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Building designed for the exercise of state power. A tradition of such buildings in the West can be traced back to the assembly places of Classical times. However, in modern democratic states the constitutional division of powers has led to the emergence of five principal forms of government building: the parliament or legislature; the official seat of the head of government; ministries and offices of the executive; law courts; and, at a municipal level, the town hall, which in the 19th and 20th centuries has served a combination of legislative, executive and administrative functions. For the last two of these forms a distinct architectural typology can be said to have emerged, and these are thus discussed separately (see Law court and Town hall). The other forms of government buildings constitute a less clearly defined architectural type, but all forms tend to be characterized by an appearance of sobriety and grandeur....

Article

Alodie Larson

[silo]

Building used for the storage of grain or other cereal, generally found with attached loading and distribution machinery in large agricultural areas, warehouses, and ports. The giant grain elevators of the 20th century developed as a result of the massive expansion of agriculture in the late 19th century in South America, Russia, and, above all, North America. During the 19th century industrialized countries in Europe experienced huge population increases, but agricultural output shrank, and most ceased to be self-sufficient in their food production; large-scale importation of grain thus became the norm. The use of pesticides and more efficient agricultural machinery led to increased agricultural productivity, and North America was in the forefront of this development, with its industrial design seen as a model for Europe. The latest structural developments were used in grain elevators, an innovative design being the iron-framed example (1860–61) built by George H. Johnson for the ...

Article

Priscilla Boniface

[glasshouse]

Building for the protection, propagation and cultivation of plants. Greenhouses, probably roofed in mica, existed in Roman times. During the 16th century, the beginnings of the application of science to plant-growing, which led to the development of the Botanic garden in Europe, encouraged the construction of greenhouses. In ‘houses’ formed of a ‘hot bed’ of such heat-generating substances as bark or dung, situated against a south wall and ‘roofed’ with straw, canvas matting or individual glass cones, tender plants could be encouraged to survive and prosper. Such ‘houses’ gradually became more substantial, with brick or masonry sides, and eventually incorporated small panes of expensive glass. One of the most dramatic uses of portable glass coverings for plants was at Sanssouci (see Potsdam §2), where from 1773 the vineyard terrace (1747; by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff), which was also used for growing pomegranate and orange trees, was covered in glass in cold weather. The greenhouse was introduced on the east coast of ...

Article

Karin M. E. Alexis

Swedish royal fortification and residence in Mariefred, near Stockholm, begun in 1537 by King Gustav I. It is one of the finest remaining examples of Swedish architecture of the Vasa dynasty (1523–1600) founded by Gustav, and combines sophisticated Renaissance interiors with a form that remains essentially medieval. The site, strategic since Viking times, became more important during the Middle Ages when an estate and castle were erected in 1383 by Chancellor Bo Jonsson. In 1472 the property was purchased by Sten Sture the Elder (1440–1503), who donated it in 1498 to a Carthusian monastery. Gustav I seized the property in 1526, claiming the legal rights of inheritance through his kinship with Sten Sture. The existing medieval stone keep was inadequate for Gustav, who commissioned the architect Henrik Cöllen to design a new castle (begun 1537), a practical fortress-refuge for the king, his family and the royal chancery and treasury. Defensive in nature, the castle has a polygonal plan, with four massive circular towers at the angles. Built of brick, with 3–4 m thick walls surrounded by a moat, it retains a bold, severe appearance with few extraneous details, although a picturesque element is added by the irregular silhouette of towers and roofs . A painted ceiling in Halberdiers’ Hall, attributed to ...

Article

Wilhelm Deuer and Nigel J. Morgan

Romanesque cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, located in a market town north of Klagenfurt, Austria. According to tradition, Gräfin Hemma von Zeltschach-Gurk (beatified 1287; can 1938) founded a convent between 1043 and 1045 in the remote valley of Gurk. In 1072, after its dissolution, Archbishop Gebhard of Salzburg declared the site the seat of a suffragan bishop. The diocese was tightly controlled from Salzburg. The cathedral was begun under Bishop Roman I (1131–67), and in 1174 the relics of Hemma were translated to the crypt. A violent dispute between the Archbishop of Salzburg and the Bishop of Gurk over Gurk’s independent status resulted in a break in the building campaign from 1179 to 1180; the dedication of the main altar and the subsequent construction of the transept brought the second campaign to an end in 1200. The conversion of the western gallery into a richly decorated ‘Bishop’s Chapel’ was planned by Bishop ...

Article

Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery in the village of Haghpat c. 10 km north-east of Alaverdi in the district of T’umanyan, northern Armenia. It is one of the largest and best preserved architectural complexes of medieval Armenia. Its principal buildings are grouped together in a fairly compact manner, surrounded by a vast fortified precinct. Only a small portion of the annexes have survived. Several structures are located outside the complex, including a fort, a hermitage and a fountain (1258).

The monastery was probably founded c. 976, at the time the main church of the Holy Sign (Armen. Sourb Nshan) was built by Queen Khosrovanush, wife of King Ashot III of Ani (reg 952–77). The church’s construction may have been supervised by the Armenian architect Trdat (fl 989–1001) and was completed in 991 by the founder’s two sons, King Smbat (reg 977–89) and Gurgēn, the leader of the small local kingdom of Loṙē. It is a typical example of an Armenian cross-in-rectangle church, with a cylindrical drum surmounted by a conical shaped dome (rest. between the 11th and 13th centuries) and supported by pendentives and arches that spring from piers with engaged columns. The façades are articulated with pairs of tall V-shaped slits. On the east façade, the rectangular recess beneath the gable contains a relief of the two donor brothers holding a model of the church and crowned according to their respective ranks: Smbat wears a voluminous turban presented to the Bagratid kings by the caliphs, whereas Gurgēn wears a sort of helmet....

Article

Marie-Christine Hellmann, Francis Woodman, Walter Smith, John Villiers and Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt

Building type, usually consisting of a large roofed space with a public or communal function. The term probably derives from the Teutonic halla (‘covered space’) rather than the Latin aula (‘open court’).

Halls are not generally characteristic of Greek and Roman architecture. In Creto-Mycenaean palaces the hall is the great throne room (see Helladic, §II, 3). Subsequently this type of building was associated with democratic political organization that necessitated a place for the meetings of the council of the people (boule). In its earliest form this room (called the Bouleuterion) was rectangular and quite wide; it apparently derived from the Megaron with its axial colonnade, for example those on Delos and Kalauria and at Olynthos. It resembled a closed portico, and for this reason certain deep or long porticos are also called ‘halls’ by archaeologists, for example the Hall of Votive Gifts in Samothrace (...

Article

Hans-Joachim Kunst

[Ger. Hallenkirche]

Term introduced in Wilhelm Lübke’s Die mittelalterliche Kunst in Westfalen (1853) to define a church in which the aisles are the same, or almost the same, height as the nave, so that the nave is lit indirectly by the aisle windows. The hall church differs from the basilica, the distinguishing characteristic of which is the fact that the nave is higher than the aisles and is lit by a clerestory. A variation of the hall church is the Staffelkirche or Stufenhalle (Ger.: ‘staggered hall’), in which the main vessel is higher than the aisles but there is no clerestory.

In all European countries, from the early Middle Ages (e.g. Bartholomäuskapelle, Paderborn; 1017) to the 20th century (e.g. Erlöserkirche, Cologne-Rath; 1954), the hall church has, with the basilica and the centrally planned church, been one of the basic church types as defined by art historians. The hall church was, however, most widespread in ...

Article

Simon Thurley

English palace situated on the north bank of the River Thames, c. 23 km upstream from central London. In the building that survives, two main periods of work can be seen: the remains of the Tudor royal palace, begun by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey between 1514 and 1529 and completed by Henry VIII between 1529 and 1547; and the Baroque palace built for William and Mary between 1688 and 1702 by Christopher Wren. The palace has also been continually altered and repaired up to the present day. The Tudor part of the building is probably the most important surviving example of early Tudor domestic architecture in England, and the Wren building contains one of the finest collections of early 18th-century decorative arts in situ.

The earliest buildings (destr.) on the site belonged to the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St John of Jerusalem, although little is known about the nature of these buildings. The first important period of expansion began ...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

Matthew M. Reeve

Cathedral on the north bank of the River Wye in Herefordshire. Although a cathedral church has been here since the 9th century or earlier, the present building is essentially a monumental Romanesque basilica with a ruined Bishop’s Palace and out buildings, with later medieval modifications and additions, notably the north transept, the Lady Chapel, chantry chapels, and the Booth porch. Significant losses to the medieval fabric occurred in 1786 with the fall of the western tower, destroying parts of the nave and the western façade, which were subsequently rebuilt by Wyatt family §(2). In the 19th century major parts of the building were again restored or rebuilt by the Gothic Revival collector and conservator Lewis Nockalls Cottingham.

The earliest surviving parts date to the Romanesque rebuilding of c. 1107–48. The Romanesque church was a cruciform basilica, which originally included a three-bay eastern arm with groin-vaulted aisles, and a projecting east chapel and twin east towers. From the crossing extended three-bay transepts to the north and south. The nave was heavily remodeled or rebuilt after ...

Article

Former royal castle in north Zealand, Denmark. The medieval village of Hillerød can be deduced from the first mention, in 1275, of a manor house, Hillerødsholm, built on an islet in a marshy area surrounded by forests. In 1560 King Frederick II acquired Hillerødsholm and converted it into a royal residence, renaming it Frederiksborg. The plan of the existing castle is still based on Frederick’s hunting-lodge, with the buildings disposed on three islets in an artificial lake (dammed in the 1560s). The servants’ buildings on the first islet have been preserved, with heavy corner towers at the north bearing the King’s motto and the date 1562 in iron ties. Other surviving buildings include the pantry wing (1580s), on the west bank in front of the third islet, and the baths, built by Hans Floris (d 1600) in the park north-west of the lake. The buildings are of red brick, with some stepped gables and details in light sandstone, following Netherlandish building traditions, which are most pronounced in the baths. Records, excavations and two views by ...

Article

Hotel  

Richard H. Penner

Building designed to provide accommodation, dining, meeting and recreation facilities for the public. The modern hotel, which evolved from innovations in Europe and the eastern USA during the early 19th century, is usually distinguished from other, similar establishments, such as inns, lodges or motels, by its larger size and the provision of many guest services. By the end of the 20th century a wide range of hotel types had developed, catering largely to business travellers and tourists and varying enormously in size, site, facilities and market-orientation.

See also Club.

Lodging places for travellers have existed for thousands of years, for example as the mansione of ancient Rome and the Caravanserai and khān of western Asia, but these generally offered few amenities and no assurance of quality. Medieval inns usually comprised a combined tavern and dining-room with a common sleeping area above; only occasionally were private rooms available for royalty or other distinguished guests. As roads improved and more inns were established in the 16th century, particularly in England, private rooms were added, often arranged along upper galleries encircling the stable-yard—in plan not unlike 20th-century atrium designs. By the mid-18th century assembly rooms were added to larger inns or incorporated into new designs. Despite the construction of a few lavish hotels, notably ...

Article

Géza Entz

[Ger. Eisenburg; Hung. Vajdahunyad, Vajda-Hunyad]

Castle overlooking the mining town of Hunedoara in south-west Transylvania, Romania, south-west of Cluj-Napoca. The earliest documentary evidence of the comitat of Hunyad is from 1276, and its earliest known ispan (administrator) is mentioned in 1295; the first castle also dates from the second half of the 13th century, but little remains of this period, although its original plan was established by István Möller, who restored the castle in the early 20th century. As usual in Hungary at that period, it ran along the edge of a long cliff.

In 1409 King Sigismund of Luxembourg gave the castle to Vajk, the kneaz (leader) of the Romanian settlement, and his son John. The present building was commissioned by John Hunyadi, imperial regent of Hungary (d 1456), who built it in two stages. With its magnificent shape and careful detailing, this building gives an idea of the lost splendour of the castle of Buda, the royal capital. In the 1430s an outer ring with towers was built parallel to the old wall, preserving the basic form of the original plan. A rock-cut moat surrounds the inner castle, which was built in the second phase (1440s–50s). On the west side of the massive courtyard the two-storey Knights’ Hall wing was built. Each storey has two aisles, with rib vaults supported by a single row of octagonal piers. The Gothic inscription on a capital in the lower hall gives the name of the patron and the year ...

Article

Article

John Curran, Andrew N. Palmer, J. van Ginkel, Francis Woodman, John W. Cook, Robert Ousterhout, Natalia Teteriatnikov, Warren Sanderson, Tania Velmans, Nigel J. Morgan and Doug Adams

In 

Article

Susan Roaf

Building for storing ice for summer use. Since antiquity ice has been stored in many different structures. In mountain areas it was common to pack ice into deep pits, often lined and roofed with straw or timber. Ice-houses were built of many different materials, such as timber, mud or brick. They were rectangular, square, conical or cylindrical structures, which until the 19th century were usually all or partly underground. The most usual form of British ice-house was an underground, inverted egg-shaped building with a diameter of c. 3–6 m and a depth of c. 5–10 m, with brick cavity walls, an entrance tunnel and a sump or drain at the base of the well. By contrast, the great ice-houses of Persia reached diameters of 14 m and overall heights of over 16 m. Ice-houses were built as early as the 2nd millennium bc in Mesopotamia and later in China and throughout the Greek and Roman worlds. Ice was always a luxury but a remarkably available one. The Italian courts of the 16th century enjoyed ice in many forms, and ...

Article

Article

John Curran, Andrew N. Palmer, J. van Ginkel, Francis Woodman, John W. Cook, Robert Ousterhout, Natalia Teteriatnikov, Warren Sanderson, Tania Velmans, Nigel J. Morgan and Doug Adams

In 

Article

John Curran, Andrew N. Palmer, J. van Ginkel, Francis Woodman, John W. Cook, Robert Ousterhout, Natalia Teteriatnikov, Warren Sanderson, Tania Velmans, Nigel J. Morgan and Doug Adams

In