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(b Venice, Dec 11, 1712; d Pisa, May 12, 1764).

Italian patron, collector and writer. The second son of a wealthy Venetian merchant, he was educated in Bologna, where he studied under the eminent scientists Eustachio Manfredi and the Zanotti brothers. Afterwards he travelled in the Veneto and developed a particular admiration for the works of Veronese, Guido Reni and Andrea Palladio. In Florence in 1733 he was impressed by the art of Titian and Fra Bartolommeo. He then spent a year in Rome, where the ancient monuments and paintings by the Caracci and Domenichino had a considerable impact on him. There, too, he made the acquaintance of the scholar and antiquarian Giovanni Gaetano Bottari. A period in Paris led to contacts with Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, an early champion of Newton’s principles, and with Voltaire and the collectors Pierre Crozat and Pierre-Jean Mariette. Then in England in 1736 he was a social success; during this visit Jonathan Richardson made two portrait drawings of him (London, V&A). After a further stay in Paris, with Voltaire, he spent a year in Milan and Venice and published a popular exposition on Newton’s discoveries in optics, ...

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Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

[‛Alī Wijdān; Wijdan]

(b Baghdad, Aug 29, 1939).

Jordanian painter and art patron. She studied history at Beirut University College (formerly Beirut College for Women), receiving a BA in 1961. In 1993 she took a PhD in Islamic Art at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. After serving in the Jordanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and representing her country at United Nations meetings in Geneva and New York, Ali founded the Royal Society of Fine Arts in Jordan in 1979 and the Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts in 1980 (see Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of). In 1988 she organized in Amman the Third International Seminar on Islamic Art, entitled ‘Problems of Art Education in the Islamic World’, and in 1989 she organized the exhibition Contemporary Art from the Islamic World at the Barbican Centre, London. In 2001 she founded the Faculty of Arts and Design at the University of Jordan, and has received numerous awards in recognition of her work in the arts....

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Joaquim Jaime B. Ferreira-Alves

Portuguese family of administrators and patrons.

(b Troviscoso, Monção, Aug 15, 1703; d Oporto, Oct 3, 1786).

He was a cousin of Sebastian Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquês de Pombal, and held influential posts in the city of Oporto until his death: Governador das Armas do Porto (from 1757), Governador das Justiças da Relação (from 1764) and first President of the Junta das Obras Públicas. In this last position he was responsible for extensive urban alterations to Oporto from 1763 onwards, including Rua de Almada, Rua de S João, Praça de S Ana with the chapel of S Roque, Rua de S António and improvements made to Praça da Ribeira. John Whitehead, architect and British Consul (1756–1802), has been attributed with the project of the Casa da Feitoria. Two notable buildings in Oporto from the second half of the 18th century are the hospital of S Auronio by the English architect ...

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José Fernandes Pereira

(b Lisbon, 1670; d Lisbon, 1754).

Portuguese ecclesiastic and patron. He was a member of the aristocratic Avintes family. He received a university education, and in the reign of Peter II held office from 1705 as Secretary of State and High Chancellor of the kingdom. He was appointed Bishop of Lamego in 1707 and of Oporto in 1709. In Oporto he revived an earlier plan of 1691 to construct a square, 120×120 m, which was intended to rival the Plaza Mayor in Madrid. However, with the end of the conflict between Spain and Portugal (the War of Succession) and his nomination as the first Patriarch of Lisbon in 1717, this ambitious project was abandoned. In his new appointment, which was created at the personal request of John V, Dom Tomás built a summer residence at Santo Antão do Tojal, Loures, near Lisbon, whose architect from 1727 to 1732 was the Italian Antonio Canevari. The scheme is a remarkable urban complex, which is both theatrical and rhetorical in style. An earlier church attached to the palace was restored and the façade redesigned, with statues of Carrara marble, reflecting Roman Baroque architecture. An aqueduct, also designed by Canevari, leads to an elaborate fountain, topped by a typical Joanine arch, set in the middle of one of the palace façades, which contains a suite of apartments for the King. This wing, together with another belonging to an earlier 16th-century palace that was then enlarged, surrounds a public square of irregular shape....

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(b Lisbon, 1458; d Coimbra, 1543).

Portuguese bishop and patron. He was the son of Lopo de Almeida, the 1st Conde de Abrantes (d 1508), and brother of Francisco de Almeida (1450–1510), the first viceroy of India. Jorge de Almeida was closely connected with the royal court of Portugal and in 1490 accompanied John II to the border of Spain to meet the King’s future daughter-in-law, Isabella of Castile (1470–98). As Bishop of Coimbra, he instituted a systematic revival of art at a particularly fortunate period of history, facilitated by the length of his episcopal rule (1481–1543). He was the principal benefactor of the Sé Velha (Old Cathedral, c. 1150–1200) in Coimbra, which he began to modernize in 1498 by giving it suitable surroundings and widening its broad façade. At the same time, with the permission of the chapter, he commissioned from the Flemish wood-carvers Jean d’Ypres (...

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Almohad  

Karl-Heinz Golzio

[al-Muwaḥḥidūn]

Islamic dynasty that ruled parts of north-west Africa and Spain from 1130 to 1269. Muhammad ibn Tumart (d 1130), a Masmuda Berber, preached a faith based on the Koran and the Sunna, stressing above all the oneness of God (Arab. tawḥīd), a doctrine from which the movement took the name al-Muwaḥḥidūn (‘believers in the oneness of God’). Ibn Tumart, who declared himself also as the infallible Mahdí, was able to unite disparate groups of Berbers and in 1121 began an insurrection against the Almoravid rulers with the help of the Berbers of the Atlas Mountains. After the conquest of the Anti-Atlas and Sus region, he emigrated to Tinmal (Tinmallal), south of Marrakesh in the High Atlas, an event likened to the Prophet’s Hegira from Mecca to Medina in ad 622. A defeat near Marrakesh temporarily stopped the rise of the Almohads, and even Ibn Tumart’s lieutenant and successor, ‛Abd al-Mu’min (...

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Karl-Heinz Golzio

[al-Murābiṭūn]

Islamic dynasty that ruled parts of the Sahara, Morocco, Algeria and Spain from 1056 to 1147. The Sanhaja Berber chief Yahya ibn Ibrahim, on returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, founded a reform movement intended to strengthen orthodoxy among the Saharan Berbers, who were only superficially Islamisized, but according to many Arab historiographers they adhered to Kharijite doctrine. With the support of the Malikite jurist Ibn Yasin and the Lamtuna Berber chiefs Yahya ibn ‛Umar and his brother Abu Bakr, a fortress for a Muslim brotherhood (Arab. ribāṭ) was established on an island at the mouth of the Senegal River. The fortress soon became a centre for the tribes living nearby, and the increasing power of those who lived there (al-murābiṭūn) led to the submission of all the Sanhaja tribes. Their renewal of Islam showed strong ascetic trends along with a simple piety that resulted in a holy war against the corrupt culture and errant Muslims of the Maghrib. In ...

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Nigel Glendinning

[Osorio Moscoso y Guzmán; Astorga, Marqueses de]

Spanish family of patrons. The 10th Conde de Altamira, Joaquín Ventura Osorio de Moscoso y Guzmán (bapt Madrid, 4 Feb 1724; d Madrid, 28 Aug 1783), inherited the title of Marqués de Astorga from his mother, and on his father’s side his ancestors were the Conde-Duque de Olivares and the Marqués de Leganés, both notable collectors. The 10th Conde served as Councillor of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid and was an honorary academician of the Academia de S Carlos in Valencia. His wealth was fabled, and he commissioned Ventura Rodríguez to design an opulent new palace (1772) in the Calle de S Bernardo, Madrid. It was feared that the building might outshine the Palacio Real, and the single surviving façade gives some measure of its earlier glory. The same architect also designed special decorations for the palace of the Conde in ...

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Joseph Connors

(Alta Emps, Hohenems)

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (reg 1559–65). Marcus was made Bishop of Konstanz in 1561 and legate to the Council of Trent. He began the development of the massive Villa Mondragone (see Frascati), to the designs of his house architect Martino I Longhi (i); Pope Gregory XIII (reg 1572–85) often visited it. Through papal favour he accumulated enormous wealth, which he used to rebuild the Palazzo Riario near Piazza Navona, Rome, into a magnificent family palace (known thereafter as the Palazzo Altemps) and to build the Altemps Chapel in S Maria in Trastevere; both of these designs were by Longhi. Effects of the Cardinal’s patronage or his generosity survive in the many estates that he purchased or received as gifts, at Loreto, Gallese and in the area around Frascati (e.g. at Mondragone, Monte Compatri and Monte Porzio). ...

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Tom Williams

American nonprofit art institution that was founded in 1975 in New York by Geno Rodriguez, Janice Rooney and Robert Browning as the Alternative Center for International Arts. Like many other alternative institutions, the Alternative Museum was established in the wake of the social movements of the 1960s with the mission of displaying socially and politically charged art and providing a venue that was independent from both the market-oriented gallery system and the prevailing conservatism of New York museums. The museum closed its SoHo location in 2000 and now exists entirely as an online institution.

The museum originated in part as a response to Rodriguez’s own experiences with institutional prejudices while attempting to find exhibition venues for his own work during the early 1970s, and it was founded with the pluralist aspiration to show artists that were marginalized or tokenized within dominant institutions. Within their first year, for example, the museum hosted significant exhibitions of art from both Latin America and Japan. Moreover, the museum often adopted a decidedly more political position than even most other nonprofit institutions in New York, particularly in reference to questions of racism and sexism. Although the institution hosted a number of significant solo exhibitions, including notable shows of work by Dennis Adams (...

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Virginie Bobin

Exhibition space that is not run by an institution or commercial organization is often described as an alternative space. The phenomenon of alternative spaces in the United States is usually associated with the blooming of numerous not-for-profit artist-run spaces in the 1970s, although important precedents can be found as far as in 1862, when the Art Building Gallery in Chicago was founded to provide free exhibition space to artists. Providing fees and decision-power to artists, promoting conceptual and video, installation or action art, collective practices and social and political commitment, alternative spaces radically contributed to redefine the position of the artist and the form of the exhibition in the United States. Since then, the acceptance of the term has shifted to a more general opposition to mainstream institutions, such as museums and commercial galleries.

Generally considered the first small nonprofit organizations initiated by and for visual artists, 98 Greene Street, Apple, and 112 Workshop (now White Columns) opened in New York in ...

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(b Zwentendorf, May 15, 1665; d Vienna, Dec 28, 1747).

Austrian administrator and patron. In 1716, after a military career under Prince Eugene of Savoy, he was appointed Director General of Works by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Responsible for all court construction projects, he was authorized to issue directives in the Emperor’s name. In 1726, in his capacity as Imperial Director of Artistic Affairs, he was appointed Honorary President of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. In the face of resistance from an administration still clinging to its traditional rights, he attempted to reorganize the court’s inefficient building industry, in order to execute the Emperor’s ambitious construction schemes and to make the Court Surveyor’s office a central authority administering buildings in all the Habsburg territories, although he was unsuccessful in the latter. The Hofbibliothek (1716–21, 1724–6), the concept of which is attributed to Althann in a building decree issued by the Emperor, the Winterreitschule and the Josephssäule, all in Vienna, carry inscriptions paying tribute to his services. He was responsible for the completion (...

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Altieri  

Italian family of patrons. Of noble rank, the Altieri, who claimed ancient Roman ancestry, enjoyed a recognized place in Roman society from the 14th century. The tombs of the 15th-century Altieri, including Marc Antonio Altieri (1450–1532), holder of various public offices, stand in the family chapel of the south transept of S Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. The most important member of the family was Cardinal Emilio Altieri (b Rome, 12 July 1590; d Rome, 22 July 1676) on whose election to the papacy in 1670, as Clement X, the Altieri became the first family in Rome. When the male line of the Altieri failed in the 1660s, Emilio adopted the Roman nobleman, Gasparo Paluzzo degli Albertoni (1646–1720) as his heir, on condition that the issue of Gasparo’s marriage (1667) to Altieri’s niece and sole heir, Laura Caterina, would bear the Altieri name. ...

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Lillian B. Miller

(b New York, July 12, 1840; d New York, Oct 7, 1913).

American merchant and collector. He was the son of Bavarian Jewish immigrants who ran a small dry goods business in New York before the Civil War. About 1863 he entered into a business partnership with his brother; after Morris Altman’s death in 1876, Benjamin re-established the business and quickly developed it into a highly profitable enterprise. Altman’s aesthetic interests extended from European and Oriental decorative arts to Old Master paintings. A self-educated connoisseur, Altman depended a great deal on the advice of dealers such as Duveen, Agnew, Gimpel and Wildenstein, but also developed a fine discrimination as a result of a few short trips to Europe and the accumulation of a valuable art library. As he became more deeply involved in art, he began to devote his entire time to its study. Although never a recluse, he did not participate actively in New York society, never married and insisted on privacy....

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Clare Robertson

(b Rome, Nov 26, 1491; d Rome, Jan 22, 1557).

Italian banker and patron. He was born of a noble Florentine family. At the age of 16 he inherited the family bank in Rome and, after the closure in 1528 of the rival bank founded by Agostino Chigi, became the most important papal financier in the city. Despite his position as Florentine consul in Rome, he was vigorously opposed to the Medici regime and his residence near the Ponte Sant’Angelo became the gathering place of many Florentine exiles. This palazzo was restored by Altoviti in 1514 (destr. 1888) and housed a rich collection of antiquities from Hadrian’s Villa (see Tivoli, §2(ii)) and many commissioned works. Raphael painted for Altoviti the Madonna dell’Impannata (1511–16; Florence, Pitti) and his portrait, which is generally agreed to be the one (c. 1518) that is now in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. In 1534 Francesco Salviati also executed a portrait of Altoviti (untraced) and frescoed the arms of Pope Paul III on the façade of the palazzo. Benvenuto Cellini made a magnificent bronze portrait bust of the banker (...