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Gordon Campbell

German porcelain factory founded in 1887 in the Bavarian city of Arzberg. The factory’s most famous design is a set of tableware known as ‘Form 1382’, which was designed by Hermann Gretsch (1895–1950) and has been sold since 1931. In August 2000 the company merged with three smaller manufacturers to become SKV-ARZBERG-Porzellan GmbH, which since ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Askos  

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John Mawer

(b Shelton, Staffs, 1688; d Shelton, Staffs, March 3, 1743).

English potter. He worked mainly in earthenware and furthered the development of white, salt-glazed wares, which replaced the earlier, drab, salt-glazed stoneware and the brittle, yellow-brown slipwares. He was interested in the nature of clays and carried out experiments with combinations of different types; he is often credited (along with Thomas Heath) with the introduction of calcined flint into the clay body to enable the production of finer, crisper work. His output included teapots and other red earthenwares—some with applied, white relief decoration—including cow creamers and a variety of animal figures. He is perhaps best known, however, for his charming figures of soldiers (e.g. Grenadier; London, BM), musicians and horsemen modelled in brown-and-white clay with transparent lead glazes. Although these figures were cheaply produced from moulds they required a great deal of hand finishing. Similar but later figures, stained with underglaze metallic oxides, are referred to as ‘Astbury Whieldon’. Astbury’s rolled, pipeclay figures possess a cheerful, enthusiastic quality and he is also sometimes credited with modelling the naive and humorous ‘Pew Groups’ of seated men and women in finely detailed contemporary dress. From ...

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Laure de Margerie

(b Longwy, Meurthe et Moselle, July 3, 1837; d Capbreton, Landes, Aug 23, 1916).

French sculptor. In 1851 he entered the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, Paris, also studying with Antoine-Laurent Dantan, and in 1854 moved to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. A grant from his native département enabled him to travel to Italy in 1866–7, though he was evidently little influenced by antique or Renaissance works of art. Apart from his bronze monument to Dante Alighieri (1879–80; Paris, Square Monge), his work is in a neo-Rococo style, as exemplified in his terracotta bust of his daughter Marcelle Aubé (1910; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). Besides many portrait busts he also executed public monuments to notable Frenchmen, several of which were destroyed on the orders of the Vichy government in 1941. The most important, and most controversial, was that to Léon Gambetta (bronze, 1884–8), built in collaboration with the architect Louis-Charles Boileau in the courtyard of the Louvre in Paris; it was damaged during World War II and dismantled from ...

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Gordon Campbell

( de )

( fl 1569–84).

Spanish potter born in Navarre and settled in Seville, where he became a prominent maker of azulejos. His tiles for the Alcázar include two remarkable sets installed in the Palacio Gótico between 1577 and 1583, one depicting the Conquest of Tunis. His panel of the Virgin of the Rosary is in the Museo de Bellas Artes in Seville....

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Ellen Paul Denker

(b Heidersdorf, April 5, 1722; d Lititz, PA, Oct 28, 1788).

American potter of German birth. Although originally trained as a weaver, Aust was apprenticed to a potter in Herrnhut, Germany, where the Moravian Brethren were centred. In 1754 he arrived in Bethlehem, PA, the Brethren’s first colonial outpost. After ten months’ work at the pottery there under master Michael Odenwald, Aust went to the new settlement in Bethabara, NC, where he established its first pottery. In 1768 the pottery was moved to another new settlement at Salem, NC. All the wares necessary for daily life were made in Aust’s potteries, including large stoves (see Teapot, 1756–71; New York, Met.). Aust’s most distinctive work is found on decorative plates embellished with floral or geometric ornament delineated in green, red, brown, white and dark brown slips (e.g. earthenware dish used by Aust as a trade sign, diam. 555 mm, 1773; Winston-Salem, NC, Old Salem; see Bivins, p. 224). He trained a number of apprentices who worked in the Piedmont region, thereby creating a ‘school’ of his style that is associated with the area....

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Gordon Campbell

(b 1926, Butte, MT; d Missoula, MT June 20, 2007).

American potter and sculptor of Finnish descent who is best known as a figurative ceramicist but has also worked in bronze, concrete, glass and metal. His works are normally in stoneware with incised decorations, but Autio began to work in porcelain while working at the Arabia Porcelain Factory in Helsinki in the 1980s....

Article

Wendy M. Watson

(b Rovigo, 1486–7; d 1542).

Italian maiolica painter . More is known about Avelli than any other maiolica painter because of his many signed works and the autobiographical details included in his sonnets in honour of Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. Avelli considered himself to be not only an artist but also a poet and courtier. His intellectual abilities set him apart from his colleagues, even if as a painter he was not the most talented. He seems never to have directed his own workshop, but he is known to have worked in Urbino from 1530, the year of his first unequivocally signed and dated plate; some pieces from the 1520s signed f.r. and f.l.r. may also be ascribed to him. His familiarity with Classical and contemporary literature is evident in his choice of secular and religious subjects, taken from such authors as Virgil and Ovid, Ariosto and Petrarch (e.g. plate, 1531; London, BM). He also depicted contemporary events, sometimes in allegorical form, for example the Sack of Rome (...

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Donna Corbin

(b Tours, Dec 25, 1796; d Tours, Feb 6, 1861).

French potter . He was the son of a stone-cutter and at a young age was apprenticed in a faience factory at Saint Pierre-des-Corps. In 1825 he entered the ceramic factory of Baron de Bezeval at Beaumont-les-Autels where he saw a dish made by the Renaissance potter Bernard Palissy, which was to inspire his work. In 1843 Avisseau established an independent factory on the Rue Saint-Maurice in Tours, where individual ceramics inspired by and in the style of Palissy’s ‘rustic’ wares were produced (e.g. lead-glazed dish, 1857; Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Mus. A.). Although critics complained that his works merely imitated the Renaissance master, he never directly copied Palissy’s pieces. During the 1840s and 1850s he received a number of major commissions, including a large dish for Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, by the Princesse de Talleyrand and a perfume burner for the Turkish Ambassador Prince Kallimaki. Avisseau exhibited his ceramics in Paris at the ...

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(b Paris, 1724; d Paris, April 13, 1806).

French painter, writer and administrator . A pupil of Jean-Baptiste Pierre, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in Paris in 1750 and received (reçu) as a painter of flowers in 1752 on presentation of a Portrait of the King in a Medallion Surrounded by a Garland of Flowers and Attributes of the Arts (untraced). He was essentially a flower and animal painter; as a successor to Jean-Baptiste Oudry he played a key part in the continuation of a precise and polished type of still-life painting. Yet Bachelier also had pretensions towards becoming a history painter, a status he achieved officially in 1763 when he was admitted to the category of history painters at the Académie on the strength of his Death of Abel (Auxerre, Mus. A. & Hist.), for which he substituted a Roman Charity (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) in 1764.

Bachelier exhibited regularly at the Salon from ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Badorfer ware]

Carolingian pottery associated with the German town of Badorf, situated between Bonn and Cologne. Vessels are characteristically decorated with girth grooves. The pottery was widely traded (e.g. examples excavated in 1990 at Flixborough Anglo-Saxon Settlement in Lincolnshire).

W. A. Van Es and W. J. H. Verwers: ‘Le commerce de céramiques carolingiennes aux Pays-Bas’, ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b New York, Oct 27, 1886; d Columbus, OH, Feb 15, 1947).

American potter . As a student of Charles Fergus Binns at Alfred University, Alfred, NY, he was introduced to the practical aspects of running a pottery, and in 1904 Binns sent him to help Dr Herbert James Hall (1870–1923) to establish a pottery for occupational therapy at his sanatorium in Marblehead, MA. In 1908 the Marblehead Pottery was reorganized on a commercial basis. Baggs designed the wares, which were mostly simply shaped vases covered with muted matt glazes and contrasting stylized decorations. In 1915 Baggs purchased the pottery and continued to be associated with it until its closure in 1936. Between 1925 and 1928 he developed brilliant blue and green glazes while working as a glaze chemist at R. Guy Cowan’s, Cowan Pottery Studio in Cleveland, OH. In 1928 he became professor of ceramic arts at Ohio State University in Columbus. During the 1930s he revived interest in salt-glazing stoneware, and his ‘Cookie Jar’ (...

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Bahía  

Jorge G. Marcos

Pre-Columbian regional culture of coastal Ecuador that flourished c. 500 bcc. ad 500. Archaeological field research by Emilio Estrada and Matthew and Marion Stirling at Manta, Manabí, identified a platform-mounded Bahía urban and ceremonial centre. Since no extensive excavation of the area was conducted, the only evidence for Bahía houses is a number of terracotta models, similar in form to examples from China; some archaeologists, such as Meggers, consider them as evidence of transpacific influence. Excavation of a few test pits produced a relative ceramic sequence and some radiocarbon assays. In the Guayas Basin, to the south, Bahía-like Tejar and Guayaquil phases have been described by Meggers and Parducci. Bahía pottery appears to have evolved from the earlier Chorrera style developed by intensive farming communities in the rich alluvial valleys of central Manabí and the Guayas Basin. Bahía potters practised a highly developed craft, having mastered not only traditional coiled construction but also slip-casting, a technique introduced during the Chorrera period. They were proficient in controlled smudging and resist decoration, and excelled in the use of polychrome slips, employing a wide spectrum of mineral and organic pigments. Another characteristic was decoration encrusted after firing in brilliant yellows, reds, greens and blues. Flutes, ocarinas and flamboyantly decorated whistling bottles with spouts and strap handles imitated human and animal forms. At ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

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Banko  

Andrew Maske and Gordon Campbell

Japanese centre of pottery and porcelain production. Kilns were established in the mid-18th century in Ise Province (Mie Prefecture); production eventually spread as far as Edo (now Tokyo); ‘banko’, which was imprinted on the seals, means ‘eternal’. In the 18th century the area produced raku ware and Satsuma types and decorative patterns taken from Ming Dynasty red and green porcelain. The rise in the use of steeped tea (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Porcelain manufactory in Volhynia founded by Michael Mezer in 1801; Baranówka was then in Poland, which had been annexed by Russia, so it was an imperial factory; Baranówka is now in the Ukraine. The products of the factory, particularly its porcelain Easter eggs, resemble those of the St Petersburg Porcelain Factory, with which it competed. Its factory mark, spelt ‘Baranovka’, is often adjacent to the double eagle of the Russian empire....