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Heather Stoddard-Karmay

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Anne Riches, Duncan Macmillan, W. T. Johnston, Rosalind K. Marshall, Veronica Steele, Ian Gow, David Jones, G. R. Haggarty, Brian J. R. Blench, David H. Caldwell, George R. Dalgleish, Naomi Tarrant, John Morrison, M. A. Forrest, Jennifer Melville and Patricia Brookes

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Dominique Collon

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Amy Buono

[Brasil]

The Viceroyalty of Brazil (c. 1720–1815) refers to a polity that, at its greatest extent, roughly corresponded in geographic area to the modern nation-state of Brazil. Lying on the upper Atlantic coast of South America, it is bounded on the northeast by the Guyanas, to the northwest by the Viceroyalty of New Granada, to the west by the Viceroyalty of Peru, and to the southwest and south by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Northern Brazil is dominated by the densely forested basin of the Amazon River and its many tributaries, which include the Tapajó and Xingu rivers, which empty into the Atlantic at Marajó Island. The Atlantic forests stretched over 330 million acres of the eastern seaboard at the time of colonization, representing both the region of greatest cultural activity and the initial economic motivation for European engagements with Brazil: the brazilwood trade. The Cerrado, a region of tropical savannas, occupy much of the central and southern interior of Brazil. The arid backlands of Brazil’s northeastern regions form the Sertão. ...

Article

Clara Bargellini

A jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire that covered Mexico, western parts of the United States, and parts of Central America. The political and cultural center of the viceroyalty of New Spain was the former Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, now Mexico City, conquered by the Spaniards in 1521. The viceroyalty ended in 1821 with the declaration of the First Mexican Empire.

Basing themselves on the networks of their native subjects, the Europeans, once established, were able to conquer territories as far north as New Mexico and south into Central America before the end of the century. Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian missionaries were key for the religious and cultural conquest of the indigenous population (see Missions of New Spain in the 16th century). They established themselves in native towns, as well as in the major Spanish cities, where bishoprics were instituted in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Jesuits, who were to play a major role in the culture of New Spain, arrived in ...

Article

Michael J. Schreffler

A jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in South America that existed from the mid-16th to early 19th century. By the 1600s, its territory extended from Panama southward beyond the cities of Santiago (Chile) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). The Viceroyalty’s western boundary was the Pacific Ocean, and its jurisdiction reached across the Andes into the rainforests and plains to the east. The geographic limits of the Viceroyalty of Peru were sharply reduced in the 18th century with the Spanish Crown’s establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the northernmost part of South America in 1717, and in the southernmost part, that of Río de la Plata in 1776. By the early 19th century, just prior to the wars of independence and the formation of sovereign nations in South America, the juridical boundaries of the Viceroyalty of Peru corresponded approximately to those of the modern nations of Peru and Chile. Almost none of the territory of the modern nation of Brazil pertained to the Viceroyalty of Peru, as those lands had been granted to the Portuguese Crown through the Treaty of Tordesillas in ...

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Ricardo González Marchetti

A jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in South America that lasted from 1776 until 1814. This article discusses the art and architecture of the region from the Spanish conquest in 1516 until the end of the viceregal period.

The Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, founded by the Spanish Crown in 1776 from the southernmost part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital in Buenos Aires, was intended to foster economic development and reinforce territorial defense against the Portuguese advance, and English and French threats in the region. It comprised the former provinces of Buenos Aires, Tucumán, Paraguay, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Potosí, Charcas, and Cuyo (present day Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia), including small portions of Chile, covered an area of 6000 km in length by 1500 km, and was occupied by different indigenous cultural groups adapted to particular geographical and ecological environments. Except for Alto Perú (Bolivia), the most developed of these areas, both demographically and culturally, was the Argentine highlands, with Andean agro-ceramic cultures (i.e. Casabindos, Cohinocas, Ocloyas, Omahuacas), and the valleys and adjoining canyons (Pulares, Calchaquíes, Diaguitas), whose influence reached the central mountains of Córdoba and San Luis (Comechingones and Sanavirones). The Paraguay and Argentine-Uruguayan coastline was occupied by a Guaraní agricultural society and farmers of Amazonian origin. Nomadic groups of hunter-gatherers, such as the Querandíes, Tehuelches, Onas, and later the Araucanos and Charrúas, mixed with Guaraní groups in present Uruguay, and lived in the region Pampeano-Patagónica. There were other local ethnic groups like the Huarpes in Cuyo and the Lules and Juríes in Tucumán....

Article

Anne Riches, Duncan Macmillan, W. T. Johnston, Rosalind K. Marshall, Veronica Steele, Ian Gow, David Jones, G. R. Haggarty, Brian J. R. Blench, David H. Caldwell, George R. Dalgleish, Naomi Tarrant, John Morrison, M. A. Forrest, Jennifer Melville and Patricia Brookes

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Jane Casey Singer

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Brian J. R. Blench

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Amy Heller

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Wales  

Peter Lord

[Cymru]

Region bounded by the Irish Sea to the north, St George’s Channel to the west, Bristol Channel to the south, and England to the east ( see fig. ). Much of the interior comprises hills separated by deep, narrow valleys. The highest parts are the Cambrian Mountains to the west, running north to south. The coastal areas are flatter, particularly in the south; the Isle of Anglesey and the Llŷn peninsula to the north-west are also relatively flat.

There are substantial differences of landscape and climate. The western coastal strip and the mountainous interior are exposed and are relatively poor both in their agricultural base and in material resources. The eastern part of the country, the Vale of Glamorgan in the south, and the Vale of Clwyd in the north, are richer in natural resources and more accessible to England. The total landmass is 20,761 sq. km. The capital is ...

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George R. Dalgleish

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Naomi Tarrant

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John Morrison

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M. A. Forrest

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Jennifer Melville

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Patricia Brookes

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Anne Riches, Duncan Macmillan, W. T. Johnston, Rosalind K. Marshall, Veronica Steele, Ian Gow, David Jones, G. R. Haggarty, Brian J. R. Blench, David H. Caldwell, George R. Dalgleish, Naomi Tarrant, John Morrison, M. A. Forrest, Jennifer Melville and Patricia Brookes

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