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Louise Noelle

(b Mexico City, Aug 2, 1929).

Mexican sculptor. She studied at the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos, Mexico City, from 1944 to 1946, and in 1947 at the Academia de San Alejandro in Havana, Cuba, where she received a number of awards. She held her first one-woman exhibition in 1950. Her sensitive sculpture addressed human emotions and situations, including motherhood, love and solitude. Taking inspiration for her sculptures from prehistoric art, she worked first in terracotta and then in bronze and with direct carving in stone, using clean contours to stress the curves and sensuality of the human form. Later she used newspapers as a sculptural material. From 1975, in association with other Mexican sculptors such as Angela Gurría, Mathias Goeritz, Juan Luis Díaz (b 1939) and Sebastián, she began also to conceive sculptures for urban settings.

Geles Cabrera (Mexico City, 1977)L. Kassner: Diccionario de escultura mexicana (Mexico City, 1983; rev. 1997), p. 55...


Angel Kalenberg

(b Las Piedras, nr. Montevideo, May 2, 1903; d Montevideo, May 30, 1990).

Uruguayan sculptor. He studied under the Argentinian sculptor Luis Falcini (1899–1973) from 1918 to 1926 at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Montevideo, and in Paris from 1926 to 1928 under Charles Despiau at the Académie Colarossi and under Emile-Antoine Bourdelle at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. He lived again in Uruguay (1928–1936), and in Paris (1936–1938) before moving to Caracas (1938–1944). After traveling extensively in Europe, Mexico, and the USA, he settled in Madrid from 1975 to the end of the decade.

Cabrera’s sculptures, such as Untitled (1963; Montevideo, Estación Goes), depend on a dramatic tension between spatial, geometrical, and mechanical elements and biomorphic and organic forms suggestive of the human body. He used a great variety of materials, including scrap iron, concrete, marble, and combinations of wood and metal, sometimes left in their natural state and sometimes modified, painted, or assembled. In Montevideo many of his works are displayed in architectural settings. He took part in a number of exhibitions, including the São Paulo Biennale in ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Feb 28, 1861; d Buenos Aires, Nov 28, 1890).

Argentine sculptor. He studied in Buenos Aires under Julio Laguens before traveling in 1877 to Florence, where he studied sculpture under the Italian sculptors Urbano Lucchesi (1844–1906) and Augusto Passaglia (1838–1918). His bronze Slave, now in the Jardines del Parque 3 de Febrero in Buenos Aires, was awarded a gold medal at the Exposición Continental, Buenos Aires, in 1882. In 1885 he returned to Argentina with his monument to Admiral Guillermo Brown (bronze; Adrogué, Plaza Almirante Brown), unveiled in 1886; as the first monument by a native artist to be erected in Argentina it received an enthusiastic reception.

Cafferata also produced busts of his father, of the revolutionary Spanish ideologist Mariano Moreno, and of the poet José de Espronceda, and he was one of the few 19th-century artists in Argentina to recognize the role of Afro-Argentines, for example in a monument to the popular hero Falucho...


Monica E. Kupfer

(b Panama City, Jan 29, 1933).

Panamanian sculptor and painter. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Panama City (1950–53) and established his reputation with abstract or semi-abstract sculptural constructions of soldered unfinished iron. Although the metal surface is sometimes painted, most pieces have a rusty finish, for example Marine Flight (1972; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.). The lyrical realism of his paintings, such as Mythical Trainers of a Lipizzaner Horse (1982; Panama City, artist’s col., see E. Wolfschoon: Las manifestaciones artísticas en Panamá, Panama City, 1983, p. 401), is comparable to that of the Mexicans Francisco Corzas and Pedro Coronel, often with poetic or literary associations.

R. Oviero: ‘Calvit del otro lado del lienzo’, Arte visual, 1/2 (1985), pp. 17–20Encuentro de escultura (exh. cat., ed. M. E. Kupfer; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp., 1987), pp. 22–3

Panama, §III, 2: Painting, graphic arts and sculpture, after 1903...


Esperanza Garrido

(b Guadalajara, March 24, 1908; d Mexico City, May 24, 1980).

Mexican painter and sculptor. He studied painting at the Academia de San Carlos, Mexico City (1922–30), and later devoted himself to illustrating advertisements and especially to painting murals. In 1932–3 he worked on the restoration of a 16th-century fresco in the monastery at Huejotzingo, which allowed him to study earlier techniques in detail. After various mural experiments in the 1940s he was commissioned in 1950 to decorate the main building of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City; here his mural painting and the sculptural groups on either side of the door were perfectly integrated with the architecture of the building. Camarena developed his own technique based on ‘harmonizing geometry’ (geométrica armónica), a term applied by a critic, but based on the artist’s own words, in which the whole composition and construction of figures derives from the laws of elementary geometry. This, together with the singular colouring inspired by the work of Rufino Tamayo, gave a freshness and originality to his murals. His use of dramatic foreshortening and stylized realism are sometimes reminiscent of the work of David Alfaro Siqueiros, while the mural of ...


Roberto Pontual

revised by Francesca Ferrari

(b Rio de Janeiro, Apr 8, 1930; d Rio de Janeiro, Jan 10, 1991).

Brazilian sculptor. Born in Rio de Janeiro to a Brazilian father and Argentine mother, Camargo moved with his family to Buenos Aires at the age of 16. After finishing high school, Camargo joined the Academia Altamira for six months, where he studied under modernist artists Emilio Pettoruti and Lucio Fontana. The fragmented planes of Pettoruti’s paintings and the monochromatism of many of Fontana’s works would appear, although transformed, throughout Camargo’s oeuvre.

In 1948 Camargo moved to Paris, where he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne for two years and had the opportunity to visit the studios of Constantin Brancusi, Hans Arp, and Georges Vantongerloo. These modernist artists’ radical approaches to the medium of sculpture greatly influenced the young Camargo, who returned to Brazil in 1951 to create his first series of abstract sculptures in modeling clay, titled Germinal N. 1. At this formative stage of his career, Camargo’s work was exhibited in a group show at Prestes Mais Gallery in São Paulo; was included in the fourth São Paulo Bienal in 1957; and received its first solo exhibition at GEA Gallery in Rio de Janeiro the following year. During this period, Camargo also became acquainted with the artist ...


Karen Cordero Reiman

(b Cadereyta, nr Monterrey, March 3, 1908; d Mexico City, Jan 29, 1989).

Mexican painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre at Coyoacán in the early 1920s and independently with Spanish sculptor Mateo Hernández and the Catalan José de Creeft. Although younger than the major figures of post-revolutionary Mexican art, his work reflected their influence in the use of Pre-Columbian themes in his mural and sculptural work and in occasional references to indigenous types. In general, however, it was distinguished by the ephemeral, melancholic, linear quality of his figures, clearly influenced by Botticelli and by Picasso’s Blue Period; harlequins, romantic poets and women with flowing hair were common subjects in his paintings, which were primarily portraits, religious scenes and allegorical compositions. In 1945 he began an association with the printmaker Carlos Alvarado Lang, and the resulting engravings showed fine linear elegance (e.g. the Communion Rail, 1945–6; Monterrey, La Purísima). Throughout the 1960s he produced sculpted reliefs and free-standing sculptures for the buildings of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social; in these works Cantú came close to the massive qualities associated with the Mexican school, but his figures’ volume was still tempered by linear detailing....


Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Matanzas, Apr 10, 1927; d Havana, Feb 9, 2001).

Cuban sculptor, active in France. He studied under Juan José Sicre, and at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes “San Alejandro” in Havana (1943–1949). He settled in Paris in 1955 and became involved with the Surrealists. He also started to consider his African heritage and to incorporate Dogon totems in his work (e.g. Sanedrac, 1957; bronze cast, 1974; see Pierre 1988, p. 5). Brancusi and Arp were significant influences, and affinities can also be traced between Cárdenas’s use of line to evoke magical transformations and the works of two other Cubans based in Paris, Wifredo Lam and Jorge Camacho. Working in marble, bronze, and stone, he often used familiar images such as birds, flowers, or the female nude as the bases for his lyrical abstractions (e.g. Engraved Torso, marble, 1976; see Pierre 1988, p. 22). The combination of these images of life with patterns suggesting infinite repetition became a central element in his work and constitute a synthesis of abstraction and reference. He undertook monumental commissions in France, Israel, Austria, Japan, and Canada, and his works are housed in collections worldwide, including the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Caracas, the Musée d’Ixelles, Bruxelles, and the Musée d’Art et d’Industrie, Saint Etienne, France....


Pedro Querejazu

(b La Paz, 1933).

Bolivian sculptor. He taught himself to sculpt by studying Pre-Columbian sculpture and ceramics. Between 1959 and 1961 he traveled in several Latin American countries; he then lived in Europe for twelve years, working in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Switzerland. While in Europe he married the Swiss sculptor Francine Secretan, with whom he returned to Bolivia in 1974, settling in La Paz. In 1964 he was awarded the first “Queen Elizabeth” prize in the 10th International Sculpture Biennale in Brussels. Carrasco’s preferred materials were stone and bronze. His subject matter was based on the knowledge of the age-old traditions of native peoples and on their relation to nature, although his work is modernist in appearance. His earliest works represent seated women and later the munachis, or love and fertility amulets. In the early 1970s his art became more synthetic, more cryptic, and abstract. During this period his interpretation of the genesis of life was notable, conveyed in enormous spheres that were split open to reveal magical interior worlds. After returning to Bolivia his art became more figurative, as in ...


Elida Salazar

(b Porlamar, Feb 7, 1927).

Venezuelan painter and sculptor. He studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas in Caracas (1942–50). He lived for over 12 years in Europe from 1951, studying at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and at the Ecole du Louvre in Paris, where he was a member of the group Los Disidentes (1951). He also studied conservation and restoration in Rome. In Caracas he was a member of the influential Taller Libre de Arte (from 1948), and in 1966 he began promoting the expansionist movement in Venezuela. After briefly working in an Art informel style, Carreño adopted geometric abstraction from the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, at which point he turned to figuration. In 1972 he received the Premio Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Caracas.

F. Paz Castillo and P. Rojas Guardia: Diccionario de las artes plásticas en Venezuela (Caracas, 1973), pp. 61–3M. Billaudot...