to expose to the viewer’s gaze her young body, ego and life: Krystufek’s sole, obsessive subject. She is most famous for works that break taboos of privacy, such as the 1997 video, Share the Night, in which she exposed her erotic life with the nonchalance of a porn star, and her genitals as deliberately as the anonymous model in Courbet’s Origin of the World (1866; Japan, priv. col.). However, as a neo-feminist Krystufek makes roles of mastery and domination interactive and plays both parts. Her most notorious performances breach barriers of propriety inside the gallery spaces she creates. In 1994 she masturbated before an audience as part of her installation ...

Article

(b Antwerp, Nov 17, 1945).

Belgian sculptor, video artist and installation artist. She studied at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture et des Arts Visuels in Brussels (1975–8). Lafontaine first became known for her large, imposing, monochromatic woven-textile sculptures (e.g. Black Monochrome, cotton, 2.0×2.5 m, 1976; Ghent, Mus. Hedendaag. Kst). She was influenced by the work of such artists as Robert Ryman and Brice Marden and their ideas about the material nature of both colour and support. In 1979 she made her first video work, The Pile-driver, for an exhibition at the International Cultural Centre in Antwerp. As with her woven sculptures, the theme of repetition was central to this and subsequent videos. Repetition of the image and the slowing down of the speed of the film disrupted any narrative and also set up a rhythm that underlined its sensuous and material nature. Lafontaine’s decision to work with video installations enabled her to develop an interest in the closely related phenomena of aggression and desire: ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Palmer, MA, 1962).

American painter, sculptor, and video artist. He completed an MFA at the Yale School of Art, New Haven, CT, in 1986. His paintings typically incorporate banal, confessional text and mundane, kitsch imagery, exploring an obsession with the inseparability of art and life. Text first appeared in his second solo exhibition (New York, Postmasters Gal., 1991), for which he hand-wrote short confessional narratives on sheets of yellow paper, shown attached directly to the gallery wall. Surrounding several clay busts on pedestals, wrapped in plastic, these were presented as the creations of a young, unsuccessful sculptor, Chris Hamson, Lander’s disaffected alter-ego. His concern with sincerity and authorship was continued in later paintings, as well as in a hand-written autobiographical book, [sic] (1995), a rambling, badly written account that caricatures his own unrealistic ambitions and talentlessness. Paintings of the mid-1990s, such as Self Something (oil on canvas, 2.74×4.27 m, 1994...