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Article

Ronald J. Onorato

(Morrison)

(b Hartford, CT, Nov 12, 1864; d Wickford, RI, Jan 1, 1943).

American architect, preservationist, and author. Isham was one of the earliest American architects to specialize in the restoration of colonial American structures. He worked on a large number of 17th- and 18th-century structures in New England, wrote several major works on American architecture, conducted archaeological site work, and also designed new, mostly residential buildings.

Most of his private and professional life was spent in Rhode Island with its large number of existing colonial buildings. The state’s extensive collection of early structures influenced his career, as did other Rhode Island architects who helped generate the Colonial Revival style nationally such as Edmund R. Willson (1856–1906), of the prominent Providence firm of Stone, Carpenter & Willson, with whom Isham trained in the late 1880s. About the same time, he received Bachelor and Master degrees from Brown University, and he married Elizabeth Barbour Ormsbee in 1895.

It is impossible to study colonial American architecture without encountering buildings that Isham restored. While some of his preservation methods and decisions have been superceded by more modern approaches and technologies, he notably produced scores of carefully measured drawings, which are still used by preservationists and historians today. His projects included such significant 17th- and 18th-century structures as Newport’s Colony House, Trinity Church, Redwood Library, and Wanton-Lyman-Allen house (all restored in the 1920s), the Stephen Hopkins House and University Hall at Brown University in Providence, Bishop Berkeley’s Whitehall in Middletown, the Eleazar Arnold House in Lincoln, and the Gilbert Stuart Birthplace in North Kingstown, all Rhode Island. His bibliography encompasses surveys of early Rhode Island and Connecticut homes, scholarly studies on specific buildings, such as the First Baptist Meeting House, Providence, and St Paul’s in Wickford and papers on individual architects such as John Holden Greene....

Article

James Bettley

(b Hampstead, London, Dec 21, 1835; d Wimbledon, London, Nov 7, 1924).

English architect and writer. Jackson, the son of a solicitor, was educated at Brighton College and Wadham College, Oxford, of which he became a Fellow in 1865. He served his articles (1858–61) in the office of George Gilbert Scott the elder and then set up practice in London in 1861. His early work—including St Peter’s Church (1872–4), Hornblotton, Somerset —attracted little attention, although his book Modern Gothic Architecture (1873) was widely praised: in it Jackson advocated the use of an eclectic English Renaissance style, which he himself used with few exceptions throughout his career.

In 1876 he made his name by winning the competition for the new Examination Schools, Oxford, and went on to work for no fewer than 11 colleges there. He also carried out restoration or other work on practically every university building and designed the new High Schools for Boys and Girls (...

Article

Radomíra Sedláková

(b Prague, March 12, 1882; d Prague, Aug 1, 1956).

Czech architect, designer, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Czech Technical University, Prague, where he studied under Josef Schulz and Josef Zítek, and from 1906 to 1907 he was a student of Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. In 1908 he worked in Jan Kotěra’s studio in Prague. His early work was influenced by the modernism of Wagner and Kotěra, but he perceived a danger of uniformity in a purely rationalist approach to architecture. In 1911, together with Josef Chochol, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman (1884–1964), Emil Filla, Václav Špála, Antonín Procházka, Otto Gutfreund and others, he founded the Group of Fine Artists, which sought a more artistic approach to architecture, and in 1912 he and Gočár founded the Prague Art Workshops for the design of arts, crafts and furniture. Within the Group of Fine Artists, Janák developed the principles of Czech Cubism...

Article

Alessandro Conti

[Igino]

(b Siena, July 18, 1866; d Siena, Jan 23, 1946).

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as Sano di Pietro) or the undistinguished works of more famous artists, which could deceive even a connoisseur. A typical example is his copy of Cecco di Pietro’s Agnano polyptych (Pisa, Mus. N. S Matteo), created as a fraudulent substitution for the original (Rome, Pal. Venezia). Few of Joni’s fakes have stood the test of time, despite the fact that he was in contact with such critics and collectors as Francis Mason Perkins and Robert Langton Douglas. Research into collecting and the art market in late 19th-century America has identified Joni’s role as a restorer in such works as ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

Article

(b Arad [now in Romania], Dec 15, 1889; d Budapest, Jan 12, 1980).

Hungarian architect, architectural historian, urban planner, teacher and restorer. He received his architectural degree (1911) and doctorate (1918) from the Imperial Joseph Technical University, Budapest, and then taught planning and architectural history there in 1919 and again from 1926 until 1949. Following study trips to Germany and Italy, he wrote several books on the styles of the Italian Renaissance. In 1925–7 he designed the Franciscan monastery and church at Zalaegerszeg using 18th-century Transdanubian Baroque architectural forms. His design for the Biological Institute (1926–7), Tihany, is eclectic with restrained ornament and evokes Mediterranean architecture with its slightly inclined roofs, terraces and open arcaded galleries and stairways. Other buildings, such as the Regnum Marianum Church (1926–30; destr. 1948), Budapest, are in a neo-Romanesque style, while his Roman Catholic church (1932–3) at Balatonboglár, near Fonyód, is one of the first examples of Modernism in Hungarian church architecture. Next to the reinforced concrete church, which is planned on the shape of a simple horizontal volume, is an asymmetric square tower capped with a graceful cylindrical spire. Kotsis’s houses are influenced by the traditionalist Stuttgart school, primarily Paul Schmitthenner. Although not eclectic, they show a respect for tradition while linking certain modern architectural aspirations with conservatism, as in the family villas (1940s) on Orló Street and Árvácska Street, Budapest. In his restoration (...

Article

Marianne Frodl-Schneemann

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt am Main, Sept 15, 1780; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1856).

Austrian painter, teacher and Curator of German birth. From the age of ten, Krafft studied at the Hanau Akademie while at the same time continuing his school education in Hanau. In 1799 he went to Vienna with his sister and studied at the Akademie for three years with the history and portrait painter Heinrich Füger. At this time Krafft painted mythological subjects, made copies from older works and produced several self-portraits that already reveal his capacities in this genre, for example Self-portrait (1799; priv. col., see Frodl-Schneemann, pl. I). The dream-like atmosphere of total absorption, which Krafft often achieved through his use of the techniques of early German painting, constitutes one of the most striking aspects of his portraits from the turn of the century. From 1802 to 1804 he was in Paris, where he studied with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard. The work of these two, together with that of Jean-Baptiste Greuze and Antoine-Jean Gros, was to influence Krafft’s later work when he returned to Vienna. David’s realist tendencies in painting had a fundamental effect on Krafft’s artistic output, and it was through Krafft that this realism contributed to a development towards Biedermeier art in Vienna. In ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Littry (Calvados), April 8, 1813; d Sens, Dec 24, 1874).

French architect and writer. He studied with Guillaume Abel Blouet and Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti, and worked for the latter for several years as a draughtsman. Early in his career he won first prize in an open competition for a public abattoir. In Paris he was appointed inspector of works at the Palais de Justice (1849), at the workshop of Saint-Denis Abbey (1850), which was then under the supervision of Viollet-le-Duc, and at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers (1854) under Léon Vaudoyer. On the recommendation of Jean-Baptiste Lassus, he was appointed diocesan architect at Sens in 1854 and restored the cathedral’s transepts and the sacristy of the lower choir; he also designed the pulpit (1871), restored the Francis I wing of the Archbishop’s Palace and built the seminary. He replaced Emile Boeswillwald as diocesan architect at Soissons in 1857. He was appointed a member of the commission for lycées and training colleges in ...

Article

Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, March 19, 1807; d Vichy, July 15, 1857).

French architect, designer, architectural historian and restorer. He began his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, but interrupted them to enter the studio of Henri Labrouste. He was among the first of his generation to oppose the hegemony of the Académie and the teaching curriculum based on Greco-Roman tradition. Having become known through the exhibition of several of his projects at the Salon, including a reconstruction (1833) of the Palais des Tuileries as intended by Philibert de L’Orme, and proposed restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle (1835) and the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs (1836), all in Paris, Lassus began his career as an architectural historian, architect and restorer. One of his earliest works was the restoration (1835) of St-Séverin, Paris. In direct contrast with the committed classicists epitomized by Antoine Quatremère de Quincy, Lassus developed a programme based on the assumption that the Early Gothic period produced a rational and functional architecture that marked the high point of national architecture; that later Gothic represented a decline and that the Renaissance introduced foreign and pagan influences; that restoration of Gothic buildings should respect their formal and structural authenticity; and that architects of the 19th century should apply the precepts of Early Gothic in order to find the way towards a new architecture....

Article

Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b Caravaggio; d Rome, before June 27, 1543).

Italian architect and sculptor. He was a pupil of the sculptor Andrea di Piero Ferrucci. From c. 1527 to 1532 he was supervisor of the Fonte di S Pietro, Rome. He was conservator of the gilded ceilings of the basilica of S Maria Maggiore until 1541, and from c. 1542 he was also the architect to the Camera Apostolica (Vatican Works Office), a post he held until his death. For Angelo Massimo, Mangone constructed the Palazzo di Pirro (initiated c. 1533). In this, his first architectural work, he appears as a faithful follower of the severe style of Antonio da Sangallo (ii) with whom he worked on the decorations (1534) for the coronation of Pope Paul III and the fortifications (1537–43) of Rome. In 1535 he worked on the palazzo in Rome of Giacomo Simonetta, Cardinal of Perugia, and in 1536 he planned alterations to the convent of the Serviti attached to the church of S Marcello al Corso. In the same year, he executed the monument to ...

Article

Marsha L. Morton

(b Hamburg, Feb 16, 1803; d Lübeck, Nov 19, 1875).

German painter, draughtsman, stained-glass designer, illustrator and restorer. In Hamburg he studied drawing with Gerdt Hardorff the elder (1769–1864) and painting with Christopher Suhr (1771–1842) and Siegfried Bendixen (1786–1864). His admiration for early German art was inspired during a sketching trip through Schleswig-Holstein in June 1823 with Erwin Speckter. Drawings from this period include a copy of Hans Memling’s altarpiece in Lübeck Cathedral. Following a sojourn in Dresden in 1824, Milde and Speckter travelled to Munich in the summer of 1825 where they studied history painting at the Akademie. In 1826 they lived briefly in Rome; and Milde again worked in Rome from 1830 to 1832 where he was in contact with the Lukasbrüder. Their preference for an outline style reinforced Milde’s own primitivizing linear manner derived from his study of Northern Renaissance art. Milde’s few extant paintings are mostly portraits from the 1830s, although history paintings, genre scenes, marine views and landscapes have also been attributed to him. Milde completed both bust-length oil portraits and family groups set in domestic interiors, which provide a detailed record of middle-class life in Hamburg at this time. In watercolours such as ...

Article

Dominique Colmont

(b Paris, May 21, 1819; d Cannes, Feb 24, 1879).

French architect and restorer. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1837 and studied under Henri Labrouste. In 1847 he was appointed assistant architect to Viollet-le-Duc in the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and the following year he became architect for diocesan buildings in Troyes (Aube) and Châlons-sur-Marne (Marne). In 1849 he was promoted within the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and thereafter he carried out major restoration work on numerous medieval churches, including St Pierre, Souvigny (Allier), the former abbey church at St Benoît-sur-Loire (Loiret) and Notre-Dame at Paray-le-Monial (Saône-Loire). In 1855 Millet was appointed architect in charge of the château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. On the death of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus in 1857 he took over the rebuilding of the cathedral at Moulins (Allier), where a Gothic Revival nave was grafted on to a 15th-century choir. In 1863 Millet was appointed Professor of Building at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but he resigned two years later. In ...

Article

Yvonne Janková

(b Citoliby, nr Louny, Nov 22, 1835; d Prague, Jan 15, 1899).

Bohemian architect and conservator. After graduating from the Czech Technical University, Prague, he went to Vienna, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Eduard Van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. Later he became a pupil of Friedrich von Schmidt and devoted himself to the study of Gothic art. Schmidt employed Mocker from 1864 to 1869 as a supervisor of his projects, and the two also collaborated from 1863 on the reconstruction and completion of the Stephansdom in Vienna. In 1869 Schmidt sent Mocker to Děčín in northern Bohemia, where he worked for the aristocratic Thun family until 1872. He also designed schools in the area, for example at Litoměřice and Mladá Boleslav, and a railway station in Lovosice.

A turning-point in Mocker’s life came in 1873 with his appointment as master builder for the completion of the cathedral of St Vitus, Prague. This campaign, of great national significance, had been taken up from ...

Article

Jaynie Anderson

(b Affori, 1799; d Milan, Jan 11, 1867).

Italian painter, restorer and museum director. The son of an impoverished innkeeper, from the age of 10 he was supported by a Milanese family called Brocca, who financed his education at the painting school in the Brera, Milan. There he studied with Giuseppe Longhi to become a painter of sentimental genre-pieces and fashionable portraits. After graduating he was employed as a restorer by the Abbate Massinelli, a priest from Bergamo, who had acquired a collection of pictures (later bought by Edward Solly) from churches and religious institutions in Lombardy. Molteni then studied at Bologna with Giuseppe Guizzardi (1779–1861), a well-known restorer, and returned to Milan in the 1820s. Elected a member of the Accademia di Brera in 1839, he became Consigliero Ordinario in 1851 and was given a studio there. This was frequented by such museum directors as Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (i), such dealers as Otto Mündler and such private collectors as Sir ...

Article

Jeffrey Abt, Katherine Stadtmiller and Helen Searing

Institution primarily for the preservation, display, and study of works of cultural interest, but increasingly characterized by a broader range of social functions. The origins of the modern museum can be traced to Classical times. It was only after the Renaissance, however, that it came to be regarded as a vital public institution. Although museum history has traditionally been surveyed in the context of the history of Collecting and of the temporary Exhibition, the substantial growth in knowledge of each topic warrants their separate treatment. Architecturally, this institutional history has been accompanied by the development of an important building type. More detailed studies of major individual museums may be found under the headings for the cities in which they are located, while national historical overviews are contained within country and regional survey articles.

Jeffrey Abt, revised by Katherine Stadtmiller

Mouseion (Gr.), the etymological root of ‘museum’, was the term for ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

Authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, it is the official list of the historic places of state, local and national significance worthy of preservation in the USA. Administered by the National Park Service under the Secretary of the Interior (see National Park System in America), the National Register of Historic Places has done much to aid and expand the preservation movement in America by coordinating and supporting public and private efforts to identify, evaluate and protect the country’s unique places. Perhaps most important of all, it has saved many a historic property from destruction.

The national historic preservation movement, which led to the creation of the Preservation Act and the National Register, was organized in response to the destruction of older buildings and neighborhoods in many historic towns and cities in post-World War II America. Much of the destruction in the 1950s and early 1960s was due to the building of the massive interstate highway system and the Urban Redevelopment Program (part of the federal Housing Act of ...

Article

G. A. Ol’

(Andreyevich)

(b St Petersburg, July 8, 1883; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Aug 27, 1958).

Russian architect, restorer, urban planner and painter. He studied at the Institute of Civil Engineering, St Petersburg, and during its closure, due to political reasons, worked in 1905–6 with the partnership of Gesellius, Lindgren & Saarinen in Helsinki. His early works reflect their northern Art Nouveau (Rus. modern) approach, notably in the country house (1907–8) of the writer Leonid Andreyev in Vammelsuu and the villa (1909) of D. Nikol’sky at Uusikirkko, both on the Karelian Isthmus. Ol’ graduated in 1910, after which the free compositional approach and expressive use of building materials that had characterized his early work gave way to the influence of Russian neo-classicism, for example in a number of private residences in St Petersburg. After the October Revolution (1917) he began to work on a broader range of projects. In Petrograd (later Leningrad; now St Petersburg) he designed large-scale industrial plants, such as the Red October Power Station and adjacent workers’ quarters (...

Article

Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, Dec 23, 1887; d Athens, Oct 6, 1979).

Greek architect and archaeologist. He graduated from the National Polytechnic at Athens as an architect in 1908 and gained his doctorate from the University of Athens in 1915, having studied ancient Greek architecture with Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1853–1940), prehistoric archaeology with Georg Karo (1872–1963), archaic sculpture with Rudolf Heberdey and epigraphy with Anton von Premerstein (d 1937). He was the architect for the restoration works (1910–17) on the Acropolis of Athens under Nikolaos Balanos (1852–1933). He served as director of restorations for the ancient monuments of Greece, apart from the Acropolis, from 1920 to 1942, and director of restorations for the monuments of Greece including the Acropolis from 1942 to 1958. He also held posts as professor of morphology and rhythmology at the National Polytechnic (1919–40); professor of the history of architecture also at the Polytechnic (1943–58); and professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Athens (...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Wiesbaden, 1908; d. Heidelberg, 4 April, 1999).

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of 1935 Otto-Dorn went to Turkey, working with the German Archaeological Institute on the ceramics of Iznik and excavating at Kahta in southeast Anatolia. World War II forced her to return to Europe, and in 1948 she began teaching at Heidelberg University, while also excavating at Rusafa in northeastern Syria and then at Kubadabad on Lake Beyşehir. In 1954 she returned to Turkey, where she established the chair of Islamic art and archaeology at Ankara and trained many Turkish students. In 1964 she returned to Heidelberg, but unable to find a position in Germany, she took up the position of professor of Islamic Art at the University of California at Los Angeles, where she taught from ...