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Richard Louis Edmonds, Bonnie Abiko, F. G. Notehelfer, Christine M. E. Guth, William Samonides, Sylvan Barnet, H. Byron Earhart, William H. Coaldrake, Mary Neighbour Parent, H. Mack Horton, J. Edward Kidder jr, Eizo Inagaki, Nobuo Ito, Lucie R. Weinstein, Anne Nishimura Morse, Donald F. McCallum, Samuel C. Morse, Hiromichi Soejima, Chie Ishibashi, Tamon Miki, Kyotaro Nishikawa, John Winter, Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis, Kōzō Sasaki, Karen L. Brock, Joan H. O’Mara, Ken Brown, Richard P. Stanley-Baker, Carolyn Wheelwright, Shugo Asano, Richard L. Wilson, Mitsuro Sakamoto, Carol Morland, Stephen Addiss, Sadako Ohki, Motoaki Kono, Michiyo Morioka, Ellen Conant, Shigeo Chiba, Claire Illouz, Audrey Yoshiko Seo, John T. Carpenter, Fumiko E. Cranston, Helmut Brinker, Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter, Masaaki Arakawa, Richard L. Mellott, Gina L. Barnes, Rupert Faulkner, David Hale, Andrew Maske, Hiroko Nishida, Frederick Baekeland, Matthi Forrer, Amy Reigle Stephens, Ellis Tinios, Richard Kruml, Lawrence Smith, Ann Yonemura, Monica Bethe, Kazutoshi Harada, Thomas Leims, Victor Hauge, Takako Hauge, Terry Hiener, Patricia J. Graham, Jerald P. Stowell, Joe Cribb, Lea Baten, George Kuwayama, Elizabeth Palmer, David Waterhouse, Kazuko Koizumi, Tal Streeter, Raymond Bushell, B. Hickman, Henryk Jurkowski, Norihisa Mizuta, Willem van Gulik, Peter Bleed and Laurance P. Roberts

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Consuelo de Póveda, Liliana Herrera, Florencio Delgado, Carmen María Fernández-Salvador, Ricardo Descalzi and Lenin Oña

South American country. It is in the northwest of the continent and is bordered to the north by Colombia, to the south and east by Peru, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean (see fig.). It also includes the Galapagos Islands off the Pacific coast. The country occupies an area of 270,690 sq. km and has a population of c. 17 million (2019). The capital is Quito, but the largest city is the chief port, Guayaquil. The country is tropical, and regional variations in climate are determined by the Andes mountains, running north to south, which divide Ecuador into three regions: the coastal or ante-Andean region; the mountainous Andean region, a volcanic area containing some highly fertile valleys; and the Oriente region to the east, the principal center for oil production, which led to a period of rapid economic expansion in the 1970s. Throughout its history the country has been beset by earthquakes. The territory that makes up modern Ecuador was under Spanish colonial rule from ...

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[Arab. Jumhūriyya Miṣr al-‛Arabiyya.]

Country in North Africa extending into Asia at the south-eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, with its capital at Cairo. It is bounded in the west by Libya, in the south by Sudan and in the east by the Gaza Strip, Israel, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Although its total area is over one million sq. km, this is largely desert; the cultivated and settled part, the Nile Valley and Delta and the oases, is only a quarter of the country’s area. (For a description of its geography see Egypt, ancient, §I, 1.) It is the most populous state in the Arab world, with more than 80 million people (2007 estimate). Traditionally the majority have been fellahin, peasant farmers; despite massive rural migration to the towns, about half the working population is still engaged on the land. The majority are Sunni Muslim and perhaps 10–15% are Copts, the largest Christian minority. Many Jews emigrated in the 1940s and 1950s. At the beginning of the 20th century there were over 100,000 Europeans, but many left in the 1960s....

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Claudia Allwood de Mata

[Sp. República de El Salvador]

Central American country. It is bordered to the north and east by Honduras, to the south-east by the Gulf of Fonseca, to the south by the Pacific Ocean and to the west by Guatemala (see fig.). It covers an area of 21,200 sq. km and has a population of over five million; c. one million live in the capital, San Salvador, which is located in the central southern region of the country. The territory is subdivided politically into 14 departments. El Salvador gained independence from Spanish colonization in 1821. This article covers the art and architecture produced since colonial times. For a discussion of the arts of pre-colonial times, see Maya, §2.

The Spanish colonial conquest and rule began with the discovery of El Salvador by Andrés Niño in 1522. Within the Viceroyalty of Guatemala, El Salvador was of immense value for its agricultural wealth. In the struggle for independence in Central America, San Salvador was the first city to rebel, and the country played a leading role in Central American integration, with the establishment in ...

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George Kuwayama

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Daniel J. Crowley

[República de Guinea Ecuatorial; formerly Spanish Guinea.]

Country in West Africa consisting of the island of Biogo (formerly Macias Nguema Biyoga; Fernando Po(o)) in the Bight of Biafra, Pagalu Island (formerly Annobon) in the Gulf of Guinea, the Corisco Islands (Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico) and Rio Muni, a square area on the mainland between Cameroon and Gabon. The total area of the country is 26,051 sq. km and the total population 341,000 (UN estimate, 1989). The capital is Malabo (formerly Santa Isabel) on the island of Biogo; it is an attractive port city, with Spanish-style plazas with churches, situated on the slanting base of a huge volcano, Mt Malabo. The territories of modern Equatorial Guinea were formerly Spanish colonies. They were constituted as two provinces of Metropolitan Spain in 1960 and became independent in 1968. The anglicized creole population compete with the local Bubi people for the coffee wealth of Biogo, while the Fang dominate Rio Muni and the surrounding areas of Gabon and Cameroon....

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Estonia  

Anu Liivak

[Est. Eesti; Ger. Estland; Rus. Estonya.]

Republic in Eastern Europe. It is bounded to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the east by Russia, to the west by the Baltic Sea and to the south by Latvia (see fig.). The country is mainly flat and covers some 45,000 sq. km including numerous offshore islands, the largest of which are Saaremaa and Hiiumaa; it has a population of around 1.5 million. The capital is Tallinn (formerly Reval). Estonians form about 61% of the population, and 30% is Russian-speaking. The Estonian people, who are related to the Finns, have lived in the area for over 5000 years, having migrated there from the east. Their language belongs to the Finno-Ugric group.

Because of its strategic importance, Estonia has been the site of numerous conflicts from the beginning of the 13th century. By 1227 it was divided into small feudal states between Denmark, the bishops of Tartu and Saare Lääne and the Brethren of the Sword (later joining the Teutonic Order and becoming known as the Livonian Knights), who conquered southern Estonia (the historical Livonia) and brought about the conversion of the inhabitants to Christianity in the early 13th century. The Germans and Danes formed the aristocracy and most of the urban population, while the rural population was indigenous. German rule continued under the Teutonic Order, and Lutheranism reached Estonia by ...

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William Morgan, Carl Jacob Gardberg, Åsa Ringbom, Kaarina Pöykkö, Kalevi Pöykkö, Aimo Reitala, Timo Keinänen, Neil Kent, Michael Tucker, Heikki Hyvönen, Sirkka Kopisto, Raimo Fagerström, Nils Georg Brekke, Marja Supinen and Kari Vahapassi

[Suomi ; Swed. Finnland]

Nordic European country, bordered to the north by Norway, to the east by the Russian Federation, to the south by the Gulf of Finland and to the west by the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden (see fig.). The population is c. 5 million (1995 estimate), and the capital city is Helsinki (Swed. Helsingfors). It is the fifth largest country in Europe, with hundreds of thousands of glacial lakes and extensive forests separating the majority of Finland’s population—clustered along the southern and western coasts—from the arctic wilderness and tundra of Lapland to the north. The country’s history is interwoven with that of Sweden, of which it was a part from Viking times until 1809, and more recently with that of Russia. Both powerful neighbours tried to dominate the Finns, whose art developed as an assertion of separateness and independence as well as an affirmation of cultural identity.

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David Waterhouse

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Erika Speel, Christopher Masters, Anne Prache, Christopher Tadgell, Richard Cleary, Richard Becherer, Marc Dilet, Anne-Marie Lecoq, Malcolm Bull, Simon Lee, Jon Whiteley, Bernard Ceysson, Colin Harrison, Philip Ward-Jackson, Penelope Curtis, Monique Riccardi-Cubitt, Pascal-François Bertrand, Ian Wardropper, Ludwig Tavernier, Stella Beddoe, Chantal Eschenfelder, A. Pradère, Jacqueline Viaux, Hugo Morley-Fletcher, Catherine Vaudour, Clare Le Corbeiller, Nigel J. Morgan, Gordon Campbell, Philippe Boucaud, Jean-Dominique Augarde, A. Kenneth Snowman, Anna Maria Massinelli, Isabelle Denis, Hervé Oursel, Diana Fowle, Martine Mathias, Monique King, Clare Woodthorpe Browne, Patricia Wardle, Santina M. Levey, Alden R. Gordon, Linda Whiteley and Paul Duro

[République Française]

Country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium and Luxembourg to the north-east; Germany, Switzerland and Italy to the east; Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the west (see figs 1 and 2). One of the oldest and largest European nations, it covers an area of 551,000 sq. km. The country consists of the 96 départements of Metropolitan France, including Corsica, in the Mediterranean Sea; four overseas départements—French Guiana in South America; Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean Sea; and Réunion in the Indian Ocean; four overseas territories—French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna and the French Southern and Antarctic territories; and the ‘territorial collectivities’ of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean and Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the east coast of Canada. France has a population of 57,526,000 (1993 estimate), of which over one sixth lives in the capital, ...

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Jessica Rawson, Zhou Lijun, William R. Sargent, Henrik H. Sørensen, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Jerome Silbergeld, Peter Hardie, Haiyao Zheng, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Puay-Peng Ho, Bent L. Pedersen, Tan Tanaka, Petra Klose, Frances Wood, Robert L. Thorp, Ann Paludan, Peter Wiedehage, Carol Michaelson, Stephen B. Little, Stephen J. Goldberg, Friedrich Zettl, James Cahill, Caroline Gyss-Vermande, Roderick Whitfield, Michael Sullivan, Susan H. Bush, James Robinson, Maggie Bickford, Robert E. Harrist jr, Richard Vinograd, Ellen Uitzinger, Ann Barrott Wicks, Colin Mackenzie, Robert W. Bagley, Li Xueqin, Jenny F. So, Nigel Wood, Margaret Medley, S. J. Vainker, Mary Tregear, Regina Krahl, Yutaka Mino, Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Rose Kerr, Guy Raindre, Nicholas Pearce, John Guy, C. J. A. Jörg, Barry Till, Paula Swart, Rosemary Scott, Rosemary Ransome Wallis, Sarah Handler, John E. Vollmer, Albert E. Dien, Sören Edgren, Yang Boda, Joe Cribb, Verity Wilson, Jane Portal, Zhong Hong, Donald B. Wagner, Ho Chuimei, Bent Nielsen, B. V. Gyllensvärd, J. A. Marsh, Cordell D. K. Yee, F. Richard Stephenson, Keith Pratt, Henryk Jurkowski, Jan Chapman, Uta Lauer, Sarah Waldram, Richard Rutt, Mayching Kao, Chu-Tsing Li, Michel Beurdeley, Jessica Harrison-Hall, Basil Gray and Wang Tao

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Kazuko Koizumi

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Gabon  

D. Francine Farr

[République Gabonaise]

Country on the Atlantic coast of western equatorial Africa, bordered by Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon to the north and by the Republic of Congo to the east and south. Gabon became independent in 1960. Its capital is Libreville and French is the national language.

Gabon’s heavy rainfall and warm temperatures mean that much of the country’s total area of c. 267,667 sq. km is covered by tropical rainforest. Its population (c. 1,113,000; UN estimate, 1989) is increasingly concentrated in urban areas, leaving the interior plateau sparsely inhabited. Pygmies occupied the dense Gabonese rainforest from c. 5000 bc, followed by migrating Bantu-speaking peoples from c. ad 1000. The first European contact was made in the 1470s by Portuguese maritime explorers, and slaves and ivory were major exports until the mid-19th century. European merchants, missionaries and officials established permanent settlements, and the Fang peoples began a migration from their homeland near Cameroon to these commercial centres. By the 1880s the country was one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa, becoming the French Congo in ...

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Deborah A. Hoover

[Republic of]

Country in West Africa. Except for its western Atlantic coast, the Gambia is completely surrounded by Senegal. Of its total area of 11,295 sq. km, one fifth comprises the River Gambia and the rest river flats. The capital is Banjul (formerly Bathurst). The Gambia gained its independence from Britain in 1965. Each of the five major ethnic groups found in the Gambia also inhabits Senegal. The largest group, the Mandingo, comprises almost half the population. Traditionally agriculturalists, they live in the central part of the country. The Wolof are the largest group in Banjul and along the Atlantic coast. They are primarily merchants and traders. Fula herdsmen dominate the eastern section of the country. Jolas live to the south, and Serahuli traders are found throughout the country. Over 90% of the population is Muslim, although many also follow traditional African religions. The British settlement in the Gambia consisted of a small mercantile community around Banjul. Despite the colonial presence, most of the Gambia remained relatively unchanged into the 20th century. The bonds of village life were maintained by a highly structured society, stratified by castes and age-groups. This entry covers the art produced in the area since colonial times. For the art of the region in earlier periods, ...

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V. Beridze and Antony Eastmond

[Sakartvelos Respublika]

Caucasian country covering an area of 69,700 sq. km in the central and western part of Transcaucasia. In the early 1990s it had a population of c. 5 million. It borders Russia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east and south-east, Armenia and Turkey to the south and the Black Sea to the west (see fig.). Its capital is Tbilisi. Having been incorporated into the USSR in 1921, Georgia became a separate Soviet republic from 1936 but became independent in 1991.

The earliest traces of material culture in Georgia have been recovered from early Palaeolithic contexts in caves in, for example, Abkhazeti, Imereti and Kakheti. A complex tribal society existed by the 5th millennium bc. In the late 2nd millennium bc and the early 1st there is evidence for the formation of two clearly defined regions with homogeneous material cultures in western Georgia (...

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Erika Speel, David Jenkinson, Günther Binding, Doris Kutschbach, Ulrich Knapp, Howard Caygill, Achim Preiss, Helmut Börsch-Supan, Thomas Kliemann, April Eisman, Klaus Niehr, Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Ulrich Leben, Heidrun Zinnkann, Angelika Steinmetz, Walter Spiegl, G. Reinheckel, Hannelore Müller, Gerhard Bott, Peter Hornsby, Anna Beatriz Chadour, A. Kenneth Snowman, Brigitte Dinger, Annamaria Giusti, Harald Olbrich, Christian Herchenröder, David Alan Robertson, Dominic R. Stone, Eduard Isphording and Heinrich Dilly

[Deutschland]

Country in northern Europe. It extends from the Baltic Sea and the North German Plain to Lake Constance and the Bavarian Alps and Plateau, and from the North Sea and the French border to the Oder and Neisse rivers and the mountainous eastern regions of the Erzgebirge and the Fichtelgebirge. Bordered by Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands, its territory covers 357,000 sq. km of varied landscape and heterogeneous geological composition; more than a quarter is covered by forest. After World War II, from 1949 to 1990, Germany was divided, with Bonn as the capital of West Germany; the historic capital Berlin was restored after reunification in 1990 (East Berlin having served as the capital of East Germany from 1949 to 1990). Other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Frankfurt am Main, Cologne, Leipzig, Dresden, Hannover, Bremen, Stuttgart, and Nuremberg (see figs 1...

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Kojo Fosu

[formerly the Gold Coast]

Country in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea, bordered by Côte d’Ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north and Togo to the east. The capital is Accra. Ghana became independent in 1957. English is the language of government, while Ahan and Ewe are also national languages.

The south of Ghana is situated on a narrow coastal plain, while the north comprises tropical forest and savannah. The total land area is about 240,000 sq. km.

By the 14th century ad most of the major ethnic groups that constitute the present population of 14,753,900 (UN estimate, 1990) had settled in various parts of the country and had formed independent city states with distinctive artistic cultures. These states unsuccessfully combated Arab and European cultural encroachments and were brought together as a British colony during the last quarter of the 19th century. Little unity was achieved, resulting in a cultural division into Muslim north and Christian south. The attainment of independence rekindled national pride, and it was accompanied by a revival of indigenous cultural traditions. Ghanaian craftsmen have continued to produce such traditional products as carved wooden figures, miniature brass sculptures, terracotta statues, brightly woven kente cloth ...